PB The Church of God

000 The Church of God by Elder Lee Hanks

001 Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Ecclesiastical history is one of the most important subjects for any professed follower of Christ to become informed in. The world has always been filled with religion - much of it has been false religion and destructive to the faith of the unsuspecting and uninformed. Perhaps there have been more writings on the subject of church history than any other single subject within the realm of Christian writings. Much is to be learned about most Christian religions in reading such historical writings. Much bias and prejudice can easily be discovered in such writings - but this can really be expected, since sane try to cover up some unpleasant and degrading events which transpired within the ranks of some religions.

We commend the contents of this small book on the Church of God by Elder Lee Hanks as being not only informative, but also easy to read. It contains much essential information about the history of Christendom without the reader having to read massive volumes. This, within itself, should readily commend it to the average reader and student of church history.

Elder Hanks was a faithful and able minister of the gospel of Jesus Christ. His early childhood was such that he was deprived of an opportunity to get an education. However, the reader will soon find that Elder Hanks became a well-informed and educated man in the field of his studies as they read this volume. We trust that, by God's leading and opening the eyes of many of His little children, this history will be a blessing which will bring light and understanding to the readers, and bring forth much praise to our Blessed Redeemer.

S.. T. Tolley, Publisher
The Christian Baptist Publishing Co. P. 0. Box 68
Atwood, TN 38220

Note: This book may be ordered from the above address.

002 Title Page



"In the days of these Kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms and it shall stand for ever." - Da 2:44.

"Thou art Peter, and upon this Rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it." - Mt 16:18.


Reprinted 1982
The Christian Baptist Publishing Co.
P. O. Box 68
Atwood, TN 38220

003 Introduction


I was born in Pittsylvania County, Virginia, June 13, 1861. I was the youngest of twelve children; my parents and all the rest have fallen asleep. After a long and deep conviction of sin and seeing the justice of God in my eternal condemnation, I received a sweet hope in Jesus in 1877, joined the Primitive Baptist Church, October 7th, and was baptized October 14th, 1877, in New River, West Virginia. I made my first effort to speak in public, September 21, 1879, was ordained 1886, have served as pastor of over forty churches, have baptized 608, assisted in the Constitution of a great many churches, officiated in the ordination of many preachers and deacons. I have never belonged to anything but the dear Old Baptists. I have ever believed in a complete separation between the Church and all worldly societies. I have traveled in 26 states and have sometimes travelled from 5,000 to 12,000 miles a year trying to preach. I have ever loved the doctrine of Sovereign Grace, Predestination, Election, Special Atonement, Effectual Calling, the Final Preservation of the Saints and that the bodies of all human beings will be resurrected, and the joys of the righteous and punishment of the wicked will be eternal. I have been Associate Editor of "The Primitive Baptist," "Baptist Signal," "Messenger of Truth," "Gospel Messenger," and am now Associate Editor of the "Zion's Advocate and Messenger." For quite awhile, for the love I have for God's children and that they may clearly understand where the Church of God is, I have felt deeply impressed to compile a Church History to show who the Church of God is. This has been a great burden financially, but I do this for the cause of the Master, and for the benefit of the precious saints when I shall go to my eternal home.

In compiling this History I am much indebted to my precious brethren from whom I have selected much matter, to-wit: Elders S. Hassell, G. W. Stewart, J. T. Oliphant, and many others. I have not compiled this book for my benefit, but for the dear Old Baptists, it is their History. There are many sincere children of God in error today, that need the truth taught them. 'There are many children of God among the Missionary Baptists who believe they belong to the Church of God. I have shown in this all denominations were founded by men, except the Primitive Baptists.

Andrew Fuller, the founder of the Missionary Baptists confessed before he died that all he had done (in this Mission work) needed forgiveness and had to confess that his only hope was in the Grace of God. I am sure my dear brethren will appreciate this work, though like its author, imperfect; but I believe and pray that it may be a blessing to all who may read it. I trust all will take interest in its circulation.

May God bless this work to the good of all readers.

Respectfully Submitted,

01 Chapter I


Thus God puts His seal upon the forehead of the Bible. Thus, in the volume of Inspiration, with the first breath of His mouth, He destroys forever the deadly errors of polytheism, pantheism, atheism, deism, materialism, agnosticism, accidentalism, evolutionism, positivism, naturalism, rationalism, dualism, two-seedism, fatalism, nihilism, pessimism, idolatry and superstition. This one statement of the Scriptures is of infinitely more value than all the words of all the uninspired men that ever lived. "It transports us at once above all human science and tradition and philosophy, above the dark, interminable, labyrinthine wanderings of the natural mind, beyond the bounds of time to the clear divine depth of the ancient eternity. It declares to us, in language of the sublimest simplicity and truthfulness, that "In the beginning," at a period of the distant past unknown to mortals, "God," Elohim, the Almighty Trinity, Father, Word, and Spirit, the alone Eternal, Self-Existent Being, by an act of His sovereign will, and for the manifestation of His own glory (Col 1:16; Re 4:11), the highest conceivable motive, "created the heaven and the earth," produced from non-existence the entire universe of matter and mind (Ac 17:24.) Not one atom, not one spirit, through all the infinity of space, but owes its origin to God. Atoms, to which all the infinity of space, but owes its origin to God. Atoms, to which science reduces all matter, have with their determinate weights and volumes, all the properties of "manufactured articles," and cannot, therefore, be eternal and self-existent, says Sir John Herschel, the finest scientific intellect of the nineteenth century. The material forces, Says the learned and accurate Carpenter, must, in the ultimate resort, be an expression of will. Spirit unerringly points away from matter to a spiritual Father, God, says Dr. Emil du Bois-Reymond the greatest of living psychologists.

The ablest minds have always referred the seen universe to an unseen spiritual source; and the facts of the seen universe continually direct the true scientific mind to that unseen Spirit. "Without revelation," says Prof. Taylor Lewis, "science is a valley of dry bones, and philosophy a land of darkness." All natural discoveries and theories, so far as eternity is concerned, have well been called "an awful nothingness."

The spontaneous evolution of nothing into atoms, force and spirit, is the height of unscientific absurdity. "In prosecuting investigations into the origin of things," says President McCosh, "science comes to walls of adamant, which will not fall down at its command and which if it tries to break through, will only prostrate it, and cause it to exhibit its weakness before the world." It cannot account for the origin of these five things: 1st, Matter with its forces; 2d, life; 3d, animal sensation or feeling; 4th, mind; 5th, conscience.

Biogenesis, or the production of life only from life, is now the accepted doctrine of science. No creature power can span that gulf of all gulfs—the mighty gulf between death and life.

Darwin, the leading naturalist of Europe, though he, contrary to human experience, reason and revelation seeks to derive all animate beings from three or four, or even one species, yet admits that God must have created the first species. Herbert Spencer, the chief infidel philosopher of this century, dares not attempt to explain, in his pretentious Biology and Psychology, the first appearance of life or of mind, and confesses that he finds, beneath all phenomena, evidence of an unknown and unknowable power. In a region of thick darkness he would kindly allow us the Athenian privilege of. erecting an altar to the Great Unknown. Huxley, while acknowledging the unequalled morality of the Bible, would have the worship, at that altar, chiefly of the silent sort. And Tyndall, though pronouncing the first chapter of Genesis "a beautiful myth," declares that "no atheistic reasoning can dislodge religion from the human heart."

True science is always modest. Sir Isaac Newton, the greatest scientist that ever lived, said, a short time before his death, "I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then, finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, while he great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me." He did not seem to have been in danger of making shipwreck of his faith. He was a firm believer in the inspiration of the Scriptures. Humboldt, the most distinguished savant of the present century, admits that, the challenge of God to Job (Job 38-41) has never yet been answered. As in ancient times, man is "of yesterday, and knows nothing"—Job 8:9. "If any man think that he knoweth anything, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know."-1Co 8:2. "Now we see through a glass darkly, and know" only "in part."-1Co 13:12. So that humility is the cardinal virtue as well of reason as of revelation.

Moses, the meekest and greatest character in all antiquity before the coming of Christ, and a prophet like unto Christ (Nu 12:3; De 18:15), was the undoubted author of the Pentateuch (including Genesis), and the lawgiver of Israel and civilization. Christ gives Moses and the other Old Testament writers all the weight of His own divine authority.—Mt 17:3; Lu 24:44. "If they hear not Moses and the prophets," says the glorified Abra- ham "neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead."—Lu 16:31. The Bible is the great standing miracle of history.

The Mosaic narrative of creation is the oldest of human records, the original of all cosmogonies, incomparably superior to all the monstrous pagan and infidel evolutionary cosmogonies, which derive all objets from one unaided and eternal nature, while Genesis represents God as the Great First Cause and Governor of nature. "In its great antiquity, its unaccountableness, its serene truthfulness, its unapproachable sublimity, its divine majesty and ineffable holiness, the Mosaic record towers high and forever above all human productions."

The old monumental Assyrian records, lately recovered and deciphered by G. Smith, H. Rawlinson and A. H. Sayce, while corrupted with many human and polytheistic errors, substantially confirm the Mosaic accounts of the creation, man's original innocence, temptation, fall and counts of the creation, man's original innocence, temptation, fall and curse, and his subsequent great depravity, and the deluge; just as the leading facts of Exodus are corroborated by the monuments of Egypt.

The creation of the universe was a series of stupendous miracles or supernatural acts, surpassing and introducing all the other natural miracles of the Bible. So science finds infinite depths in nature, inexplicable mysteries or miracles everywhere. For He who first made still upholds all things by His omnipresent and omnipotent power, and the world by wisdom knows Him not.—Heb 1:3; 1Co 1:21. "Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not, made of things which do appear."—Heb 11:3. And "the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead; so that they (men) are without excuse,"—Ro 1:20. "I had rather believe," says Bacon, "all the fables in the Legend, the Talmud and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame is without a mind." Even Cicero remarks that "those works of nature which require the minds of so many philosophers to explore them could not have existed without some greater mind at the bottom." The existence of God has been believed by the greatest minds that have ever appeared on earth—Pythagoras, Plato Aristotle, Socrates, Augustine, Bacon, Copernicus, Kepler, Euler, Newton, Leibnitz, Shakespeare, Butler, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hall, Johnson, Kant, Napoleon, Coleridge, Davy, Chalmers, Miller, Faraday, Herschel, Guizot, Maury and Agassi, in addition to the gifted characters mentioned in the Scriptures. It is, according to the Psalmist, only the “fool” who “says in his heart, There is no God.” Ps 14:1. Infidelity or atheism has its seat, not so much in the head as in the heart. "The argument of Butler's Analogy is," says John Stuart Mill, the representative infidel of England, "from its own point of view, conclusive; the Christian religion is open to no objections, either moral or intellectual, which do not apply at least equally to the common theory of deism." And so the leading American infidel confesses that if there be a God of nature, the God of the Bible is He.—North American Review, vol. cxxxiii., No. 2, p. 113.

Haeckel, of Germany, runs full tilt against the common sense of the whole human race in maintaining the dysteleology or purposelessness of all things. Countless instances of design throughout the universe demonstrate not only the existence, but the infinite power, wisdom, goodness and holiness of the supreme, designing, creative Spirit. The unity of the Great First Cause is proved by the unity .of plan, purpose and result; and the omnipresence, omnipotence, immutability and perfection of God are shown by the universal operation of, His unchanging laws.

Three of the leading peculiarities of the character of God, as vividly portrayed to us in Ge 1, and also in the remainder of the Bible, are His individual personality, His infinite sovereignty, and His almighty power. Instead of an unconscious impersonal force, He sees, He hears, (Ps 94:9-10,) He enters into a covenant with man, and punishes man for his disobedience. With no being to counsel Him (Isa 40:13), He creates and fashions all things, sun, moon, stars, world, plants, animals and men, according to His own will and pleasure (Re 4:11; Da 4:25,35; 1Ti 6:15; Ro 9:15-26); and He has but to speak and it is done, to command and it stands fast.—Ps 33:9.

According to the infallible testimony of the inspired volume, God is the Most High and the Most Holy; inhabiting eternity; immeasurably transcending in rank and in moral purity all the orders of His creation, men, angels, archangels, cherubim, seraphim, thrones, dominions, principalities and powers; dwelling in light unapproachable; and reigning sovereignly and majestically over the universe forever and forevermore, through all the eternities of the eternities.

There is a deep and instructive significance in the names of God and Christ given in the Bible. I find that, of the 9,788 times that the names translated God or Lord occur in the Old Testament, Elohim (God) occurs 2,225 times, Jehovah (Lord) 6,521 times, Jehovah Elohim (Lord God) 298 times, and other Hebrew names of God 744 times; and that, of the 3,232 times that the names translated God or Lord or Christ or Jesus occur in the New Testament, Theos (Elohim or God- occurs 1,277 times, Kurios (Jehovah or Lord) 691 times, Jesus (Jehovah-Savior) 709 times, Christ (Messiah or Anointed) 304 times, Jesus Christ 197 times, Christ Jesus 47 times, and other Greek names of God 7 times. Or, of the 13,020 times that the divine name occurs in the Bible, 6,521 plus 208 plus 691 plus 709 plus 197 plus 47, or 8,463 times (which is about two-thirds of all the times it occurs), it either is or contains the name Jehovah or its equivalent.
Elohim (Theos or God) signifies Almighty, and is the general name of God in relation to the worm, as the Creator, Sustainer and Governor of all things. It occurs thirty times in the first chapter of Genesis, and is the only name of God in that chapter. It is in the plural number, the plural of majesty and the plural of essence (including Father, Word and Spirit—Ge 1:26; 3:22; 11:7; Mt 28:19); and, though plural, it is, when referring to the true God, always, with the rarest exceptions, where there is a partial reference to polytheism, joined to a singular verb, showing the unity of the Godhead. So Christ is the general name of the Messiah or Mediator.

But Jehovah (Kurios or Lord) signifies, according to God's own interpretation, I am that I am (Ex 3:14), that is, the Eternal Unchangeable Being (Mal 3:6; Jas 1:17; Re 1:8), the Covenant-God (Ge 2:16-17; 15:18; Nu 10:33, and is the nearer, tenderer, more personal name that God bears towards all His chosen people; it occurs in the phrase Jehovah Elohim (Lord God), showing that Jehovah and Elohim are but different names of the same Being—twenty times in the second and third chapters of Genesis. So Jesus (Jehovah-Savior) is the nearer, tenderer, and more personal name of the Mediator; and, being one with Jehovah (Joh 10:30), He is "the same yesterday, and today, and forever" (Heb 13:8.) Indeed, it was the "Angel of Jehovah," or Christ, who appeared and spoke to Moses out of the burning bush (Ex 3:2), and in the fourteenth verse is called God, and announces as His name I Am That I Am, and who said to the Jews, "Before Abraham was, I Am" (Joh 8:58.)

Thus, 8,463 times in the Bible is the everlasting unchangeableness of God towards His dear children affirmed even in the Divine Name; God "abideth faithful, and cannot deny Himself" (2Ti 2:13.) The Moon representing the Church, may apparently change, and is always thus changing; but the Sun of Righteousness, which arises with healing in His wings upon all that fear His name (Mal 4:2), shines with the same resplendence forever. Having loved Israel with an everlasting love, God draws her with his loving-kindness, makes an everlasting covenant with her, ordered in all things and sure, puts His fear and law in her mind and heart, forgives and forgets her sins, to the praise of His glorious grace, rejoices to do her good, and declares that with His whole heart and soul He will assuredly plant her in the heavenly Canaan (Jer 31:3,31-37; 32:36-41.)

To account for the origin of evil, Plato imagined that evil was inherent in matter, and that matter was independent of God, and therefore eternal, and not created; the most of the false philosophical religions are thus dualistic. But the first verse of Genesis (Ge 1:1)  tells us that God created all things; and the third chapter of Genesis implies that evil or sin originated from the ungodly exercise of creature's free-will. Sin is not an attribute of matter, but of spirit. The most holy God is not in any sense its cause or author (Ge 18:25; Job 15:15; Ps 145:17; Hab 1:13; 1Jo 1:5) —such a thought were the most awful blasphemy. Man's body, as created, was very good (Ge 1:31) and not sinful. Christ's body was never the seat of sin (Lu 1:35; Heb 7:26); and the glorified bodies of the saints shall be free from sin.—Ro 6:7; 1Co 15:42; Php 3:21; Re 21:4,27.

God is the only eternal Being revealed to us in the Scriptures. —Ge 1:1; De 33:27; Isa 57:15; Ro 1:20; 1Ti 1:17; 6:16. Angels, as well as men and animals, are His creatures (Ps 104:4; Heb 1:6-7; Re 22:8-9; and all God's creatures were "very good" when He made them.—Ge 1:31. When and where angels were created, has not been revealed to us. Some of them, the non-elect (1Ti 5:21), kept not their first estate, but sinned, and left their own habitation, and are now reserved by God in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.-2Pe 2:4; Jude 6. There is, therefore, no redemption or salvation fon them. Our Lord speaks of them as "the devil and his angels."—Mt 25:41. We learn from Paul that pride was the condemnation of the devil.--1Ti 3:6. Left to his own free will, instead of worshiping, he rebelled against the Son of God.—Heb 1:6; Mt 4:9. In the form of a serpent he tempted Eve (Ge 3:1-7,14-15); and he is the prince of darkness (Eph 6:2), the god of this world (2Co 4:4), the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience (Eph 2:2), who deceiveth the whole world (Re 12:9; is the everlasting enemy of Christ and His people, as shown by his names, Satan (adversary- and Devil (accuser), and as proved by all the Scriptures; and he will finally be bruised forever under the feet of Christ and His Church (Ge 3:15; Ro 16:20), cast into the bottomless pit (Re 20:2-3), and consigned to everlasting fire (Mt 25:41).

After Moses tells us that In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth, he says:—And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. Both in Scripture and in science, the earth is, of all worlds, the most important to us now, and therefore more is said about it than about any other. When first made the earth was a desolate, uninhabited and dark vaporous oreriform mass; and so would it have remained forever but the omnipotent outgoing of God's light-and-life-creating Spirit (Job 26:13; Ps 104:30). That Spirit moved (or lovingly, cherishingly, vivifyingly hovered, brooded, throbbed) over the dark, dead, chaotic mass, and quickened and energized it. And God said, Let there be light; and there was light. God's Spirit and word co-operate in the work. Light is the immediate result of molecular activity, and is one of the most mysterious and glorious works of creation. Science does not yet know what light is.

"Throughout the Scriptures light is not only good, but an emblem of a higher good—spiritual enlightenment." God divided the light from the darkness, and called the light Day, and the, darkness Night; and the evening and. the morning were the first day. Darkness having preceded the light, evening is mentioned before morning. According to the divine arrangement, gravitation now began to act, so that the rotary motion of the earth around its axis was begun, and that part of the earth turned toward the source of light (perhaps the nebulous mass afterwards concentrated into the sun) had day, and, as the earth continued to rotate, a few hours afterwards the same part had darkness. In De 4:19; 17:3, the sun and moon and stars are called "the host of heaven." These bodies are, therefore, included in the term "heaven" in the first verse of Genesis; and from the fact that heaven is mentioned first, as well as from Job 38:4-7, we infer that the sun and moon and stars were "created" before the earth, although not "made" or completed, and fitted for their proper functions, until the fourth day.

On the third day God collected the waters previous covering the surface of the globe into seas, and made the dry land or earth appear, and caused the earth to bring forth vegetation. From Job 38:7 and Ps 104:6-9, as well as from science, we infer that, by the action of subterraneous forces, God uplifted the lower sedimentary (Azoic) rocks where He designed to make continents, and depressed them into vast hollows where He designed to make oceans and seas, and the water all over the earth ran into these basins, while the dry land was left to itself. Then God caused the earth to bring forth grasses, herbs, and trees—the three divisions of the vegetable kingdom—each species distinct from its kind, and having its seed in itself for future propagation. The language of Moses here is in strict accordance with scientific facts, though opposed to the evolutionary theories of a false science (1Ti 6:20). According to all human observation, each species of vegetable (as well as of animal) life is distinct—is "permanently reproductive, variable within narrow limits, but incapable of permanent intermixture with other species." We learn from Ge 2:4-5, that God, the author of life, created the life of each vegetable before it was in the earth. All life comes directly from Him in whom we live and move and, have our being (Ac 17:25,28). Science sustains Moses in representing plants to have been created before animals. For the lowest stratified rocks contain large quantities of organic limestone and graphite-carbon, results of plant life; the cooling earth was at first more fitted for plants than animals; vegetation was needed to rid the atmosphere of an excess of carbonic acid, and supply its place with oxygen for animals; and vegetation is the necessary food of animals. (Dana's Manual of Geology-.

In the language of the Psalmist, "The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth His handiwork." (Ps 19:1). "They continue this day according to His ordinances; for all are His servants" (Ps 119:91). The heavenly bodies were made by God for "signs," also. In their steadfast and permanent radiance, they are glorious emblems of the permanent steadfastness of their Creator's grace towards all His covenant people (Jer 31:35-37; Ps 72:5; 84:11; 89:36-37; Isa 60:20; Mal 4:2; Mt 13:43; 2Co 4:6; Re 1:16).

On the fifth day God caused the waters to bring forth fish and reptiles, and formed out of the ground (Ge 2:19) fowls to fly in the open heaven—these being the lower forms of animal life.

On the sixth day God caused the earth to bring forth the land animals, especially the herbivorous and carnivorous mammalia, or quadrupeds, a higher order of animals than those made on the fifth day; and afterwards on the same (sixth) day, He created (Sara) man in His own image, and made him under the Supreme Lawgiver, the delegated ruler of this lower world. In the tertiary rocks of the cenozoc period we see the gigantic skeletons of megatheria, mammoths, mastodons and elephanting marsupials; and then, in the post-tertiary or quaternary rocks of the same period, with no chaotic upheaval, it being still the sixth day, we find the remains of men. Thus again is Moses supported by the facts of geology.

Vegetation and all the inferior animals were "brought forth" by the word of God "from the earth" or "the waters" (Ge 1:11-12,20-21,24-25; 2:19); so that, when they die, not only their body but their life or spirit returns to its earthly origin (Ec 3:21). But, though God formed man's body from the dust of the ground, He breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul (Ge 2:7). This makes an ineffaceable distinction between man and all other earthly creatures; the Almighty and Everlasting Father of spirits directly breathed into man a higher life or spirit; and, though the body, according to the penalty of the violated law of God, returns to the dust, his spirit, at death, returns unto God who gave it (Ec 12:7; Lu 3:38).

The everlasting duration of the human spirit (which is hereafter to inhabit the resurrection body, Job 19:25-27; Ps 49:15; Isa 26:19; Da 12:1-3; Mt 5:29; 10:28; 27:52-53; Joh 5:28-29; Ac 2:25-34; 13:34; Ro 8:11,22-23; Php 3:20-21; 1Th 4:13-17; 1Co 15:12-57- is also to be inferred from the fact that man was "created" (Bara, indicating something new) in God's image, as well as from his reason, conscience, religious sentiment, hopes, intuitions and aspirations, and especially from God's covenant with man, which raised him above the physical world, and brought him nigh to God (Ge 2:16-17; Mt 22:31-32). The fact of man's great superiority to all other earthly creatures is to be inferred also from the divine deliberation. Let us make man (Ge 1:26). The plural number here is thought by some to be the plural of majesty or dignity; by the Jews .it is thought to refer to God's addressing the angels as His companions, or the earth as being the source of man's body, while God gave him His Spirit; but, by most of Christian scholars, it is thought to denote the deliberation of the Divine Trinity (see Ge 3:22; 11:7).

God created but one pair of human beings, and the Bible everywhere implies but one human species (Ge 1:27; 2:7-8,15,18,21-24; De 32:8; Mt 19:4; Ac 17:26; Ro 5:14,19; 1Co 15:22). And so the entire drift of present science tends to establish the unity of the human race, and the perfect truthfulness of the scriptural doctrine. The confusion of tongues at Babel (Ge 11:1-9), the consequent dispersion of men all over the earth, differences of climate, soil, exposure, food, habits and surroundings, continued for hundreds and thousands of years, have produced the differences between the varieties of the human race. The close. affinities, physical, mental and moral, of all the human family; the fertile intermarriages of all the varibties of the race; and the fact that greater differences have occurred in the same species of domestic animals than exist between the different varieties of mankind, confirm the unity of the human race. As may be seen by an observant traveler, passing from district to district, and from country to country, there are, between all the divergences, innumerable and almost indistinguishable blendings. All mankind are descendants of Adam; all sinned and fell in him; all are conscious of their accountability to a higher power; and, as sung by the church in glory (Re 5:9), some have been redeemed by Christ "out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation."

It should be carefully noted that in the Mosaic or inspired account of creation, God is continually active, and does all the work. "The idea of God creating the universe as a perfect machine, acting automatically, throughout the ages, according to laws established by Himself, whose government He gives up, is entirely absent," says Prof. A. Guyot; and he declares that this representation of the continual activity of God in the creation is in perfect accord with the latest and most accurate science. See his last work, on "Creation."

"The natural was first, and the spiritual afterward," says the Apostle Paul (1Co 15:46.) Both are the work of the same unchangeable God; and, therefore, the natural resembles, and is typical of, the spiritual (Ps 51:10; Isa 43:15; 60:2; 65:16,18; Mal 4:2; Mt 13:1-23; Ac 26:13; Eph 2:10; 4:24; 2Co 4:6; 5:17; Ga 6:15). The first chapter of Genesis, then, in its spiritual application, teaches us the absolute dependence of man upon the Triune God (Father, Word and Spirit) for salvation. The almighty power of the Most High must create him anew; the sovereign efficacy of the Spirit of Love must move upon his dark, disordered heart; and the all-healing beams of the Sun of Righteousness must arise upon his renewed and penitent spirit. The divine command has gone forth (Ps 33:9) for him to be fruitful in good works (Ge 1:28; Joh 15:16); the indwelling Spirit of Christ enables him to obey from the heart (Ga 4:6; Ps 37:31; Jer 31:33), and to bear--"some thirty, some sixty, and some a hundred-fold"—the fruit of "love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness; goodness, faith, meekness, and temperance" (Ga 5:22-23.) These fruits of the Spirit are not the cause, but the result of his spiritual renewal (Isa 55:8-13); the tree having been made good, the fruit is good (Mt 7:17.) He does not depend upon any works of his own for salvation (Mt 25:37-39); being born of God, he believes that Jesus is the Christ (1Jo 5:1), and, believing in the finished righteousness of Christ as his own (Jer 23:6; Joh 19:30), he enters into Sabbath, or rest (Heb 4:3; Ge 2:1-3). Being married to Christ, or alive unto God, he is dead to the law (Ge 2:18; Ro 7:4; Ga 2:19); and he serves in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter (Ro 7:6; Ga 2:20; 2Co 3:6-18) loving God because He first loved him (1Jo 4:19), and loving those who bear His image (1Jo 5:1), and thus truly fulfilling the law (Ro 3:31; 13:10), and bringing forth fruit unto God (Ro 7:4). Yet, during all the days of his earthly sojourn, while the old man abides with the new, there will be an alternation of darkness and light, of evening and morning, to keep him properly humble (De 8:1-16), to remind him of "the pit whence he was digged" (Isa 51:1; Ps 40:1-3) and of the divine origin of all his strength and righteousness and comfort (Isa 45:24; 49:13). But he has been new-created in the image of the Son of God (Ge 1:26; Ro 8:28-29); formed from the pierced side of Christ in His death-sleep, he is united to Him by faith. (Ge 2:21-24; Joh 19:34; Eph 5:23-32); and the all-giving and all sufficient grace of the electing and justifying Father, and the dying and redeeming Son, and the quickening and sanctifying Spirit, shall abide with him through all his days and nights, his trials and changes, and shall bring him off more than conqueror at last over every creature-foe, and perfect the good work begun in him (Ps 138:8; Php 1:6; Heb 12:2; Re 1:8), and give him complete dominion over his redeemed body and spirit (Ge 1:28; Ro 8:29; Isa 35:10; 53:11), and conform him entirely to the likeness of his Redeemer (Ps 17:15; Php 3:21), and dispel forever the last shadow of darkness and sorrow (Isa 60:18-20); Re 21:25), and translate him, amid the inconceivable glories of an eternal Sabbath (Ge 2:1-3; Heb 4:9), to the Heavenly Paradise (Ge 2:8-10; Re 2:7; Mt 25:34), where God shall dwell with him, and wipe away all tears from his eyes (Re 21:3-4), banishing forever all the evils of the earthly Eden, temptation, and sin, and sorrow, and death, elevating him to beauties and splendors and joys never imagined on earth (1Co 2:9; Re 21:1-22), pouring into his soul the uncreated and unclouded brightness of the divine nature (Re 21:23-25), and given him to abide eternally in the Land of Life, with all whose names are written in the Lamb's Book of Life, beside the crystal River of Life, beneath the perennial Tree of Life (Joh 10:28; Re 21:27; 22:1-2), where, as a king and priest unto God and his Father, he shall reign forever and ever (Re 1:6; 22:5).

What a strong consolation is afforded by these blessed and infallible promises to every poor, humble, contrite, mourning child of Adam, weary with a sense of sin, and thirsting to drink of the pure fountain of life, and to be washed from all his defilement in the cleansing blood of Christ, and made whiter than snow! It is a truth more certain than all the perceptions of sense and all the demonstrations of mathematics, that every such child of God, thus born of the Divine Spirit, and consequently exercised by spiritual desires, shall be entirely purified from sin, and shall reach eternal joys in the presence of his God and Father (Ps 103:13-18; 107:1-31; 136; Isa 41:10-20; 54:5-10,17; 55; 57:15; Jer 32:37-41; Mal 3:6,16-18; Mt 5:3-6; Joh 4:10-14; 10:27-29; Jas 1:17; 1Pe 1:1-5; Re 22:17).

On the seventh day, as Moses informs us (Ge 2:1-3), God ended and rested from His work of creation, and, therefore, blessed and sanctified that day. Science confirms this statement, and declares that no new species of vegetable or animal has appeared on earth since the introduction of man. In saying that God "rested," the historian does not mean that "the everlasting Creator" was "weary" (Isa 40:28), but that He simply ceased from the work of the material creation on earth. That cessation, or divine Sabbath, yet continues; God still, however, carries on His Sabbath-day's work of providence and redemption (Joh 5:17; Heb 1:3). "His resources are infinite; not baffled by the fall of man, He proceeds according to His eternal purpose, to work out the grand plan of redemption. After a dark evening and night of 4,000 years, the Sun of Righteousness at length arose, and began to dispel the gloom; but, after the lapse of nearly nineteen centuries, we still see but the gray dawn of God's. Sabbath morning, which we yet firmly believe will brighten into a glorious day that shall know no succeeding night" (Re 11:15; 21:25).

As man was made in the image of His Creator, he, too, was, according to the divine arrangement, to work six days, and then rest from his ordinary bodily and mental labors on the seventh day (Ge 1:28; 2:15; Ex 16:22-26; 20:8-11), and to "sanctify" or set apart that day from a common to a sacred use by devoting it especially to the worship of his Maker (Le 10:11; 19:30; 23:3; De 33:10; Lu 4:16; Ac 13:14-15,27; 15:21). "The Sabbath was made for man," says the Lord of the Sabbath (Mr 2:27); if properly observed, it would be a blessing to the whole human race. Man needs, not only the night for rest, but one-seventh of his days also for rest. As proved by both physiology and history, this rest exercises a most beneficial influence on man's physical, mental and moral nature. A change of employment is a rest; as God devotes His Sabbath to the work of providence and redemption, so it is a great blessing to man to- have a frequently and regularly recurring day for solemn reflections upon his relations and obligations to his Creator and fellow-creatures, and upon his eternal interests . Still, "man was not made for the Sabbath" (Mr 2:27); he is not to idolize the Sabbath, or observe it in the oldness of the letter, with pharisaical rigidity and hypocrisy (Isa 1:13; Mt 12:1-14; Mr 2:23-28; Lu 13:11-17; Joh 7:22-24; Ro 14:5-6; Col 2:16; Ga 4:9-11). The. Christian is especially to remember that the Sabbath is but a shadow or type, of which Christ is the substance (Col 2:17; Heb 3 and Heb 4), who ended the work of His eternal redemption by rising from the dead on the Lord's Day (Mt 28:1-6; Heb 9:12; Re 1:10); and as a "holy priest" should he evermore offer up to his adorable Redeemer the spiritual sacrifices of heartfelt thanksgiving and praise (1Pe 2:5; Ps 103:1-5; 108: 1Th 5:16-18).

Christ particularly honored the first day of the week, not only by rising from the dead on that day, but also by repeatedly visiting His disciples, after His ressurrection, on that day (Joh 20:19,26). The Apostles, too, it would seem, habitually assembled on that day (Ac 20:7; 1Co 16:1-2; Ac 2:1.) The day of Pentecost was the first day of the week, because it was the fiftieth day after the resurrection of Christ, which took place on the first day of the week. Without- any formal commandment in the New Testament, but no doubt by Divine arrangement (Eph.. 1:10-13), ever since the resurrection of Christ, the Christian church, delighting to honor their Lord, has observed the Lord's Day, the first day of the week, as the Sabbath, or Holy Convocation, Day of the New Dispensation; but Christian forbearance on this subject is inculcated in Ro 14:5-6, and Col 2:16-17.
The division of time into weeks, even among the patriarchs, is shown by Ge 8:10,12; 29:27-28.

In what respect was man in the image of God, and in what respect was he not in the image of God? He could not be like Him in body, because God is a Spirit and has no body. Man's body, though beautiful and the topmost piece of the material creation, being the sum and crown and glory of all, yet was made of the dust of the ground of pre-existing matter—was of the earth earthly, and unto dust must return. No image of God here. But in his soul or spirit he could, and no doubt was, in the image of God. "His spirit, like that of the angels, was an immediate creation of God. His 'breath of life' was, it appears more than a mere. quickening principle, a vital force, enabling the man as a mere animal to move and perform acts of natural life; but it embraced much snore than this—even a rational, ever-enduring, and accountable, spirit,. now mysteriously united to his animal nature, over which it is to preside and rule. The body with all its powers and members is but the instrument of the soul, a tabernacle in which it dwells, while conversant with this lower world (Ge 2:7; 3:19; Ec 12:7; Ac 7:59; Mt 10:28). And it was in this, his soul or spiritual nature, that man was made like God. God is a Spirit, and man in one sense is a spirit (Heb 12:9,23). Yet we do not regard this as an emanation or efflux from God Himself; it is not a part of the divine nature or essence, but is a created dependent spirit, distinct from God, yet partarking of His likeness as a spirit, in its measure." —C. C. Jones, in "History of Church of God."
The respects in which man was made in the image or resemblance of God were: the possession of a soul or spirit, which, by the sovereign will and sustaining power of God, was to endure forever; intelligence; self-consciousness; free will (before the fall); uprightness; and dominion over the inferior creatures.
But Adam was alone: "And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helpmeet for him. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof. And the rib which the Lord God had taken from man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of man. Therefore, shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave unto his wife; and they shall be one flesh. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed" (Ge 2:18,21-25)
Thus was the institution of marriage ordained and carried into successful operation by the Almighty, who gave Eve to Adam for his wife. And as it was in the beginning, so it should be now and onward, to the end of time, throughout the world, one woman for one man—one man for one woman—united in the holy bonds of wedlock, at marriageable ages. "The providence of God is in harmony with His word, and this blessed natural increase of the race, the numerical equality of the sexes, at marriageable ages, and that over the whole earth and ever since its foundation; and then continually stretches out His hand against transgressors, who by multiplying wives would disturb this great law; and He subjects them to sure evils in the form of family divisions and strifes, bitter wrath and cruel revenge, diseases, sudden and shameful deaths, ungoverned and wicked offspring, decayed fortunes, and various other judgments."—Ge 4:23-24; 16; 30:1-27; 37:1-26; 19; and Ge 6; 7, (etc.)

"The design of marriage is to promote the comfort and happiness of mankind, the legitimate propagation of our species, the perpetuation of a virtuous, honorable seed in the church, and purity of life and manners on the earth."—C. C. Jones. This law was frequently violated in the patriarchal and Mosaic dispensations, and  during the Christian dispensation it has been set at naught by Roman Catholics, Mohammedans and Mormons; but our Lord Jesus Christ strictly enjoins its observance, and points to the first couple as an example for all future generations.—Mt 19:3-9. They who violate this law must receive the penalty due to their crimes.

02 Chapter II



The Holy Scriptures are the only sufficient, certain, and infallible (2Ti 3:15-17; Isa 8:20; Lu 16:29,31; Eph 2:20); rule of saving knowledge, faith, and obedience; although the (Ro 1:19-21,14-15; Ps 19:1-3) light of nature and the works of Creation and providence do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom and power of God as to leave men unexcusable; yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God and His will which is necessary unto salvation (Heb. 1:0). Therefore, it pleased the Lord at sundry times and divers manners to reveal Himself, and to declare His will unto His church; and afterwards for the better preserving and propagating of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the church, against the corruption of the flesh, and the malice of satan and of the world, to commit the same wholly unto (Pr 22:19-21; Ro 15:4; 2Pe 1:19-20) writing, which maketh the Holy Scriptures to be most necessary, those former ways of God's revealing Himself unto His people being ceased.

The authority of the Holy Scriptures, for which it ought to be believed, dependeth not upon any man or church, but wholly upon (2Pe 1:19-21; 2Ti 3:16; 2Th 2:13; 1Jo 5:9) God (who is Truth itself) the Author thereof; therefore, it is to be received, because it is the word of God.

We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church of God to a high and reverent esteem of the Holy Scriptures; and the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, and the majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole (which is to give all glory to God), the full discovery it. makes of the only way of salvation, and many other incomparable excellencies, and entire perfections thereof, are arguments whereby it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the word of God; yet, notwithstanding our (Joh 16:13-14; 1Co 2:10-12; 1Jo 2:1-2,20,27) full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and Divine Authority thereof, is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit, bearing witness by and with the word in our hearts.

The whole counsel of God concerning all things (2Ti 3:15-17; Ga 1:8-9) necessary for His own glory, man's salvation, faith and life, is either expressly set down or necessarily contained in the Holy Scriptures; unto which nothing is any time to be added, whether by new revelation of the Spirit or traditions of men.

Nevertheless we acknowledge the (Joh 4:45; 1Co 2:9-12) inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of such things as are revealed in the word. . . .

The infallible rule of interpretertion of Scripture (2Pe 1:20-21; Ac 15:15-16) is the Scripture itself. . . .

The Supreme Judge, by which all controversies of religion are to be determined and, all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits, are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other but the Holy Scriptures delivered by the Spirit, in which (Mt 22:29,33; Eph 2:20; Ac 28:23) Scripture so delivered our faith (Gospelly; L. H.) is finally resolved."

The Holy Trinity—The Lord, our God, is but (1Co 8:6; De 6:4) one only living and true God, whose (Jer 10:10; Isa 48:12) subsistence is in and of Himself (Ex 3:14), infinite in being and perfection, whose essence cannot be comprehended by any but Himself (Joh 4:24); a most pure Spirit (1Ti 1:17; De 4:15-16); invisible, without body, parts, or passions (He loves His people and righteousness hates sin; but is immutable, L. H.), who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto, who is immutable (Mal 3:6), immense (1Ki 8:27; Jer 23:23), eternal (Ps 90:2), incomprehensible, Almighty (Ge 17:1); every way infinite; most holy, most wise, most free, most absolute (Isa 6:3); working all things according to the counsel of His own immutable and most righteous will (Ps 115:3; Isa 46:10); for His own glory, most loving, gracious, merciful, long-suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin (Pr 16:4; Ro 11:36), the rewarder of them that diligently seek Him, and withal most just (Ex 34:6-7; Heb 11:6), and terrible in His judgments (Ne 9:32-33), hating all sin (Ps 5:5-6), and will by no means clear the (Ex 34:7; Ne 1:2-3) guilty.

God having all life (Joh 5:26), glory (Ps 148:13), goodness (Ps 119:68), blessedness, in and of Himself, is alone in and of Himself all sufficient, not (Job 23:2-3) standing in need of any creature which He hath made, nor deriving any glory from them, but only manifesting His own glory in, by, unto, and upon them, He is the alone fountain of all being of whom, through whom, and to whom are all things (Ro 11:34-36), and He hath most sovereign (Da 4:25,34-35) dominion over all creatures, to whom, to do by them, for them, or upon them whatsoever Himself pleaseth.

In His sight (Heb 4:13) all things are open and manifest, His knowledge is (Eze 11:5; Ac 15:18) infinite, infallible, and independent of the Creature, so as nothing is to Him contingent or uncertain; He is most holy in all His counsels, in (Ps 145:17) all His works, and in all His commands; to Him is due (Re 5:12-14) from angels and men whatever worship, service, or obedience as creatures they owe unto the Creator, and whatever He is further pleased to require of them.

In the Divine and Infinite Being there are three subsistences (1Jo 5:7; Mt 28:19; 2Co 13:14), the Father, the Word (.or Son), and the Holy Spirit( of one substance, power, and eternity, each having the whole Divine essence (Ex 3:14; Joh 14:11; 1Co 8:6), yet the essence undivided: the Father is of one, neither begotten nor proceeding, the Son is (Joh 1:14,18) eternally begotten of the Father, the Holy Spirit (Joh 15:26; Ga 4:6) proceeding from the Father and the Son, all infinite, without beginning, therefore but one God, who is not to be divided in nature and being, but distinguished by several peculiar relative properties and personal relations, which doctrine of the Trinity is the foundation of all our communion with God, and our comfortable dependence on Him."

'("If of one substance," contradicts the idea that God's people existed eternally in seed or substance in Christ, for this would establish a distinction in substance between the Father and the Son."— Fulton Council).

God's Decree.—God hath (Isa 46:10; Eph 1:11; Heb 6:17; Ro 9:15,18) decreed in Himself from all eternity, by the "most wise and holy counsel of His own will, freely and unchangeably, all things whatsoever come to pass:—(God's relation toward holiness and righteousness is causative; His attitude toward sin and wickedness is overruling, permissive in the sense of not hinder. Elder G. Beebe said, "Satan himself, if he could speak truth, would tell us that he could not drown a swine without the permission of God." . . . In speaking of Joseph, he says: "Thus we see that while men and devils act from wicked motives, with wicked hands, God means it for good; overruling even their wicked acts and murderous designs for His glory, and the good of all such as are called according to His purpose."—G. Beebe, Editorials, Vol. 1, p. 130.)

The confession of Faith shows that this was their meaning see the following: "Yet so as thereby is God neither the author of sin (Jas 1:15,17; 1Jo 1:5), nor hath fellowship with any therein, nor is violence offered to the will of the creature, nor yet is the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established (Ac 4:28,28; Joh 19:11), in which appears His wisdom in disposing all things, and power and faithfulness (Nu 23:19; Eph 1:3-5) in accomplishing His decree."

(Fulton Council's remarks on above: "This clearly distinguishes between God's attitude to sin and His attitude and relation to holiness. A failure to make this distinction has been a fruitful source of division and distress of our holy cause, and a failure to so distinguish between God's permissive and overruling decree of sin and His causative decree of holiness will ever cause distress and confusion among our people. This distinction is expressed in the last clause of section 4, of Chapter V.: "Which also he most wisely and powerfully boundeth and otherwise ordereth and governeth in a manifold dispensat:on to His most holy ends; yet so as the sinfulness of their acts proceedeth only from the creatures, and not from God," etc. Chapter VI., last part of Section 1: Satan using the subtlety of the serpent to seduce Eve, then by her seducing Adam, who without any compulsion did willfully transgress the law of their creation and the command given unto them in eating the forbidden fruit, which God was pleased, according to His wise and holy counsel, to permit, having purposed to order to His own glory-" We believe that God is perfect in wisdom and knowledge, knowing all things, both good and evil from the beginning that would take place in time." * That He is a Perfect Sovereign over all things, and that He absolutely and causatively predestinated all His works of creation and eternal salvation of His elect.")

2. God's Decree Continued.—"Although God knoweth whatsoever may or can come to pass upon all (Ac 15:18) supposed conditions, yet hath He not decreed anything (Ro 9:11,13,16,18) because He foresaw it as future, or as that which would come to pass upon such conditions.

3. By the decree of God for the manifestation of His glory (1Ti 5:21; Mt 25:34) some men and angels are predestinated  or fore ordained to eternal life, through Jesus Christ, to the (Eph 1:5-6) praise of His glorious grace; others being left to act in their sin to their (Ro 9:22-23; Jude 4) just condemnation to the praise of His glorious justice.

4. "These angels and men thus predestinated and fore ordained are particularly and unchangeably designed, and their (2Ti 2:19; Joh 13:18) number so certain and definite that it cannot be either increased or diminished.

This establishes the unconditionality of salvation.—L. H.)

5. Those of mankind (Eph 1:4,9,11; Ro 8:30; 2Ti 1:9; 1Th 5:9) that are predestinated to life, Gods before the foundation of the world was laid, according to His eternal and immutable purpose, and the secret counsel and good pleasure of His will, hath chosen in Christ unto everlasting glory, out of His mere free grace and love (Ro 9:13,16; Eph 2:6,12), without any other thing in the creature as a cause moving Him thereto.

6. As God hath appointed the elect unto glory, so He hath by the eternal and most free purpose of His will fore ordained (1Pe 1:2; 2Th 2:13), *all the means thereunto, wherefore they who are elected, being fallen in Adam, (1Th 5:9-10) are redeemed by Christ, are effectually (Ro 8:30; 2Th 2:1) called unto faith in Christ, by His Spirit working in due season, are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept by His power through faith (2Pe 1:5) unto salvation; neither are any other redeemed by Christ, or effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect (Joh 10:26; 17:9; 6:37,44) only.

*We do not understand the words all the means there unto" include other means than those especially set out in this section. "Redeemed by Christ," effectually called," by His Spirit, etc.—Fulton Council.)

7. The doctrine of this high mystery of presdestination is to be handled with special prudence and care, that men attending the will of God revealed in His Word, and yielding obedience thereunto, may, from the certainty of their effectual vocation, be assured of their (1Th 1:4-5; 2Pe 1:10) eternal election; so shall this doctrine afford matter (Eph 1:6; Ro 11:33) of praise, reverence, and admiration of God, and (Ro 11:5-6) consolation to all that sincerely obey the Gospel.

Creation.—In the beginning it pleased God the Father (Joh 1:1,5; Heb 1:2; Job 26:13), Son, and Holy Spirit, for the manifestation of the glory of (Ro 1:20) His eternal power, wisdom, and goodness to create or make the world and all things therein (Col 1:16; Ge 2:1-2) whether visible or invisible, in the space of six days, and all were very good.

2. After God had created other creatures, He created (Ge 1:27) man, male and female, with (Ge 2:7) reasonable and immortal souls, rendering them fit unto that life to God for which they were created, being (Ec 7:29; Gem 1: 26) made after the image of God, in righteousness, knowledge, and true holiness, having the law of God (Ro 2:14-15) written in their hearts, and power to fulfill it, and yet under a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own will, which was (Ge 3:6) subject to change.

3. Besides the law written in their hearts, they received (Ge 2:17; 3:8-10) a command not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which, whilst they kept, they were happy in their communion with God, and had dominion (Ge 1:26,28) over the creatures.

The Fall of Man.—Our first parents, by this sin, fell from their original righteousness and communion with God, and we in them, whereby death came upon all; all becoming dead in sin (Ro 3:23; 5:12), and wholly defiled, in (Tit 1:15; Ge 6:5; Jer 17:9; Ro 2:10,19) all the faculties and parts of soul and body.

They being the root (Ro 5:12,19; 1Co 15:21-22,45,49), and, by God's appointment, standing in the room and stead of all mankind; the guilt of the sin was imputed, and corrupted nature, conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by ordinary generation, being now (Ps 51:5; Job 14:4) conceived in sin, and by nature children of wrath, (Eph 2:1-5), the servants of sin, the subjects of death (Ro 6:20; 5:12), and all other miseries, spiritual, temporal, and eternal, unless the Lord set them free (Heb 2:14; 1Th 1:10.)

From this original corruption, whereby we are (Ro 8:7; Col 1:21), utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil, do (Jas 1:14; Mt 15:19) proceed all actual transgressions.

The corruption of nature, during this life, doth remain (Ro 7:18,23; Ec 7:20; 1Jo 1:8) in those that are regenerated; and although it be through Christ pardoned and mortified, yet both itself and the first motions thereof are truly and properly sin (Ro 7:18,23,25; Ga 5:17.)

God's Covenant.----The distance between God and the creature is so great that, although reasonable creatures do owe obedience unto Him as their Creator, yet they never could have the reward of life, but by some (Lu 17:10; Job 35:7-8) voluntary condescension on God's part, which He hath been pleased to express, by way of covenant. Moreover, man having brought himself (Ge 3:17; Ga 3:10; Ro 3:20-21) under the curse of the law by his fall, it pleased the Lord God to make a Covenant of Grace, . . . And (Eze 26:21,21; Joh 6:44-45; Ps 110; 3) promising to give unto all those that are ordained unto eternal life His Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe.

This covenant is revealed in the Gospel, first of all to Adam in the promise of salvation by the seed (Ge 3:15) of the woman, and afterwards by farther steps, until the full (Heb 1:2) discoveries thereof were completed in the New Testament; and it is founded in that eternal (2Ti 1:9; Tit 1:2) covenant transaction that was between the Father and the Son about the redemption of the elect; and it is alone by the grace of this covenant that all the posterity of fallen Adam that ever were saved, (Heb 11:16,13; Ro 4:1-2; Ac 4:12; Joh 8:56), did obtain life and blessed immortality; man being now utterly incapable of acceptance with God upon those terms on which Adam stood in his state of innocency.

Christ the Mediator.—It pleased God, in His eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, His only begotten Son, according to the covenant made between them both, to be the Mediator between God and man (Isa 42:1; 1Pe 1:9-10); the Prophet (Ac 3:22), Priest (Heb 5:6), and King (Ps 2:6; Lu 1:33); Head and Saviour of the Church (Eph 1:23; Heb 1:2); the heir of all things, and Judge of the world; unto whom He did from all eternity (Isa 53:10; Joh 17:6; Ro 8:30) give a people to be His seed, and to be by Him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified. The Son of God, the second person in the Holy Trinity, being very and eternal God, the brightness of the Father's glory, of one substance, and equal -with Him; who made the world, who upholdeth and governeth all things He hath made, did, when the fullness of time was come, take upon Him man's nature, with all the essential properties and common infirmities thereof (Joh 1:14; Ga 4:4), yet (Ro 8:3; Heb 2:14,16-17; 4:15) without sin; being conceived by the Holy Spirit in the womb of the Virgin Mary. the Holy Spirit coming down upon her, and the power of the Most High overshadowing her, and so was made of a woman, of the tribe of Judah, of the seed of Abraham and David, according to the Scriptures; so that two whole, perfect and distinct natures were inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion; which person is very God and very man, yet one Christ (Ro 9:5; 1Ti 2:5), the only Mediator between God and man.

The Lord Jesus, in His human nature thus united to the Divine in the person of the Son, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit (Ps 45:7; Ac 10:38; Joh 3:34) above measure; having in Him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge (Col 2:3); in whom it pleased the Father that all fullness should dwell (Col 1:19); to the end that, being holy, harmless, undefiled (Heb 7:26), and full of grace and truth (Joh 1:14), He might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety (Heb 7:22); which office He took not upon Himself, but was thereunto called by His Father (Heb 5:5); who also put all (Joh 5:22,27; Mt 28:18; Ac 2:36) power and judgment in His hand and gave Him commandment to execute the same.

This office the Lord Jesus did most willingly (Ps 40:7-8; Heb 10:5-10; Joh 10:18) undertake, which that He might discharge He was made under the law, and (Ga 4:4; Mt 3:15); Ga 3:13; Isa 53:6; 1Pe 3:18), did perfectly fulfill it, and underwent the punishment due to us, which we should have borne and suffered, being made sin and a curse for us (2Co 5:21); enduring most grievous sorrow in (Mt 26:37-38; Lu 22:44; Mt 27:46) His soul, and most painful sufferings in His body; was crucified, and died, and remained in the state of the dead; yet saw no corruption (Ac 13:37). On the third day He arose from the dead, with the same body in which He suffered (1Co 15:3-4; Joh 20:25,27); with which He also ascended into heaven (Mr 16:19); Ac 1:9-11); and there sitteth on the right-hand of His Father, making intercession (Ro 8:34; Heb 9:24); and shall return (Ac 10:42; Ro 14:7,10; Ac 1:11) to judge men and angels at the end of the world.

The Lord Jesus, by His perfect obedience and sacrifice of Himself, which He through the eternal Spirit once offered up unto God, hath (Heb 9:14; 10:14; Ro 3:25-26) fully satisfied the justice of God, procured reconciliation, and purchased an everlasting inheritance in the Kingdom of Heaven, for (Joh 17:2; Heb 9:15) all those whom the Father hath given unto Him.

Although the price of redemption was not actually paid by Christ until after His incarnation, yet the virtue (1Co 10:4; Heb 4:2; 1Pe 1:10-11), efficacy, and benefit thereof was communicated to the elect in all ages successively, from the beginning of the world, in and by those promises, types, and sacrifices wherein should bruise the serpent's head; and the Lamb slain (Re 13:8) from the foundation of the world, being (Heb 13:8) the same yesterday, and today, and forever. Christ, in the work of mediation, acteth according to both natures; by each nature doing that which is proper to itself; yet, by reason of the unity of the person, that He was revealed and signified to be the seed of the woman which is proper to one nature is some times attributed to the person denominated (Joh 3:13; Ac 20:28) by the other nature.

To all those whom Christ hath obtained eternal redemption He doth certainly and effectually apply and communicate the same (Joh 6:37; 10:15-16; 17:9; Ro 5:10); making intercession for them; uniting them to Himself by His Spirit; revealing (Joh 17:6; Eph 1:9; 1Jo 5:20) unto them, in and by the word, the mystery of salvation; persuading them to believe and obey, govern- ing their hearts by His word and Spirit (Ro 8:2; Ps 110:1), and overcoming all their enemies by His Almighty power and wisdom (1Co 15:25-26); in such manner and ways as are most consonant to His wonderful and unsearchable dispensation (Joh 3:8; Eph 1:8), and all of free and absolute grace, without any condition foreseen in them to procure it.

This office of mediator between God and man is proper only in Christ (1Ti 2:5), who is the Prophet, Priest, and King of the Church of God, and may not be, either in whole or any part thereof, transferred from Him to any other.

This number and order of offices is necessary; for, in respect of our ignorance (Joh 1:18), we stand in need of His prophetical office; and, in respect of our alienation from God, and imperfections of the best of our services (Col 1:21; Ga 5:17), we need His priestly office to reconcile us, and present us acceptable unto God; and in regard of our averseness and utter inability to return to God, and for our rescue and security from our spiritual adversaries, we need His Kingly office, to convince (Joh 16:8; Ps 110:3), subdue, draw, uphold, deliver, and preserve us to His Heavenly Kingdom.

Free Will.—God has endued the will of man (in Adam's state of innocence) with that liberty and power of acting upon choice, that it is neither forced (Mt 17:12; Jas 1:14; De 30:19) nor by any necessity of nature determined to do good or evil.

2. Man, in his state of innocency, had freedom and power to will and to do that which (Ec 7:29) was good and well—pleasing to God, but yet was mutable (Ge 3:6), so that he might fall from it.

3. Man, by his fall into a state of sin, hath wholly lost all ability (Ro 5:6) of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation; so, as a natural man, being altogether averse from that good, and, dead in sin (Eph 2:1-5), is not able by his own strength to convert (Tit 3:3-5; Joh 6:44) himself, or to prepare himself thereunto.

4. When God converts (regenerates) a sinner, He freeth him from the natural bondage of sin (Col 1:13; Joh 8:36), and by His grace alone enables him freely (Php 2:13) to will and do that which is spiritually good; yet so as that, by reason of his remaining (Ro 7:15-23) corruptions, he doth not perfectly nor only will that which is good, but doth also will that which is evil.

5. The will of man is made perfectly and immutably free to do good alone in a state of glory only.

Effectual Calling.----Those whom God hath predestinated unto life He is pleased in His appointed and accepted time effectually to call (Ro 8:30; 11:7; Eph 1:10-11; 2Th 2:13-14), . . . out of a state of sin and death, in which they are by nature to grace of salvation by Jesus Christ (Eph 2:1,6); enlightening their minds, spiritually and savingly, to understand the things of God; taking away their heart of stone (Ac 26; 18; Eph 1:17-18; Eze 36:26), and giving unto them a heart of flesh; renewing their wills, and by His almighty power determining them to that which is good (De 30:6; Eze 36:27; Eph 1:19), and effectually drawing them to Jesus Christ; yet so as they come most freely (Ps 110:3; Song 1:4), being made most willing by His grace.

2. This effectual call is of God's free and special grace alone, not from anything at all foreseen in man (2Ti 1:9; Eph 2:8), nor from any power or agency in the creature co-working with His special grace; the creature being wholly passive therein (1Co 2:14; Eph 2:5; Joh 5:25), being dead in sins and trespasses, until, being quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit. He is thereby enabled to embrace the grace conveyed in it, and that by no less power than that which raised up Christ from the dead (Eph 1:19-20).

3. Elect infants dying in infancy are regenerated (Joh 3:3,5-6) and saved by Christ (Just like adults, L. H.) through the spirit, who worketh when and where and how He pleaseth (Joh 3:8); so also are all the other elect persons.—(We understand this section to of a state of sin and death, in which they are by nature to grace making their persons righteous in heart."—Fulton Council.)

Justification.—Those whom God effectually calleth, He also freely justifieth (Rom. 3: 24: 2: 30), not by infusing righteousness into them, but by pardoning (Ro 4:5,8; Eph 1:7), and by accounting and accepting their persons as righteous (1Co 1:30-31); not for anything wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ's sake alone; not by imputing faith itself, the act of believing, or any other evangelical obedience to them, as their righteousness (Php 3:8; Eph 2:8-10), but by imputing Christ's active obedience unto the whole law, and passive obedience in His death, for their whole and sole righteousness; they receiving (Joh 1:12; Ro 5:17) and resting on Him and His righteousness by faith, which they have not of themselves, it is the gift of God.

("We understand this section to teach that the elect are justified in the sight of the law by the actual work of Christ when He satisfied the law for them, and we believe this is applied to the elect in the work of regeneration, bringing personal righteousness or working their persons righteousness in heart."—Fulton Council.)

2. Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and His righteousness, is the alone instrument of justification (Ro 3:28); yet it is not alone in the person justified, but is ever accompanied with all other saving graces, and is no dead faith, but worketh by love (Ga 5:6; Jos 2:17,22,24).

3. Christ, by His obedience and death, did fully discharge the debt of all those that are justified; and did by the sacrifice of Himself, in the blood of His cross, undergoing in their stead the penalty due unto them, make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to God's justice in their behalf (Heb 10:14; 1Pe 1:18-19; Isa 53:5-6); yet, inasmuch as He was given by the Father for them, and His obedience and satisfaction accepted in their stead, and both freely (Ro 8:32; 2Co 5:21), not for anything in them, their justification is only of free grace, that both the exact justice and rich grace of God might be glorified in the justification of sinners (Ro 3:26; Eph 1:6-7; 2:7).

4. God did from all eternity decree to justify all the elect (Ga 3:8; 1Pe 1:2; 1Ti 2:6), and Christ did in the fullness of time die for their sins, and rise again for their justification; nevertheless they are not justified personally until the Holy Spirit doth in due time actually apply Christ unto them (Col 1:21; Ro 4:25; Tit 3:4-7).

God doth continue to forgive the sins of those that are justified; and although they can never fall from the state of justification, yet they may by their sins fall under God's Fatherly displeasure (Mt 6:12; 1Jo 1:7,9; Joh 10:28; Ps 89; 31-33); and in that condition they have not usually the light of His countenance restored unto them, until they humble themselves, confess their sins, beg pardon, and renew their faith and repentance (Ps 32:5; 51:7-12; Mt 7-12; 26:15.)

The justification of believers under the old Testament was in all these respects one (Ga 3:9; Ro 4:22-24) and the same with the justification of believers under the New Testament. (These sections have relation to God's spiritual and parental government over His children in this world.—Fulton Council.)

The bodies of men after death return to dust and see corruption (Ge 3:19; Ac 13:26); but their souls which neither die nor sleep, having an immortal subsistence, immediately return to God who gave them (Ec 12:7); the souls of the righteous, being then made perfect in holiness, are received into paradise, where they are with Christ and behold the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies (Lu 23:43; 2Co 5:1,6,8; Php 1:23; Heb 12:23); and the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torment and utter darkness, reserved to the judgment (Jude 6-7; 1Pe 3:19; Lu 16:22,24) of the great day, besides these two places for souls separated from their bodies the Scriptures acknowledgeth none. At the last day such of the saints as are found alive shall not sleep, but be changed (1Co 15:51-52; 1Th 4:17); and all the dead shall be raised up with the self same bodies, and none other (Job 19:26-27), although with different qualities, which shall be united with their souls forever.

The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised to dishonor; the bodies of the just, by the Spirit, unto honor, and be made conformable to His own body (Ac 24:15; Joh 5:28-29); Php 3:21).

They also show that the wicked shall be cast into eternal torments and punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power."

Adoption.—All those that are justified God vouchsafed in and for the sake of His only Son, Jesus Christ, to make partakers of the grace (Eph 1:6; Ga 4:4-5) of adoption; by which they are taken into the number, and enjoy the liberties and (Joh 1:12; Ro 8:17) privileges of children of God; have His (2Co 6:17; Re 3:12) name put upon them (Ro 8:15), receive the Spirit of adoption (Ga 4:6; Eph 2:18), have access to the throne of grace with boldness, are enabled to cry Abba, Father, are (Ps 103:13) pitied (Pr 14:26), protected (1Pe 5:7), provided for and (Heb 12:6) chastened by Him, 's by a Father; yet never (Isa 54:8-9; La 3:31) cast off, but sealed (Eph 4:30) to the day of redemption, and inherit the promises (Heb 1:14; 6:12) as heirs of everlasting salvation.

Sanctification.-1. They who are united to Christ, effectually called and regenerated, having a new heart (Ac 20:32; Ro 6:5-6) and new spirit created in them through the virtue of Christ's death and resurrection, and also further sanctified, really and personally, through the same virtue (Joh 17:17; Eph 3:16-19; 1Th 5:21-23), by His word and Spirit dwelling in them (Ro 6:14); the dominion of the whole body of sin is destroyed (Ga 5:14,24), and the several lusts thereof are more and more weakened and mortified; and they more and more quickened and (Col 1:11) strengthened in all saving graces, to the (2Co 7:1; Heb 13:14) practice of all true holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.

2. This sanctification is (1Th 5:23) throughout in the whole man, yet imperfect (Ro 7:18,23) in this life; there abideth still some remnants of corruption in every part, whence ariseth a (Ga 5:17; 1Pe 2:11) continual and irreconcilable War, the flesh lusting against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh.

3. In which war, although the remaining corruption for a time may much (Ro 7:23) prevail, yet through the continual supply of strength from the sanctifying Spirit of Christ (Ro 6:14), the regenerate part doth overcome; and so the saints grow in grace perfecting holiness in the fear of God (Eph 4:15-16; 2Co 3:18; 7:1), pressing after a heavenly life, in evangelical obedience to all the commands which Christ, as Head and King, in His word hath prescribed to them.

Good Works.-1. Good works are only such as God hath (Mic 6:8; Heb 13:21) commanded in His holy word, and not such as without the warrant thereof are devised by men, out of blind zeal (Mt 15:9; Isa 19:13), or upon any pretense of good intentions.

2. These good works, done in obedience to God's commandments, are the fruits and evidences (Jas 2:18,22) of a true and lively faith; and by them believers manifest their (Ps 116:12-13) thankfulness, strengthen their (1Jo 2:3,5; 2Pe 1:5-11) assurance, edify their (Mt 5:16) brethren, adorn the profession of the gospel, stop the mouths of the adversaries, and glorify (1Ti 6:1; 1Pe 2:15; Php 1:11) God, whose workmanship they are, created in Christ Jesus (Eph 2:10) thereunto, that having their fruit unto holiness, they may have the end (Ro 6:22) eternal life.

3. Their ability to do good works is not at all of themselves, but wholly from the Spirit (Joh 15:4-5) of Christ; and that they may be enabled thereunto, besides the graces they have already received, there is necessary an (2Co 3:5; Php 2:13) actual influence of the same Holy Spirit to work in them to will and to do of His good pleasure; yet are they not hereupon to grow negligent, as if they were not bound to perform any duty, unless upon a special motion of the Spirit, but they ought to be diligent in (Php 2:12; Heb 6:11-12; Isa 64:7) stirring up the grace of God that is in them.

4. They who in their obedience attain to the greatest height which is possible in this life, are so far from being able to supererogate, and to do more than God requires, as that (Job 9:2-3; Ga 5:17; Lu 17:10) they fall short of much which in duty they are bound to do.

5. We cannot by our best works merit pardon of sin or eternal life at the hand of God, by reason of the great disproportion that is between us and God, whom by them we can neither profit nor satisfy for the debt of our (Ro 3:20; Eph 2:8-9; Ro 4:6) former sins; but when we have done all we can, we have done but our duty, and are unprofitable servants; and because, as they are good, they proceed from His (Ga 5:22-23) Spirit, and as they are wrought by us, they are defiled (Isa 64:6; Ps 143:2), and mixed with so much weakness and imperfection that they cannot endure the severity of God's judgment.

6. Yet notwithstanding, the persons of believers being accepted through Christ, their good works are also accepted in (Eph 1:6; 1Pe 2:5) Him; not as though they were in this life wholly unblamable and unreprovable in God's sight; but that He, looking upon them in His Son, is pleased to accept and reward that which is (Mt 25:21,23; Heb 6:10) sincere, although accompanied with many weaknesses and imperfections.

7. Works done by unregenerate men, although for the matter of them they may be things which God commands, and of good use, both to themselves and (2Ki 10:30; 1Ki 21:27,29) others, yet because they proceed not from a heart purified by (Ge 4:5; Heb 11:4,6) faith, nor are done in a right manner according to the (1Co 13:1) word, nor to a right end, the ((Mt 6:2,5) glory of God, they are sinful and cannot please God, nor make a man meet to receive grace from (Am 5:21-22; Ro 9:16; Tit 3:5) God; and yet their neglect of them is more sinful and (Job 21:14-15; Mt 25:41-43) displeasing to God.

The Church.-1. The catholic or universal church, which with respect to the internal work of the Spirit and truth of grace may be called invisible, consists of the whole (Heb 12:23; Col 1:18; Eph 1:10,22-23;) into one under Christ, the Head thereof; and is the spouse, the body, the fullness of Him that filleth all in all.

2. All persons throughout the world, professing the faith of the gospel and obedience unto God by Christ, according unto it, not destroying their own profession by any errors,  averting the foundation, or unholiness of conversation (1Co 1:2; Ac 10:26), are and may be called visible saints (Ro 1:7; Eph 1:20-22); and of such ought all particular congregations to be constituted.

3. The purest churches under Heaven are subject (1Co 5.; Re 2; 3.) to mixture and error, and some have so degenerated \as to become (Re 18:2; 2Th 2:11-12) no churches of Christ, but synagogues of Satan; nevertheless Christ hath had and ever shall have a (Mt 16:18; Ps 72:17; 102:28; Re 12:17) kingdom in the world to the end thereof, of such as believe in Him and make profession of His name.

4. The Lord Jesus Christ is the Head of the church, in whom by the appointment of the Father (Col 1:18; Mt 18:18-20; Eph 4:11-12) all power for the calling, institution, order or government of the church is invested in a supreme and sovereign manner; neither can the Pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof, but is (2Th 2:2-9) Antichrist, that man of sin and son of perdition, that exalteth himself in the church against Christ and all that is called God; whom the Lord shall destroy with the brightness of His coming.

5. In the execution of His power wherewith He is so intrusted, the Lord Jesus calleth out of the world unto Himself, through the ministry of His word, by His Spirit (Joh 10:16; 12:32), those that are given unto Him by His Father, that they may walk before Him in all the (Mt 28:20) ways of obedience which he prescribeth to them in His word. Those thus called He commanded to walk together in particular societies or (Mt 18:15-20) churches, for their mutual edification and the due performance of that public worship which He requireth of them in the world.

6. The members of these churches are (Ro 1:7; 1Co 1:2) saints by calling, visibly manifesting and evidencing in and by their profession and walking, their obedience unto that call of Christ; and do willingly consent to walk together according to the appointment of Christ, giving up themselves to the Lord and one to another, by the will of God (Ac 2:41-42; 5:13-14; 2Co 9:13), in professed subjection to the ordinance of the gospel.

7. To each of these churches thus gathered according to His mind, declared in His word, He hath given all that (Mt 18:17-18; 1Co 5:4-5,13; 2Co 2:6-8) power and authority which is any way needful for their carrying on that order in worship and discipline, which He hath instituted for them to observe, with command and rules for the due and right exerting and executing of that power.

8. A particular church gathered and completely organized according to the mind of Christ consists of officers and members; and the officers appointed by Christ to be chosen and set apart by the church so called and gathered, for the peculiar administration of ordinances and execution of power or duty which He intrusts them with or calls them to, to be continued to the end of the world, are (Ac 20:17,28; Php 1:1) Bishops, or Elders, and Deacons.

9. The way appointed by Christ for the calling of any person fitted and gifted by the Holy Spirit unto the office of Bishop or Elder in the church, is that he be chosen thereunto by the common (Ac 14:23. See the original) suffrage of the church itself, and solemnly set apart by fasting and prayer, with imposition of hands of the (1Ti 4:14) Eldership of the church, if there be any before constituted therein; and of a Deacon (Ac 6:3,5-6), that he be chosen by the like suffrage, and set apart by prayer and the like imposition of hands.

10. The work of pastors being constantly to attend the service of Christ in His churches, in the ministry of the word and prayer (Ac 6:4; Heb 13:17), with watching for their souls, as they that must give an acount to Him, it is incumbent on the church to whom they minister not only to give them all due respect (1Ti 5:17-18; Ga 6:6-7), but also to communicate to them of all their good things, according to their ability, so as they may have a comfortable supply, without being themselves (2Ti 2:4) entangled in secular affairs, and may also be capable of exercising (1Ti 3:2), hospitality towards others; and this is required by the (1Co 9:6,14) law of nature, and by the express order of our Lord Jesus, who hath ordained that they that preach the gospel should live of the gospel.

11. Although it be incumbent on the Bishops or pastors of the churches to be instant in preaching the word by way of office, yet the work of preaching the word is not so peculiarly confined to them, but that others also (Ac 11:19-21; 1Pe 4:10-11) gifted and fitted by the Holy Spirit for it, and approved and called by the church, may and ought to perform it.

12. As all believers are bound to join themselves to particular churches when and where they have opportunities so to do; so all that are admitted unto the privilege of a church are also (1Th 4:14; 2Th 3:6,14-15) under the censures and government thereof, according to the rule of Christ.

13. No church members, upon any offense taken by them, having performed their duty required of them toward the person they are offended at, ought to disturb church order, or absent themselves from the assemblies of the church, or administration of any ordinance, upon the account of such offense at any of their fellow members, but to wait upon Christ (Mt 18:15-17; Eph 4:2-3), in further proceeding of the church.

14. As each church, and all the members of it, are bound to (Eph 6:18; Ps 122:6) pray continually for the good and prosperity of all the churches of Christ in all places and upon all occasions, and to further every one within the bounds of their places and callings in the exercise of their gifts and graces; so the churches, when planted by the providence of God, as they enjoy opportunity and advantage for it, ought to hold (Ro 16:1-2; Joh 3:8-10) communion among themselves for their peace, increase of love and mutual edification.

15. Cases of difficulty or differences, either in point of doctrine or administration, wherein either the churches in general are concerned, or any one church, in their peace, union and edification, or any number of members of any church are injured in or by any proceedings in censures not agreeable to truth and order; it is according to the mind of Christ that many churches holding communion together do by their messengers meet to consider (Ac 15:2,4,9,22-23,25) and give their advice in or about the matter in difference, to be reported to all the churches concerned; howbeit these messengers assembled are not intrusted with any church power properly so called, or with any jurisdiction over the churches themselves, to exercise any censure either over any churches or persons, or (2Co 1:24; 1Jo 4:1) to impose their determination on the churches or officers.

State of Man After Death, and of the Resurrection of the Dead.-
1. The bodies of men after death return to dust (Ge 3:19; Ac 13:34) and see corruption; but their souls, which neither die nor sleep, having an immortal subsistence, immediately (Ec 12:7) return to God who gave them; the souls of the righteous then being made perfect in holiness, are received into paradise, where they are with Christ, and behold the face of God in light and (Lu 23:43; 2Co 5:1,6,8; Php 1:23; Heb 12:23) glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies; and the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torment and utter darkness, reserved to (Jude 7; 2Pe 2:6,9; Lu 16:23-24) the judgment of .the great day; besides these two places for souls separated from their bodies, the Scripture acknowledgeth none.

2. At the last day, such of the saints as are found alive shall not sleep, but be (1Co 15:51-52; 1Th 4:17) changed; and all the dead shall be raised up with the self-same bodies and (Job 19:26-27) none other, although with different (1Co 15:42-43) qualities, which shall be united again to their souls forever.

3. The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised to dishonor; the bodies of the just, by His Spirit, unto honor (Ac 24:15; Joh 5:28-29; Php 3:21), and be made conformable to His own glorious body.

The Last Judgment.-1. God hath appointed a day wherein He will judge the world in righteousness by (Ac 17:31; Joh 5:22,27) Jesus Christ, to whom all power and judgment is given of the Father; in which day not only the (1Co 6:3; Jude 6) apostate angels shall be judged, but likewise all persons that have lived upon the earth shall appear before the tribunal of Christ (2Co 5:10; Ec 12:14; Mt 12:36; Ro 16:10,12; Mt 25:32, etc.), to give an account of their thoughts, words and deeds, and to receive according to .what they have done in the body, whether good or evil.

2. The end of God's appointing this day is for the manifestation of the glory of His mercy in the eternal salvation of the elect (Ro 9:22-23), and of His justice in the eternal damnation of the reprobate who are wicked and disobedient; for then shall the righteous go into everlasting life, and receive that fullness of joy and glory, with everlasting reward, in the presence (Mt 25:21,34; 2Ti 4:8) of the Lord; but the wicked who know not God, and obey not the gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast into eternal torments, and (Mt 25:46; Mr 9:48; 2Th 1:7-10) punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power.

3. As Christ would have us to be certainly persuaded that there shall be a day of judgment, both (2Co 5:10-11) to deter all men from sin, and for the greater (2Th 1:4,6-7) consolation of the godly in their adversity, so will He have that day unknown to men, that they may shake off all carnal security, and be always watchful, because they know not at what hour the (Mr 13:35-37; Lu 12:35-36) Lord will come, and may ever be prepared to say (Re 22:20), Come Lord Jesus, come quickly. Amen.




The church of the first century was a spiritual kingdom set up in the world by the Son of God in fulfillment of the Jewish economy and in opposition to all other religions of earth and this militant kingdom of Immanuel, notwithstanding the combined secular powers of the world, progressed to such an extent that, in about seventy years after the crucifixion of Christ, it pervaded portions of every province of the Roman Empire. In it is an aggressive principle against sin, though purely of love to mankind, that will never cease its action until time shall be no more.

Many errors had crept into the church from time to time in different parts of the world but that system of discipline which had been established by Christ and His Apostles had proved effectual in removing these errors in faith and practice. "The Apostolic Age is the fountain-head of the Christian church, as an organized society separate and distinct from the Jewish synagogue. It is pre-eminently the age of the Holy Spirit—the age of inspiration and of legislation for all subsequent ages. Here springs, in its original freshness and purity, the living water of the new creation. Christianity comes down from Heaven as a supernatural fact, yet long predicted and prepared for, and adapted to the deepest wants of human nature. Signs and wonders and extraordinary demonstrations of the Spirit, for the conversion of unbelieving Jews and heathens, attend its entrance into this world of sin. It takes up its permanent abode with our fallen race, to transform it gradually, without war or bloodshed, by a quiet, leaven-like process, into a kingdom of truth and righteousness. In virtue of this original purity, vigor _and beauty, and the permanent success of primitive Christianity, the canonical authority of the New Testament, the single but inexhaustible volume of its literature, and the character of the Apostles, those inspired organs of the Holy Spirit, those humanly-untaught teachers of mankind, the Apostolic Age has an incomparable interest and importance in the history of the church. It is the immovable ground-work of the whole. It holds up the highest standard of doctrine and discipline."—P. Schaff.

The church of the first century forms the standard and example for the church of all future ages. Should there exist now on earth a body of professed Christians who occupy the same ground in faith and practice as that of the church of the first century, they are RIGHT and if any should be found occupying a different position, they are WRONG. The true church of Christ and false or merely nominal churches are to be distinguished by a comparison with the apostolic standard.


1. The apostolic church consisted only of those persons who had been convicted of sin by the Holy Spirit, and who had given signs of repentance towards God, and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ as the Son of God. Their faith was the faith of God's elect (Tit 1:1), a steadfast and earnest adherence to the doctrine of the Apostles and prophets (Ac 2:42; Eph 2:20; Jude 3), including the total depravity of the human race in consequence of the fall of our first parents, the special eternal election of God's people to everlasting life, the particular redemption purchased by the blood of Christ for all His people, the effectual calling and the final perseverance of the saints to glory. In all spiritual matters Christ was their only Head, King and Lawgiver, as He spoke either personally or by His Spirit in the writers of the Old and the New Testament Scriptures. One word of their Lord and Master was worth all the words of all uninspired men. They chose to obey God rather than man. The Jewish and heathen doctrine of salvation by human works they utterly eschewed, while they heartily embraced as their only hope the Christian and Bible doctrine of a free and full salvation by the sovereign and .unmerited grace of God. In other words, this FIRST and CHIEF MARK of the apostolic church was a regenerated or converted membership, who had been born of the Spirit of God, who had vital, revealed, experimental religion, who were the quickened, the circumcised in heart, the new creation, saints, beloved of the Lord, children of God, the saved, added to the church by the Lord, the elect vessels of mercy, who worshiped God in the Spirit, living stones built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God by Jesus Christ, a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiar people, that they should show forth the praises of Him who had called them out of darkness into His marvelous light.

This mark utterly excludes the unregenerate world and unconscious infants from membership in the apostolic church. As Noah was a spiritual child of God, and all the human race since the flood are his descendants, infant membership, if fully carried out, would sweep the whole world into the church. Three of the evangelists inform us that some little children were brought to Jesus, who blessed them, though they were unbaptized and who, though this was the occasion above all others for it, said not one word about their baptism or their admittance into His visible church. He uttered those forever precious and memorable words, "Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of God." Mark says that He was " much displeased" when His disciples rebuked those who brought the children to Him. Bible Baptists have always believed that all children who die in infancy are regenerated by the almighty grace of God and go directly home to the loving arms of Jesus and these with the adult believers compose more than one-half of the human race. As ".Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, to-day and forever" (Heb 13:8), it must still be "much displeasing to Him that little children should not be suffered, but forbidden, to come to Him for any reason whatever, whether the lack of water-baptism or anything else. The language of Christ in Mr 16:16, "He that believeth not shall be damned," shows with perfect clearness that not want of water-baptism, but want of faith, is the cause of damnation and as the grace of faith is "the gift of God" (Eph 1:19; 2:8; Ga 5:22; Php 1:29; Heb 12:2), it is as easy for Omnipotence to bestow it upon a dying infant as upon a living adult. The practice of infant baptism (or infant church membership) is a weak, thoroughly antiscriptural, idolatrous superstition, which most probably arose in North Africa in the third century * from the false idea of the magical, regenerating, saving power of water, and which did not become general until the fifth century, thus securing its triumph in the Dark Ages about the same time with the establishment of the papacy and it is worthy only of the Dark Continent -and the Dark Ages. "It originated from that inborn human principle of self-righteousness which supposes it so necessary for man to do something to secure his acceptance with God that even the infant, who cannot comply with the condition itself, must do so by its substitute." It is a vain human tradition which utterly makes void the commandments of God—those commandments requiring baptism after repentance and faith, as fitly symbolical of those internal graces while the human tradition requires the baptism of unconscious, impenitent and unbelieving infancy. It is a solemn mockery, substituting for the indispensable faith of the recipient the utterly unscriptural proxy-faith of humanly invented sponsors, god-parents and sureties. It is a cruel falsehood and deception, pretending that the unconscious infant is "regenerated and grafted into the body of Christ's church," and depriving him of the comforts of believers' baptism if he should ever believe. It is the quintessence of ecclesiastical corruption, that would break down all distinction between the church and the world. It is the chief prop and pillar of Catholicism, sacerdotalism and sacramentalism, totally subversive of the fundamental principle of Protestantism and the spiritual religion of the New Testament. " Romanists deny its Biblical authority, and rest its validity on the authority of the church.; and they justly insist, therefore, that Protestants, in practicing the rite, abandon the great Protestant principle that the Bible is the only and sufficient rule of faith, and revert to the authority of tradition. The German Reformers conceded its lack of New Testament authority. The profound and scholarly and impartial German theologians are emphatic in denying that it has either precept or example in Scripture." It is absolutely certain that there is no command and no plain case of infant baptism in' the Bible. This is almost universally conceded. Hundreds of the most learned Pedobaptist scholars frankly admit the fact. Nearly all the standard Pedobaptist historians admit that infant baptism was unknown in the first two centuries after Christ. 'The last commission which Christ gave to His Apostles (in Mt 28:19 and Mr 16:16) authorized them to baptize only disciples or believers. The term " infants " does not occur in the commission. Christ, and not water-baptism, is the only God and Savior, both of infants and adults. He calls children, not to the baptismal waters at all, but to Himself. In the case of the baptism of families, there is never any mention of infants, and the context or some other Scripture nearly always shows that all those baptized believed, or rejoiced, or devoted themselves to the ministry of the saints, and therefore could not have been infants there is no proof that there were any infants in any of those families and, if there had been infants in them, we know that the apostolic commission did not authorize their baptism, so that, as the ablest scholars admit, we know, without any special statement, that infants were excluded from such baptisms. The word rendered " holy " in 1Co 7:14 plainly means legitimate. As for baptism being a substitute for circumcision, there is no such statement in the Bible, but a powerful array of arguments against it. The Old Covenant of circumcision was national and temporal the New Covenant is personal and spiritual. "None were circumcised until after they were naturally born so none should be baptized until after they are spiritually born. The natural seed of Abraham were entitled to circumcision only his spiritual seed, or believers, are entitled to baptism. Abraham's servants were circumcised it has never been pretended that the servants of believers are entitled to baptism, unless such servants themselves believe. Only males were circumcised both males and females are baptized. Ishmael, though circumcised, was excluded from Canaan; all baptized believers will enter the heavenly Canaan. The right of a child to circumcision did not depend upon the faith of the parents. It was not performed in the name of God or of any other being. The subject of circumcision was debtor to do the whole law. No sponsors were required in circumcision. The Apostles baptized Jewish converts who had been circumcised. Jewish Christians continued for many years to circumcise their children. Paul, to satisfy the Jews, even circumcised Timothy, who had already been baptized. A dispute arose about circumcising Gentile converts (Ac 15.), which could not have taken place if it had been understood that baptism came in the room of circumcision." The Apostles, neither at this council at Jerusalem, nor on any other occasion, manifest any knowledge of the substitution of baptism for circumcision. The basing of infant baptism upon circumcision has been abandoned by many of the ablest Pedobaptist scholars of Europe and America. And infant baptism itself is, in all Protestant countries, falling rapidly into disuse, as an unsciptural and senseless formality. It is estimated that one-twelfth of the infants born in the United States are baptized (or, rather, rhantized). A most terrible and an all-sufficient argument against infant baptism (mid its historical and logical equivalent, baptismal regeneration) is its inconceivably horrible implication that all infants who die unbaptized, even though they die unborn, even though they be elected by God the Father, redeemed by God the Son, and regenerated by God the Spirit, are, for the want of a drop or two of natural water applied to them, consigned to everlasting torment or privation of happiness. No man who believes the Bible can believe this diabolical doctrine. This horrid Catholic dogma, surpassing in monstrosity nearly all the errors of " heretical sects," has been well denominated " the entering wedge of tradition which, if driven home, will split Protestantism into fragments." In the words of the two Langes of Germany, distinguished Pedobaptist scholars : " All attempts to make out infant baptism from the New Testament fail. It is utterly opposed to the spirit of the Apostolic Age and to the fundamental principles of the New Testament. Would the Protestant church fulfill and attain to its final destiny, the baptism of new-born children must be abolished. It cannot, on any point of view, be justified by the Holy Scriptures." Mr. Alexander Carson, a most scholarly, profound and conscientious Presbyterian minister of Ireland (1776-1844), declared, after long and earnest investigation : " I found I must either give up the Bible or give up infant baptism." He preferred to give up infant baptism, though with it he had to give up honors, riches and friends and he became a Baptist, and wrote one of the fullest and ablest works extant on the "Mode and Subjects of Baptism." Out of about four hundred millions of so-called .Christians in the world, less than four millions—less than one in a hundred—insist upon the First and Most Important Mark of the Apostolic Church—a spiritual or regenerated church-membership. What a lamentable falling away from the truth is this!

*It is claimed that Irenaeus was born A. D. 97, and that he makes one allusion to infant baptism. The fact is that both the date and place both of Irenaeus's birth and death are unknown. The ablest scholars believe that he was born between A. D. 120 and 140; and some suppose that he died A. D. 202. His book against Heresies was composed, says Mr. Schaff, between the years 177 and 192. In that book he says that ' our Lord came in order that through Himself He might save all men, infants, and little ones. and children and youths and elders, even all who through Him are born againunto God." The expression " born again" is said, in the early so-called " Fathers," habitually to mean "baptized;" but it remains to be proved that it always has that meaning, and that it has that meaning in the sentence just quoted from Irenaeus. The phrase " through Him," instead of " through water," militates emphatically against the idea of baptismal regeneration in this passage—so admit the German scholars.

The earliest undoubted reference to child baptism is by Tertullian of North Africa (born 160 A. D., died between 220 and 240—converted about A. D.190), and he earnestly opposes it. Certainly, then, child baptism must have been, . not of apostolic, but of recent origin, when Tertullian wrote.

"Bunsen shows that Tertullian was not arguing against infant baptism at all, then unknown, but against the baptism of little growing children from six to ten years old who could go down with the other catechumens into the baptismal bath, but were not yet in a state to make the proper responses. This custom was coming into fashion, but Tertullian rejects it. From boys of ten, who might possibly sometimes give evidence of sincere piety, the clergy advanced to take in those of six or seven responded for by others, though able to descend into the water, unaided, with the adult catechumens. Then those of three or four, when just able to repeat a few of the sacred words, as Gregory Nazianzen recommends, were, by a further corruption, brought by baptism into the fold of the `church.' From this very circumstance would arise the strongest argument for going a step further. For, since in these very young children baptism could not be a profession of personal faith, it could only lead the masses to suppose that it acted as a charm, and that the child was more safe in case of death, a view carefully cherished by the clergy. Thus arose the belief that all, even infants, dying without baptism, would be lost and hence followed finally the baptism of babes eight days old, and even those of a day. The first known instance of this last was A. D. 256, in North Africa, and these ideas slowly and gradually pervaded the ' church,' as Neander has shown. A host of authorities fully sustain this view of the origin of infant baptism "The Catholic practice of pretending to make even infants catechumens, or rudimentally instructed in Christianity. before baptism, is an undesigned proof of the correctness of the above explanation, and of the truth of Baptist principles."—T. F. Curtis. Dean Stanley says that there is but one known instance of infant baptism in the third century, though he defends the practice as being "a standing testimony to the truth, value, and eternal significance of natural religion," and as showing that, " in every child of Adam, whilst there is much evil, there is more good."

2. The Second Mark of the Apostolic Church was the baptism, the immersion, of believers in water, in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. Those giving credible evidence of a living personal. faith in the Triune Jehovah were taken by the ministry, or persons authorized by the church, and dipped, plunged, overwhelmed or inundated in water, in the name of. the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. Thus were those already born of the Spirit born symbolically of the water, and initiated into the membership of the visible church, entitled to all her privileges and exposed to all her persecutions. Thus was it clearly and beautifully and divinely indicated that they were thoroughly identified with Christ, made a part of His mystical body, " buried with Him in baptism, and risen with Him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised Him from the dead," "quickened together with Christ from the death of trespasses and sins, fully and freely forgiven and washed from their sins by the blood of the Lamb" (Col 2:12-14; Ro 6:4-5; Tit 3:5-7; Eph 5:25-27). Thus were powerfully and comprehensively symbolized the central, vital truths of the gospel—regeneration by the purifying power of the Spirit of God and redemption by the atoning blood of the Son of God, and the identity, as shown by the words of the administrator, of the Father with the Spirit and Son—and the personal faith of the baptized in those truths. Thus does this one Divine ordinance impressively preach the entire substance of the gospel of Christ. It was instituted and commanded by Christ, and practiced by the Apostles, and is to be observed by the church in all its primitive fullness and beauty down to the end of time.

The highly important apostolically established connection between the believer and the sufferings and triumph of Christ symbolized in the ordinance of baptism—infinitely more important than the temporal union of husband and wife—has been rationalistically and audaciously dissolved by the substitution of sprinkling, or pouring, for baptism by the Roman Catholic society and her Protestant daughters. In all human literature there is not another word whose meaning is more certain, and yet more disputed, than the Greek word BAPTIZO. The history of this word presents the strongest demonstration of the willful and obstinate blindness and perversity of the carnal mind. Just as mankind had at first from Adam a natural knowledge of the true God, but soon willfully departed from that knowledge, as shown by Paul in the first chapter of Romans, and greedily plunged into idolatry and vileness, and were given over by God to a reprobate mind so the true meaning of baptizo, as all lexicography and church history prove, was perfectly well known to the world for more than thirteen centuries after Christ, but, for the last few hundred years, the meaning of this word has been most unblushingly and industriously perverted, not so much by Romanist, as by Protestant theologians, for the purpose of suiting carnal ideas of human expediency, convenience and decency. "The Romanist (as also the Romanizing Protestant) bases the change from baptism to sprinkling, not on an altered view of the original form of the rite, but on the authority of his 'church' to alter rites and ceremonies " but, as Protestants generally claim to adhere strictly to the Bible, they seek, in order to justify their change of the ordinance of baptism, to explain away the ineradicable ground-idea of the word baptizo, and make it the most general term imaginable for the application of water in any form. This religious error, because of the headway which it has made in English-speaking countries, is embodied in the latest Unabridged Dictionaries of Webster and Worcester. A later and higher authority on etymology than either of these works is Walter W. Skeat's " Etymological Dictionary of the English Language," in which the only meaning of baptism is " a dipping; " baptist, "a dipper; " baptize, "to dip." The derivation of all these English words is from the Greek work baptizo, for the meaning of which word we must of course consult the Greek Lexicon. Now, every respectable Greek scholar in England and America will admit that there is only one standard Greek-English Lexicon published in Europe or America, and that is the Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, published in 1883. It unquestionably represents the latest and highest combined scholarship of Europe and America. This Lexicon is now before the present writer, and gives absolutely but one meaning of baptizo, "to dip in or under water," with several subordinate but like-meaning applications, as follows : " of ships, to sink or disable them (metaphorically) of the crowds who flocked into Jerusalem at the time of the siege to be drenched (metaphorically), soaked in wine, over head and ears in debt, drowned with questions or getting into deep water to draw wine by dipping the cup in the bowl; to baptize; (in the middle-voice) to dip one's self, to get one's self baptized." Here it is seen that dipping or immersion is the essential meaning of the word. The meaning "bathe," given in the Sixth Edition, is omitted, because found to be erroneous. The meaning "repeatedly" (" to dip repeatedly "), given in the Second Edition, is omitted because erroneous—the word baptizo, from bapto, to dip, being frequentative in form, but not in meaning, having an active or causative meaning, to make or cause another to dip by a common tendency in language the strong form of a word gradually takes the place of the weak form, with no essential difference in meaning. The meanings "pour, steep, wet," given in the First Edition, published in 1843, were abandoned and expunged as untenable within a year and a half of their publication. The compilers of this Standard Greek-English. Lexicon are Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, both of them being deans, clergymen and "Doctors of Divinity" in the Established (or Episcopal) "Church of England" not their sympathy for the Baptists, but their knowledge and reputation as scholars, have compelled them to give baptizo its only proper meaning of dipping or immersion. " Immersion, as the proper significance of baptizo and the original form of the rite, has been affirmed through all the Christian ages, and is still affirmed by the highest scholarship of Christendom, Oriental, Roman Catholic and Protestant." The Greek Catholic " Church," which certainly ought to understand the meaning of the Greek word baptizo, has always immersed and still immerses, even in the severe climates of Russia and Siberia, all its members, both infants and adults, and uncompromisingly declares that every other form of the rite is essentially invalid. Contrary to Eph 4:5, triple or trine immersion is practiced by the Greek " Church," and was the usage of the most of Christendom from the end of the second to the end of the twelfth century. The Roman Catholic " Church" at first allowed sprinkling or pouring only in the case of sick persons (clinici)—the first recorded instance being the case of Novatian, of Rome, about A. D. 250; but the sprinkling of well persons " gradually came in," says the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Ninth Edition), "in spite of the opposition of councils and hostile decrees. The Roman Catholic Council of Ravenna, in A. D. 1311, was the first council of the ' Church which legalized baptism by sprinkling, by leaving it to the choice of the officiating minister." The first pope that sanctioned sprinkling for baptism was Stephen II., A. D. 753. In England and Scotland immersion was the ordinary practice till after the " Reformation." " What principally tended to confirm the practice of affusion or sprinkling," says the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "was that several of our Protestant divines, flying into Germany and Switzerland during the bloody reign of Queen Mary, and coming home when Queen Elizabeth came to the throne, brought back with them a great zeal for the Protestant churches beyond the sea, where they had been received and sheltered. And having observed that at Geneva, and some other places, baptism was administered by sprinkling, they thought they could not do the Church of England a greater service than by introducing a practice dictated by so great an oracle as Calvin." It is proper here to state that Calvin, in his Institutes, says : " The word baptize signifies to immerse; and it is certain that immersion was the practice of the ancient church." In his commentary on Ac 8:38, Calvin says that " the Church granted liberty to herself to change the rites somewhat." In 1643 the Westminster (Presbyterian) "Assembly of Divines," through the influence of John Lightfoot, voted for sprinkling instead of immersion by a majority of one-24 voting for immersion and 25 for sprinkling. In 1644 the English Parliament sanctioned their decision, and decreed that sprinkling should be the legal mode of administering the ordinance. The Independents, or Congregationalists, adopted sprinkling from the Presbyterians and the Methodists, in the eighteenth century, from the Episcopalians. John Wesley says : "The ancient manner of baptizing was by immersion." The "form" of baptism was regarded by all these Protestant bodies as nonessential, as though the term "baptizm" " was an indefinite one for the application of water in general, which it is perfectly certain that it is not or as though man has the right or power to change an ordinance of Christ, which he has no more right or power to 'do than he has to change the course of nature. As God is unchangeable, so is " Jesus Christ the same yesterday, today and forever," and His ordinances, like those of God in nature, are unchangeable. It was a terrible sin, visited by a terrible punishment, for man to presume to alter an ordinance of God under the Old Dispensation (Le 10; Nu 16; 1Sa 13; 2Sa 6; "the ordinances of the New Testament, though fewer in number, are not of less solemnity and authority, nor is there any scriptural evidence that they may be altered by man." He who instituted these ordinances alone can change or abrogate them. No theories or traditions or precepts of men are to be allowed to make void or modify the commandments of God. By an examination of the ancient and modern versions of the New Testament, we find that, when the word baptizo is not simply transferred, but translated, the translators employ a word which signifies to immerse, except in a few modern versions. They never translate baptizo by either " sprinkle " or " pour." As Mr. T. J. Conant says : " Translation decides the controversy, and ends it for only one translation can be given the word baptizo." In his exhaustive work entitled " Baptizein," this able New York scholar examines 175 instances of the use of baptizo through the entire period of the existence of Greek literature, and finds that "the ground-idea expressed by this word is to put into or under water or other penetrable substance, so as entirely to immerse or submerge that this act is always expressed in the literal application of the word, and is the basis of its metaphorical uses that from the earliest age of Greek literature down to its close, not an example has been found in which the word has any other meaning." Now, as the word baptizo invariably involves the idea of immersion, and never means pouring or sprinkling, it is as obvious as the noonday sun in a cloudless sky that every objection to immersion, and every argument for pouring or sprinkling, as scriptural or apostolic baptism, sink into total insignificance—are, indeed, annihilated; and so in every case has the most recent and accurate scholarship found every such objection and every such argument to disappear.

Before proceeding to examine these objections and arguments, let us briefly inquire why Christ and His Apostles did not use some other word from the copious Greek vocabulary to designate the ordinance of initiation into His church. "Bapto is found three times in the New Testament, and this also means to dip, but is never applied to baptism. Why not? Because, besides being sometimes intransitive, it also means to dye, and therefore with this word the ordinance might have been misunderstood. Louo is found six times in the New Testament, and means to wash, to wash the whole body, to bathe. If, as some say, baptism means to wash, here was just the word to express it. But this word is never applied to the ordinance. Nipto is found seventeen times, and means to wash the extremities, but is never applied to baptism. Why not, if a little water applied to the head may be baptism ? Rantizo means to sprinkle, and is found in the New Testament four times. This would have been the very word used to designate baptism if, as some say, that ordinance is properly performed by sprinkling. But this word is in no instance so used. Why not? Because sprinkling is not baptism. Cheo means to pour, and is found eighteen times in its various combinations, but is never applied to baptism. If baptism is pouring water on the candidate, why was not this word used sometimes to express it? Katharizo means to purify, to cleanse, and is found thirty times, but never applied to the ordinance of baptism. If, as some say, the ordinance signifies nothing but purification, this word would have expressed it. Christ and His Apostles selected baptizo to designate the ordinance of baptism, because baptism is essentially a dipping or immersion."—E. T. Hiscox. A dipping in water is both a washing or cleansing and a temporary burying. The immediate emersion or uplifting of the body out of the water, which was always done by John and the Apostles, fitly symbolized both the birth of the Spirit and the resurrection with Christ to newness of life. Mr. E. D. Barclay, in his full, clear and interesting work entitled " A Comparative View of the Words Bathe, Wash, Dip, Sprinkle and Pour, of the English Bible, and of their Originals in the Hebrew and Septuagint (or Greek) Copies," shows that while in the Old Testament the Hebrew has fifteen words, and the Greek thirty-one words, translated in the English "pour; " and the Hebrew two words, and the Greek sixteen words, translated in the English " sprinkle;" and the Hebrew four words, and the Greek eleven words, translated in the English "wash; " and the Hebrew two words, and the Greek two words, translated in the English " bathe; " no one of these twenty-three Hebrew words and sixty Greek words is ever translated in the English Bible dip or immerse or plunge. In the Hebrew Old Testament two words, tabal and machats, and in the Greek Old Testament three words, bapto, baptizo and moluno, are translated in the English Old Testament "dip" or " plunge; " tabal occurs sixteen times, and is translated fourteen times by bapto, once by baptizo (2Ki 5:14), and once by moluno (Ge 37:31) machats occurs one time (Ps 68:23), and is translated by bapto; tabal is translated "dip" fifteen times, and "plunge" one time (Job 9:31) machats in its one occurrence is translated "dip," but is rendered by Gesenius, the ablest Hebrew lexicographer, " to shake, to move to and fro, to stir; " moluno is not defined by Liddell and Scott to dip, but " to stain, sully, defile." The passage in which tabal is translated by the Septuagint baptizo is in regard to Naaman, who "went down and dipped himself seven times in Jordan, according to the saying of the man of God." Mr. Barclay's conclusion is that " the Hebrew, Septuagint and English copies of the Old Testament, taken together, do not furnish the slightest authority for translating baptizo by either ' sprinkle ' or 'pour ' but all three copies authorize dip' as the translation of this Greek verb." He also shows that "the closest and most searching examination of the Old and New Testaments, in the Hebrew, Greek and English, does not find a single instance of the sprinkling or pouring of unmixed water on any person or thing for any religious purpose whatever, and therefore such sprinkling or pouring is not by Divine but by purely human authority." Jesus says of the unbelieving, tradition-observing Jews " In vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the, commandments of men" (Mt 15:9). Jesus Himself was, says Mark (Mr 1:10), "baptized (eis) into the Jordan." John baptized in the Jordan and in other places where there was "much water." " In the vast crowds attending Christ's preaching, no allusion is made to the need of water it is mentioned only where baptizing is referred to. ' Much water certainly could not have been necessary for sprinkling or pouring, as it is not necessary for such purpose now" nor do men now go to rivers for sprinkling or pouring. Paul twice alludes to baptism as a burial (Ro 6:4; Col 2:12). Where our English version has the words " baptize with water," the Greek has " baptize (en) in water." The Greek preposition en occurs, it is said, 2,720 times in about 2,500 places it is correctly rendered in; in over twenty other places in would be the best translation in only about forty places, out of 2,720, does it necessarily mean with. " How clear and edifying is the testimony of the Holy Spirit to the method of our salvation in the Divine ordinance of baptism, properly performed ! How is it that a vile sinner can escape the wrath of God, and obtain eternal life ? How is it that Christ's work is available for him? Why, when Christ paid our debt, we ourselves have paid our debt, for we are one with Christ. We have died with Christ, and have risen with Christ Christ's death is our death Christ's burial is our burial Christ's resurrection is our resurrection- Christ's sitting in heavenly places is our sitting in heavenly places." -Alex. Carsan. Baptism is not, as virtually represented by the prevailing Catholic and Protestant theories, a magical, material, mechanical, chemical or electrical means and instrument of grace and salvation but it is simply and beautifully the divinely-ordained outward symbol or emblem of the inward spiritual cleansing of our guilty souls by the saving application which the Holy Spirit makes to 'us of the atoning blood of the Lord Jesus Christ. No ordinance of Christ must be put idolatrously in the place of Christ. The statements in the New Testament about our being " sprinkled" and " washed with the blood of Christ" are allusions to the sprinklings and washings under the law they are nowhere called baptisms. In the phrase " born of water," water is figuratively represented as the womb from which we come. Christ, after having been baptized, " came up straightway out of the water" (Mt 3:16; Mr 1:10). So the eunuch, who had " gone down into the water, came up out of the water" (Ac 8:38-39). Along each one of the three roads from Jerusalem to Gaza, modern travelers tell us that there are occasionally streams, or pools, or fountains, or wadies, containing amply enough water for immersion. As for a sufficiency of water in Jerusalem to immerse the 3,000 on the day of Pentecost, the city contained, besides a countless number of large and deep private cisterns, six immense public pools, with shelving, descending sides, affording the most extensive bathing or swimming accommodations—the Mosaic law and the traditions of the Elders requiring a vast quantity of water for ceremonial ablutions. During none of its numerous sieges did the city suffer from lack of water. It is not stated that the 3,000 were all actually baptized on the same day but it could have been easily done in a few hours by either the twelve Apostles or by the seventy disciples helping them. Immersion takes very little longer than sprinkling or pouring if the baptismal formula is repeated with each, as is always done. Allowing one minute for each immersion, which is sufficient, twelve could have immersed 3,000 in two hundred and fifty minutes, or four hours and ten minutes eighty-two persons could have immersed 3,000 in thirty-seven minutes. As Peter began preaching about the third hour of the day (Ac 2:15)) or nine o'clock in the forenoon, and it is not probable that he spoke more than two or three hours, but apparently much less time than this, there was abundance of time left for the baptism of 3,000 persons by twelve or eighty-two administrators on the Same day. The Philippian jailer (Ac 21:33) was immersed, as the ablest commentators think, in a tank or pool or cistern in the court of the prison—such a reservoir as ancient houses usually had for receiving the rain from the slightly-inclined roof or the immersion may have taken place in the neighboring river, Gangas, beside which " prayer was wont to be made" (Ac 16:13). In Ac 9:18 it is not said that Paul was baptized in the house of Judas, but he may have been, as " Damascus now abounds in water, and all the better houses either have a reservoir in their court, or stand beside a natural or artificial stream." Paul's remark in 1Co 10:1-2, "that our fathers were under the cloud, and passed through the sea, and were baptized unto Moses in the cloud, and in the sea," shows that the Apostle had in view, as an image of baptism, not a mere sprinkling or pouring, but a complete immersion or investment.

Peter's comparison of baptism to the flood (1Pe 3:20-22) is highly significant. " The ark in which Noah and his family were saved by water was God's ordinance it was made according to the pattern He gave to Noah, as baptism is His. ordinance and as the ark was the object of the scorn of men, so is the ordinance of baptism, rightly administered; and as the ark represented a burial when Noah and his family were shut up in it, so baptism and when the fountains of the great deep were broken up below, and the windows of Heaven were opened above, the ark, with those in it, were as it were covered with and immersed in water, and so was a figure of baptism by immersion and as there were none but adult persons in the ark, who were saved by water in it, so none but adult persons are the proper subjects of water-baptism and though there were few who were in the ark, it was attended with a salutary effect to them—they were saved by water so such as truly believe in Christ and are baptized shall be saved, and that by the resurrection of Jesus Christ, which was typified by the coming of Noah and his family out of the ark, to which baptism, as the antitype, corresponds, being an emblem of the same."— John Gill. In Mr 7:4 and Lu 11:38 the Greek verb rendered " wash " is baptizo (immerse) and this meaning of immersion exactly agrees with superstitious traditions of the Jewish Rabbis, as shown by Mr. Gill from the Talmud and the writings of Maimonides. " The Pharisees, upon touching the common people or their clothes, as they returned from market, or from any court of judicature, were obliged to immerse themselves in water before they ate and Scaliger observes that the more superstitious of them, every day before they sat down to meat, dipped the whole body. And not only cups, pots and brazen vessels were washed by dipping, but even beds, pillows and bolsters, unclean in a ceremonial sense, were washed in this way, according to the traditions of the Elders."—In regard to the doubtful statement in the Apocryphal book of Judith (12:7), the writer says that it was night when Judith " dipped" herself in the fountain of water.—An object that has only a few drops of water sprinkled or poured on it cannot be said to be washed. It was a rule with the Jews that where the law required the washing of the flesh or the clothes, the whole body must be dipped for said they, " If any man dips himself all over except the tip of his little finger, he is still in his uncleanness" ( Maimonides).—In Lu 12:50 Christ calls His own approaching sufferings "a baptism," thus expressing their abundance, like deep waters and floods, into which He was to be plunged, covered and overwhelmed (see Ps 69:1; 2; Isa 43:2).—" The baptism in the Holy Ghost (Ac 1:5—Greek), which Jesus promised His disciples, was fitly represented on the day of Pentecost by a complete immersion in the wind and fire, the emblems of the Spirit (Ac 2:2-4) the sound as of a rushing mighty wind filled all the house where they were sitting, and tongues as of fire sat upon each of them. They were thus surrounded by the wind and covered by the fire. The Spirit is not material, but spiritual and we cannot understand the methods of His operation upon the soul in the new creation, any more than we can understand the methods in which God created the material universe out of nothing. The descriptive terms used in connection with the emblems of the Spirit are special accommodations to the particular emblem employed, and do not denote the mysterious manner of the communication of the Spirit. Natural things cannot explain the method in which the Spirit acts. The Spirit is not like water but the effects of the two are similar. He is said to be poured, because He is supposed to dwell above, and His influences are like those of water on the same principle on which God is said to have, come down from Heaven, or to look down from Heaven, in accommodation to our ways of thinking and speaking. The ordinance of baptism was not intended to represent the mode of the Spirit's communication. If baptism can be represented by pouring water out of a cup, it can just as scripturally be represented by the falling of water in rain, its springing out of the earth, its running in a stream, its distilling in dew, or by the drinking of water, or the anointing with oil, or the blowing of wind, or the blazing of fire, or the flying of a dove, or the exhalation of the breath. These various terms are adapted to each special emblem, and do not explain the Spirit's mode of operation. Baptism, then, cannot be either pouring or dipping for the sake of representing the manner of the conveyance of the Holy Spirit for there is no such likeness. Pouring of the Spirit is a phrase which is itself a figure, not to be represented by another figure. Baptism is a figure, not of the mode of the Spirit's operation, to which there can be no likeness, but of the burial and resurrection of Christ, which may be represented by natural things, because it respects the objects of sense. Baptism, or immersion in the Spirit does not represent the mode of the Spirit's conveyance, but such complete subjection to the Spirit's influence as an object immersed in a fluid experiences from the fluid."—Alex. Carson.—Not water-baptism, but the Holy Spirit, is the seal of the new covenant (2Co 1:22; Eph 1:13; 4:30). The salvation of the dying thief was no doubt meant to be one strong proof that water-baptism is not a saving ordinance.—The erection of numerous large baptisteries, or great circular or octagonal buildings with immense cisterns in them for baptism, in Greek and Latin Christendom, from the fourth to the ninth centuries, proves the practice of immersion during that period. As for some' of the cisterns being only about three feet deep, it was common at that time for the candidate alone to enter the water and kneel down, and for the minister, who stood outside, to bend the head of the candidate forward into the water besides infant baptism had then become common, and for the immersion of infants but little depth of water was required. Certainly these large cisterns were never intended for mere sprinkling or pouring. As for baptism being represented sometimes by pouring, in some old mosaics and frescoes and in the Roman catacombs, pouring was sometimes used by the Catholics in connection with immersion the dates of the representations are quite uncertain and it is known that additions have been made by modern hands. A deep and lasting impression was made some years ago upon my mind by the solemnity and emotion of a remark addressed to me by a humble, lovely and exemplary gentleman, now deceased, who had been a Presbyterian, but was then a Baptist minister, Mr. Thomas R. Owen, of Tarboro, N. C., well known to hundreds of the readers of these pages. He had visited my native town, Williamston, N. C., some years before the war, while a Presbyterian, and had preached and now, being a Baptist, he had come again and preached. I heard him both times and, after the last sermon, I approached him, and alluded to his former visit. "Alt! then," said he, with deep earnestness and feeling—" Ah ! then I was in darkness on the subject of baptism." More than three-fourths of the professedly Christian world are still in darkness on that important subject. More than three hundred out of four hundred millions have abandoned the original and Divine ordinance of immersion, as instituted by the Lord Jesus Christ, and as practiced by the apostolic church, and have adopted in its stead a feeble human counterfeit. "There can be no question," says Mr. A. P. Stanley, late "Dean of Westminster Abbey," "that the original form of baptism, the very meaning of the word, was complete immersion in the deep baptismal waters, and that for at least four centuries any other form was either unknown or regarded, unless in the case of dangerous illness, as an exceptional, almost a monstrous case." " In the early centuries baptism was an entire submersion in the deep water, a leap as into the rolling sea or the rushing river, where for the moment the waves close over the bather's head, and he emerges again as from a momentary grave. This was the part of the ceremony on which .the Apostles laid so much stress. It seemed to them like a burial of the old former self and the rising up again of the new self. So St. Paul compared it to the Israelites passing through the roaring waves of the Red Sea, and St. Peter to the passing through the deep waters of the flood. Immersion followed, no doubt, the example of the Apostles and of their Master. It has the sanction of the venerable churches of the early ages, and of the sacred countries of the East. Baptism by sprinkling was rejected by the whole ancient church (except in the rare case of death-beds or extreme necessity) as no baptism at all. The change from immersion to sprinkling has set aside the most of the apostolic expressions regarding baptism, and has altered the very meaning of the word." No wonder that, on this and on many other accounts, Chevalier Bunsen should declare that Protestantism, as well as Catholicism, needs, in order to restore primitive Christianity, a "Second Grand Reconstructive Reformation."

The apostolic churches were Baptist Churches, because composed of baptized believers and, even if no intervening links were discoverable, it would be absolutely certain that the churches of the Bible Baptists of the nineteenth century originated from, and are the only spiritual successors of, the apostolic churches. The learned Mosheim said of the Baptists of his day that "their origin was hidden in the remote depths of antiquity." This was quite complimentary to them as coming from a Lutheran historian, of course, but not complimentary enough after all for, although they originated in the remote depths of antiquity, their origin was not hidden at all. It was as apparent and conspicuous as the noonday sun. Did that bright luminary of Heaven cast his brilliant rays in the first century over Asia, Africa and Europe? So was the progress of these Primitive Baptists as clearly seen in Palestine, Egypt, Arabia, Syria, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Mysia, Macedonia, Greece, Italy, and the Islands of the Sea. Nay, 'verily, they were not hidden, but were as a city set on a hill, which could not be hid.

3. The Third Mark of the Apostolic Church was that the members, being baptized believers, came frequently around the Table of the Lord, and commemorated the sufferings and death of their precious Redeemer, by partaking of common bread to represent His body broken, and common wine to represent His blood shed for them. The two practices of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, or Communion, were called ordinances of the church, and were strictly observed. Baptism represented the initiation into the Divine life by an identification with Christ in His death and burial and resurrection, and by the regenerating and cleansing efficacy of the Holy Spirit while Communion represented the continued support of the new internal heavenly life by spiritual food, even the body and blood of the Son of God, thus assimilating the children of God more and more to the perfect image of Christ. Life must not only be begun, but it must be supported with proper food; and the Christian life is both spiritual in its origin and spiritual in its continuance, and all is of God. Only those persons who made a credible profession of faith in Christ were baptized (that is, immersed in the water in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost) by the Apostles and only those persons thus believing and thus baptized were admitted by the Apostles to the ordinance of the Lord's Supper. Life cannot be supported before it is begun. The Apostles, to whom Christ first gave the symbols of His broken body and shed blood, were themselves baptized believers, several of them having been previously disciples of John the Baptist. Christ's commission to His Apostles authorized them first to preach or teach or disciple, then to baptize, then to teach to observe all His commandments, one of these commandments being the ordinance of His Supper. On the day of Pentecost, accordingly, after Peter had preached the gospel, those "gladly receiving " it were baptized and "they continued steadfastly in the Apostles' doctrine and in fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers" (Ac 2:41-42). At Troas only the " disciples " came together to break bread (Ac 20:7). It was not upon the unbaptized or unbelievers, but upon "the church of God" (1Co 1:2), that Paul enjoined the observance of the Lord's Supper (1Co 11:23-34); and he praised the brethren for keep ing the ordinances as he had delivered them to them (1Co 11:2). If " brethren " walked "disorderly," the Apostle commanded the church to "withdraw" from such (2Th 3:6), and "not to eat or commune with a man called a brother, but really a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner" (1Co 5:11). It was plainly implied that the church was to judge of the qualifications or the disqualifications of persons for the sacred ordinance of communion. As it was the Table of the Lord, none but those who were declared by Him to be qualified could be admitted to it. Persons who were unregenerate, therefore, could not be permitted to commune persons who, even if they were regenerate, had not been baptized (that is, immersed in the water in the name of the Father, Son and Spirit) could not be allowed to commune; persons who, even though regenerate and baptized, walked disorderly, could not be permitted to commune. These requirements, laid down by the Divine Head of the Church, plainly exclude from the Lord's Table infants, unrenewed adults, and even Christians, if only sprinkled or poured and not baptized, and even properly baptized Christians, if their conduct is unbecoming the gospel of Christ. In regard to these laws of exclusion, the church has no discretion they were unchangeably instituted by her Divine Master, and are to be faithfully executed by her as long as she has an existence upon the shores of time. In the apostolic church only those who "continued steadfastly in the Apostles' doctrine and in fellowship" communed (Ac 2:42); the cup and the bread were "the communion of the body of Christ "—the many members constituting "one bread and one body" (1Co 10:16-17). The primitive church so heartily fellowshipped and loved one another that they had all things in common (Ac 2:44; Joh 13:34-35; 1Co 13:13; 1Jo 3:14-18)—a blessed union of life and love that will be perfectly realized in glory, when all the dear children of God shall awake satisfied in the likeness of Christ (Ps 17:15; Ro 8:29; Eph 3:19; 1Jo 4:8). For communion and worship the apostolic church at first met "daily" (Ac 2:46), and afterwards weekly, on the first day of the week (Joh 20:19,26; Ac 20:7; 1Co 16:2; Re 1:10). The churches were not told by Christ how often they were to observe this blessed ordinance, but, "as oft as they did it, to do it in remembrance of Him" (1Co 11:25). Thus was the Sacred Supper to be a symbolic and grateful commemoration of our adorable Redeemer, who laid down His precious life for us an impressive personal profession of our living faith in Him and His atonement for us a symbol of church-fellowship and a prophecy of the marriage-supper of the Lamb in Heaven (Mt 26:29; Re 19:9). The Lord's Supper is nowhere in the Scriptures called a " sacrament or seal" of salvation, an effective " means of grace " nor do the Scriptures teach the gross material Catholic doctrine that the bread and wine become the veritable body and blood of Christ (transubstantiation), or the almost equally gross Lutheran doctrine that the real body of Christ is in, with and under the bread and wine (consubstantiation). The verb "to be" sometimes in all languages means " to represent" or " symbolize," as in Ge 41:26-27; Ex 12:11; Eze 37:11; Da 7:24: Mt 13:38-39; Re 1:20; 17:9,12,18. Christ calls Himself " the door" (Joh 10:9), "the good shepherd" (Joh 10:11), "the way, the truth, the life" (Joh 14:6), " the true vine" and Paul calls Christ " that rock" (1Co 10:4). And so, when Christ says, " This is my body—this is my blood," referring to the bread and wine in His Supper, He speaks, not literally, but figuratively, meaning, " this represents my body—this represents my blood." The bread and the wine are the blessed emblems and memorials of our once dying but ever-living and ever-loving Lord, who is now bodily absent from us, and whom we are thus to remember, and show His death till He come (1Co 11:25-26). They are in no sense to be deified and idolized, as in the Catholic pretended sacrifice of the " Mass," which has become a chief element of Romish worship. The monstrous papal doctrine of the " Mass" is not only a contradiction of our senses and reason, but a contradiction of our faith, which assures us that the offering of the body of Christ was made once for all, by that one offering forever perfecting them that are sanctified, and that His glorified humanity is seated at the right hand of the Father upon His mediatorial throne (Heb 10:10-14; 1:3; 7:24-27). The idolatrous doctrine of transubstantiation was first explicitly taught by Paschasius Radbert, A. D. 831, and was first decreed as an article of faith at the instance of Pope Innocent III., by the fourth " Lateran Council," A. D. 1215. This was more than a Millennium too late for it to be a doctrine of the apostolic church. Neither the Apostles nor any of their real spiritual successors or followers could tolerate for a moment the idea of "crucifying the Son of God afresh ".(Heb 6:6); only a man-made, carnal, unbelieving, unfeeling, ambitious, covetous " priesthood " could ever have devised or sanctioned the gross heathenish idolatry of the " Mass," which they pretend to be an efficacious sacrifice for the sins both of the living and the dead, and which they assiduously use for the purpose of replenishing their purses and perpetuating their power over a superstitious people.—The bread used by Christ was "artos" —a pure unleavened wheaten loaf (Ex 12:8-20; Mt 26:17; Ex 29:3); and the wine was "the fruit of the vine," the pure fermented juice of the grape. Unfermented juice of the grape is but a mass of leaven—it is must, and not wine fermentation is the natural clarification of the juice. Paul exhorts the Corinthian church to "keep the feast, not with the old leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth" (1Co 5:8). Paul's expression is figurative and Christ seems to have used unleavened bread because it was at hand during the Passover. It is probable that the disciples. in Ac 2:46; 20:7 used common, that is, leavened bread this, however, is not certain. The Greek Catholics used leavened, and the Roman Catholics unleavened bread, the latter being in the form of small, thin, round wafers, introduced in the eleventh century, and bearing upon them either the figure of Christ or the initials I. H. S. (Iesus Hominum Salvator, Jesus the Savior of Men); the Greek loaf is stamped with the characters ICXCNIKA (Iesous Christos Nika, Jesus Christ Conquers.) These are human devices of an idolatrous character, utterly unknown to the apostolic church. The Greek "Church" gives in a spoon the eucharistic bread and wine sopped together beginning in the twelfth, and fully establishing the innovation in the 'thirteenth century, the Latin " Church " gives the wine to the priests -only, on the pleas that the body (represented by the bread) contains the blood, and that there is danger of spilling the blood if passed from one communicant to another, and that the "church" only sanctioned that which had become a custom, and that the priests being, as they pretend, successors of the Apostles, should drink the wine. But the Apostles, at the Last Supper, represented the whole church and Christ, speaking of the wine, says, " Drink ye all of it" (Mt 26:27) and Mark says "they all drank of it" (Mark 19:23); and, instead of the body containing the blood, the very separation of the two elements, the bread from the wine, the body from the blood, indicates the death of Christ. This withholding of the wine or cup from the " laity " or private members caused the Hussite War in Germany (A. D. 1420-1433). Men thus make the commandments of God void by their traditions.—As infant baptism was introduced in the third century, so was infant communion; and the latter continued in the Latin " Church" till the ninth century, and still continues in the Greek Church" the Pedobaptist Protestant " Churches," though professedly baptizing (but really rhantizing or sprinkling) infants, inconsistently withhold the communion from infants—every argument for or against the one practice is equally valid 'for or against the other there is no reason or Scripture for either. Through the fascinating eloquence of Robert Hall (1764-1831), an Arminian "Baptist" preacher of England, the most of the English churches called Baptists practice open or general communion but the " Strict Baptists " in England practice close communion. In America the Baptists who first settled here suffered so much from the persecutions inflicted upon them by other denominations that they were at first compelled to observe close communion and those adhering to the Scriptures and the apostolic precepts still practice, not a general or open, but a strict close communion.

4. The Fourth Mark of the Apostolic church was the maintenance of strict discipline. Christ was the only perfect being that ever lived on earth in human form. Neither the Apostles nor the apostolic churches attained perfection in the flesh (Php 3:12-14; 1Jo 1:8) but all intelligent students of the Scriptures and of church history admit that the strict precepts of the Apostles were more faithfully observed by the apostolic than they have been by any succeeding churches. The church in the Apostolic Age, especially feeling herself to be the bride of Christ, the temple of the Holy Ghost, earnestly sought to show her love for her Lord by keeping His holy commandments. In that glorious spring-time of love, but little comparatively of the dust of earth seemed to soil her shining garments and but few cases of rigid discipline occurred or were recorded. The infidel historian Gibbon considers "the pure and austere morals of the early Christians" as among the causes of the rapid spread of their religion. To show the great importance of prompt and strict discipline, God Himself directly interposed in the case of the first offense in the apostolic church, and struck both the joint offenders, Ananias and Sapphira, with instant death (Ac 5:1-11). The offense was falsehood, hypocrisy, covetousness—an outward semblance of devoting all to God, and yet a real heart-worship of mammon. Men " cannot serve both God and mammon" (Mt 6:24). "If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him" (1Jo 2:15). This prompt and rigid act of Divine church-discipline caused " great fear to come upon all the church and upon as many as heard these things " (Ac 5:11) and " of the rest durst no man join himself to them" (Ac 5:13). There can be no doubt that, after this, hypocrites were kept out of the church at Jerusalem a considerable time. The second example of church-discipline is mentioned as having occurred at Corinth (1Co 5.). A member of that church was guilty of incest—Corinth being at that time the most licentious city in the world. But the general prevalence of this or any other vice is no sort of justification for its being tolerated and retained in the church a little of the leaven of wickedness soon leavens the whole lump. When Paul, at Ephesus, heard with deep grief of this scandal, he wrote the Corinthian church, and as united in spirit with the church, though bodily absent, he, in the name of Jesus Christ, judged that such an offender should be " delivered unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus "—that is, excluded from the church, given over to Satan, the god of this world, for the infliction of bodily affliction, and for the mortification of the sinner's carnal nature, and for the ultimate repentance and restoration of the offender (1Co 5:13; 2Co 4:4; Job 2:4-7; Lu 13:16; 22:31; 2Co 12:7; 1Pe 5:8; Mt 5:29-30; 1Co 11:30,32; Ro 8:13; 1Pe 4:1-2). The church at Corinth, according to the Apostle's solemn admonition, when they were met together, excluded the offender, and we learn that he afterwards repented and was restored to their fellowship (2Co 2:1-10; 7:8-12). Even the inspired Apostle did not exclude, but he simply called upon the church, which alone had the authority, to exclude or put away that wicked person from among them (1Co 5:13). It is the church, not merely the pastor or Deacons or any other body, to which Christ directs that a trespass shall be finally told (Mt 18:15-20). Christ alone has the key of the house of David—He alone can open and shut (Isa 22:22; Re 1:18; 3:7). When the church acts by His Spirit, its course will be ratified in Heaven. The keys given to His Apostles 'relate, not to church-discipline, the admission and exclusion of members, but to gospel doctrine—not whomsoever, but "whatsoever ye bind," etc. (Mt 16:19; 18:18) the doctrine of the Apostles, and not church-discipline, is alluded to in Joh 20:23 (compare Mr 16:16), for none but God can forgive sins (Ex 34:7; Isa 43:25). In the conference at Jerusalem, the brethren took part with the Apostles and Elders in the deliberation and decision (Ac 15:23). The third recorded case of discipline in the apostolic church is that of Hymeneus and Philetus, doctrinal errorists, who withstood Paul's words and denied the resurrection of the body (2Ti 2:17-18), and who were "delivered unto Satan, that they might learn [be disciplined by chastisement and suffering] not to blaspheme" (1Ti 1:20).—A pervading spirit of genuine brotherly love, springing from genuine love and loyalty to Christ, is the best preventive of offenses in the church. Cherishing this spirit, the members should tenderly watch over one another, and, by mutual Christian encouragement, counsel, admonition and reproof, provoke one another, not to wrath and evil, but to love and good works (Eph 6:13; Heb 10:24; Ps 141:5; Ga 6:1; Col 3:12-14). The affectionate subjection of one to another was a marked feature of the simple, unworldly apostolic church. This mutual loving watch-care should be active; it was while the men or servants slept that the enemy sowed tares (Mt 13:25).—Private or personal offenses are to be adjusted in strict accordance with Christ's directions in Mt 18:15-17. Christ lays down four distinct steps, which are always to be taken in the order given by Him, and not in a reversed order. First : The aggrieved party, if the other does not, is to take the initiative in seeking a private interview with the supposed offender if he fails to do so, he himself becomes an offender, as he has violated a law of Christ. The privacy of the interview is highly important the object is, not altercation, but to gain an offending brother. Perhaps the offended brother is laboring under a mistake the other brother may not have intended to offend him, and may not be conscious of having done so, or he may not have had an opportunity of explaining his conduct. A private interview conducted in a calm brotherly spirit may and should give full mutual satisfaction. If in such interview the offense is denied, and there are no witnesses of the offense, the next step cannot be taken for then the complaining party would become an offender, having published a charge which cannot be proved. Absence of proof will leave him no resource but in private admonition and the patient committal of the matter to Providence. , Second : If the first step fails, and the offense can be proved, then one or two other disinterested and judicious members are to be chosen as witnesses and mediators, and the whole case is to be considered before them. These may be able to discover what is right between the members at variance, and the latter may be willing to yield to their decision. If the "one or two more" consider the offense as not real or as satisfactorily removed, the aggrieved party, though unsatisfied, cannot take the third step for the offender has "heard them," and the accuser ought to be satisfied with the judgment of brethren selected by himself. Third : If the second step fails, the case, after due notification of the parties, is to be laid before the church, the proof adduced, and the opportunity given for defense. Here the united wisdom and influence of the whole church is brought to bear to reconcile the difference and judge between the parties. Fourth: If the party judged by the church to be in fault still refuses to make amends, it is evident that his heart is fully set in him to do evil, and he must be excluded from the church; for his refusal to hear the body proves his contempt for his brethren, and they are therefore compelled to withdraw their fellowship from him. If this important law of the great Head of the church were properly executed, long-continued personal feuds, with their disastrous results, bitterness and factions, would be prevented. Differences between members in regard to worldly affairs are expressly forbidden by the inspired Apostle Paul (1Co 6:1-11) to be carried before worldly courts, but must be referred to the judgment of wise members of the church, the least esteemed of whom, if they have the Spirit of Christ, are better qualified than worldly courts to judge between brethren. Saints are finally to judge the wicked world and angels, and are certainly qualified to judge in small temporal matters. Christians should not contend before the ungodly, and thus bring reproach upon the cause of Christ. Besides, differences among men are often decided in wordly courts, not according to right and equity, but by legal quibbles and technicalities .whereas the children of God should always desire, in reference to their affairs, a judgment according to equity and the Spirit of Christ.—In regard to moral or public offenses against the order, faith and purity of the church, such as neglect of church-obligations, heresy, idolatry, immorality, covetousness, intemperance, railing and extortion (1Co 5:11; Tit 3:10; 2Pe 2.; Heb 10:25), these may be divided into minor and gross public offenses. Minor public offenses, such as a member may be led, under strong and sudden temptation, to commit only once, and such as do not greatly scandalize the cause of Christ, are to be treated according to Paul's directions in Ga 6:1; these erring members are to be restored by the spiritual in the spirit of sympathizing meekness, as all are liable thus to be tempted; in these cases the method of procedure laid down by Christ for personal offenses (Mt 18:15-17) is in spirit to be observed (Tit 3:10). Christian tenderness may here also succeed in gaining a brother. But, in the. case of gross, deliberate, habitual public offenses, or such as greatly scandalize the church, where the evidence is public and unmistakable, there should be, though in a spirit of sorrow and not of bitterness, a prompt and absolute exclusion, as the Apostle divinely enjoined in regard to the Corinthian offender (1Co 5.); any steps taken to bring such an offender to repentance and restoration should be taken afterwards (2Co 2:1-11). A confession and promise of reformation are not enough to be required of this class of offenders. They should, for the honor of Christ, be at once cut off;' and, if they afterwards, by a godly conduct and conversation, bring forth fruits meet for repentance, and prove the genuineness of their sorrow and reformation, then they may be restored (2Co 7:8-12; Mt 3:8; Ac 26:20). The rule in Lu 17:3-4, plainly applies only to personal or private offenses, which do not bring scandal upon the church—not to public or moral offenses which seriously reproach the cause of Christ. The latter are offenses which the church cannot forgive; but, when assured that God has forgiven the offender, she may then receive him back into her membership.—In the apostolic church the Elders or presbyters are sometimes called Bishops or overseers or rulers of the flock, and therefore had the special responsibility of maintaing the discipline of the church (Ac 20:17,28; 1Ti 3:4-5; 5:17; Heb 13:7,17,24). Against an Elder an accusation was not to be received but before two or three witnesses (1Ti 5:19) because his very office is a presumption in his favor, and because, as a minister, he is peculiarly exposed to malice. An Elder, to be efficient, must be " blameless" (1Ti 3:2; Tit 1:6-7). A tender, faithful, scriptural discipline, like that observed by the people of God in the Apostolic Age, is of the highest and most vital importance for the welfare of the church; the neglect of such discipline is the most potent cause of evil in the church. " The object of faithful church-discipline is threefold. First : The glory of God, whose great and holy name is dishonored by the evil principles or evil practices of church members, and whose honor is vindicated by their prompt and proper correction. Second : The preservation of the church from corruption and destruction; the old leaven of wickedness must be purged out, to preserve the whole body from infection; evil communications corrupt good manners; lepers were to be put out of the camp so as not to infect others, and so erroneous persons, whose words eat as a Canker (2Ti 2:17), must be removed from the communion of gospel churches; a church of Christ is like a garden or vineyard, which, if not cared for, will be overrun with thorns and nettles and weeds, but, by a proper and timely discipline, the weeds of immoralities and the bitter roots of false doctrines are plucked up and eradicated, and the withered branches are gathered and cast out. Third: The good of the offending parties, who, if real children of God, are, by proper discipline, brought to shame and repentance for their sins, and an acknowledgment of them, when they are to be received again with all love and tenderness, and to be comforted, that they might not be swallowed up with over-much sorrow,"—John Gill.

5. The Fifth Mark Of the Apostolic Church was the independent or congregational polity or government of each local church, subject only to the Headship of Christ; all the local apostolic churches being united, by no outward bond of force, but by an inward bond of love. The Greek word rendered "church" in the New Testament is "ekklesia," which is derived from the verb ek-kaleo, to call out, and denotes an assembly called out, a select body separated from the mass of the people. In ancient Greece the ekklesia in each State was the assembly of free-born, native, self-governing citizens, the highest legal body in the land, from which there was no appeal; slaves and foreigners were excluded from the ekklesia. In the Septuagint ekklesia is the usual rendering of the Hebrew word kahal, " the congregation" of Israel or of the Lord, from which were excluded the uncircumcised, the unclean and the "mixed multitude." Ekklesia occurs in the New Testament 115 times; twice referring to the Hebrew "congregation of the Lord," three times referring to the Greek assembly, and 110 times referring to the Christian church. In 92 of these last cases the reference is to a special, local, visible society of Christians; in the remaining 18 cases the reference is to the entire body of the elect in Heaven and on earth, or what is sometimes called the invisible church (as in Eph 5:25,29; 3:10,21; Col 1:18,24; Heb 12:23). The word is never used in the New Testament to designate a universal (or Catholic) visible church, a national church (as the Church of Judea or England), or a denominational church (as the church was not divided into different denominations in the Apostolic Age, and as there was not then any great organization, like the Presbyterian Church or the Methodist Church, including in itself a large number of local congregations). A visible church is always in Scripture a local body and every local church, acting by a majority of its members (in 2Co 2:6, " ton pleionon" is, literally, not "many,' but "the more," the majority), is invested by Christ with the exclusive and final power of disciplining and excluding its members, electing its officers, and transacting all other necessary business (Ro 14:1; Mt 18:15-18; 1Co 5:4-5,7,11-13; Ro 16:17; 2Th 3:6; Ac 1:15-26; 6:1-6; 14:23; 1Co 16:3. In this last passage the Greek verb "cheirotoneo," rendered "ordained," means, according to Liddell and Scott, to stretch out the hand for the purpose of giving one's vote in the Athenian ekklesia, to appoint to an office in the church; the same word is used in 2Co 8:19; and, in accordance with the analogy of Ac 6:2-6, the word cheirotoneo in Ac 14:23 is explained by the latest and ablest German scholars to denote the election of the Elders in each church under the supervision of Paul and Barnabas. Especially does the language of Christ in Mt 18:15-18 demonstrate that the church is the highest and last ecclesiastical authority on earth that there can be no appeal, under the law of Christ, from the decision of the church to a presbytery, or synod, or general assembly, or conference, or convention, or priesthood, or prelacy, or papacy, or Association, or any other earthly authority. After a church has excluded one of its members, and classed him with heathens and publicans, it is not only thoroughly unscriptural, but also thoroughly absurd, to suppose that any man or set of men can, by any exercise of authority, put back such an offender in the fellowship of that church. With true repentance, confession and reformation the fellowship will be restored but without these exercises gospel fellowship can never be restored. Each gospel church is a separate and independent republic, having Christ as its only Head and Lawgiver, and not subject, in ecclesiastical matters, to any outside jurisdiction; such, according to the ablest scholars and historians, was not only every apostolic church in the first century, but also of the second century (see the works of Gibbon, Mosheim, Neander, Coleman, Whately, Burton, Barrow, Schaff, etc.). The church is repeatedly declared in the New Testament to be the body of Christ (Ro 12:5; 1Co 6:15; 10:17; 12:27; Eph 1:23; 4:12; 5:23,30; Col 1:18,24; 2:17) the only Head, therefore, of this body, is Christ, who guides and controls and preserves the church as His body. Hierarchies and synods are unscriptural, tyrannous usurpations which have, through the ages, inflicted grievous wrongs upon the people. It is openly and proudly claimed by the advocates of these ecclesiastical monarchies and oligarchies that these systems are the fruit and product of the greatest worldly experience and wisdom; very few scholars, among these advocates, even pretend now to base these systems upon the New Testament. The apostolic church, or the church of the first century, they say, was " a strictly supernatural organization, a stranger in this world, standing with one foot in eternity, and longing for the second coming of her heavenly bridegroom; but afterwards, finding that Christ did not come, she, in her new constitution, planted foot firmly upon earth, yet thus became secularized and finally Romanized, and this necessitated a reformation on the basis of apostolic Christianity." Bible Baptists believe that, not only in the first, but also in every succeeding century, God has had on earth faithful, spiritual, unworldly, un-Romanized apostolic churches, each one of which, in its divinely established individuality and independence, has presented an insurmountable and indestructible breakwater against the countless tides of error, strife and corruption setting in from every quarter; and all of which have been united, by no mechanical, outward, worldly, usurping and oppressive bond of force, but by an inward, heavenly, spiritual, emancipating, purifying and elevating bond of Divine love and peace and fellowship, such as the Lord Jesus Christ, their Ever-Living, Unchangeable and Omnipotent Head, in the last solemn moments of His suffering earthly ministry, tenderly enjoined upon them and earnestly besought His Father to grant them (Joh 13:34-35; 15:12-13; 17:20-23). Born and taught by God, being one body, and having one Spirit, even as they are called in one hope of their calling, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in them all, they, not in word only, but in deed and in truth, love one another, and endeavor to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace (Joh 1:13; 6:45; Eph 4:1-6; 1Th 4:9; 1Jo 2:27; 3:14-18; 4:7-21). They have always corresponded with each other by brotherly letters and messages, and have from time to time met in a general or associational way, not to lord it over God's heritage, but to worship God, and to edify, exhort and confirm one another in the most holy faith once delivered to the saints (Ac 13-15; Php 2:25; Heb 10:23-25; 12:22-29; 1Pe 5:3,5; Jude 3,20). Scriptural Associations are only general meetings of churches, or brethren from different churches, for the purpose of Divine worship and mutual edification; and, while no church should, either in a private or general way, maintain fellowship with a church which persists in heresy or disorder, yet there is not a particle of New Testament or apostolic authority for any such general meeting assuming the functions of an individual church, such as admitting, disciplining or excluding members of a church, or electing or disciplining the officers of a church. It cannot be repeated too often that each gospel church is, according to Christ and His Apostles, the highest ecclesiastical authority on earth. While all gospel churches should always so live as to maintain peace and fellowship with each other, Christ nowhere in the New Testament gives the slightest authority for an organic union or consolidation of gospel churches. Such a union would be a fruitful source of corruption and oppression. The New Testament contains not a single example or intimation of the subordination of a church to any ecclesiastical authority outside of itself, whether popes, or diocesan bishops, or synods, or presbyteries, or general assemblies, or councils, or associations, or conventions. The simple fact that the Apostles address their epistles, not to church officers or church judicatories, but to the churches of the called and faithful saints of God, proves both the right and responsibility of each church in respect to the management of its own affairs. The idea that the government of the apostolic church was presbyterial or by Elders originated from the mistake of supposing that the Christian church was a copy of the Jewish synagogue. Bible scholars admit that neither synagogues nor the government Of synagogues were of Divine institution, but that they began to be built and established after the Babylonian exile—after the close of the Old Testament canon. The only place in the Old Testament where the Authorized Version of the English Bible contains the word "synagogue" is Ps 74:8; and the Hebrew word "moed" is here rendered by Gesenius and the best commentators, "tabernacle of the congregation" or "holy place"—there being no allusion whatever to any organized body of people or any method of government. Christ and His Apostles use not sunagoge, but ekklesia, an essentially differently governed body, to denote a Christian church. Only once in the New Testament is the Greek word "sunagoge" used even to denote the place of a Christian assembly, and then by the most Judaic writer in the New Testament, James (Jas 2:2). The numerous passages already cited which prove that the church, subject only to Christ, was to govern itself, disprove that elders were to govern it. Elders, bishops or pastors are to lead (hegeomai), oversee or preside over (episkopeo, proistemi), care for (epimeleomai), and shepherd (poimaino) the flock (Heb 13:7,17,24; Ac 20:28; 1Ti 5:17; 3:5; Joh 21:15-17; 1Pe 5:2); they are not to exercise the despotic authority of Gentile and Jewish rulers (Mr 10:42-45—archon; compare Lu 8:41; 24:20; Ac 4:26), not to lord it (1Pe 5:3— katakurieuo, exercise complete dominion over) God's heritage. Even Christ Himself came not to be ministered unto, but to minister (diakoneo, to serve : Mr 10:45); and His Apostles are servants of the church for Jesus' sake (2Co 4:5). All His people are made by Him kings and priests unto God (Re 1:5-6; 1Pe 2:5,9); Christ alone is the High Priest of our profession (Heb 3:1; 5:5-6)—He alone is the King of kings (Re 19:16). It would be disloyalty to Christ for any church to alienate from itself and delegate to any other person or set of persons the rights and functions which Christ has committed to her; a gospel church cannot have delegates, but may have messengers. But the sisterly relations of churches involve sisterly obligations. They are all members of the same mystical body of Christ, permeated by the same Divine Spirit, and should be sweetly constrained by the same heavenly love to maintain the same strict faith and order of the gospel, to have tender regards for one another's feelings, and to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace (Eph 4:1-6). In temporal things each church is subject, and should be quietly submissive, to worldly powers (Ro 13:1-7; 1Pe 2:13-25); but in spiritual things each church is subject only to Christ (Mt 23:8-12; 17:5; Joh 13:13-14).

6. The Sixth Mark of the Apostolic Church was religious liberty, soul-freedom, a complete separation of church and state, the entire independence of each church from all state control so far as regarded the membership, ministry, organization, faith, worship and discipline of the church. Jesus declared to Pilate—" My kingdom is not of this world; if my kingdom was of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews" (Joh 18:36). Peter and John answered the Jewish rulers : " Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye" (Ac 4:19). Those made free by the Son of God are free indeed (Joh 8:36), and are to stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made them free (Ga 5:1). Those experiencing the glorious and righteous ministration of the Spirit of God have a Divine liberty from the unscriptural traditions and commandments of men (2Co 3:5-11,17-18; Jas 1:25; Mt 15:3-9). The church is an ekklesia, an assembly of God's people called out from the world. The Jewish theocracy was unique—it was specially instituted and prophetically directed by God for a preliminary, typical and preparatory purpose; and, when that purpose was accomplished more than eighteen centuries ago, the Jewish church-state, in accordance with the original design and by the providence of God, passed forever away, and was perpetually superseded by a superior, personal, internal, spiritual dispensation (Jer 31:31-34; Joh 3:1-8; 4:21-24; 16:7-14; Ac 2; 7; 2Co 3; Gal., Eph. and Heb.). Like the ancient heathen, the modern heathen governments exercise both political and religious powers and the corrupt and ferocious natures of these governments are fitly indicated by the term " beasts," applied to them in the apocalyptic language of Scripture (Da 7:3-27; 8:3-25; Re 13; 17.). In the same manner the alliance of church and state in professedly Christian countries has always been productive of corruption and persecution. Worldly-minded religionists have thus sought to increase their influence, number, wealth, power and patronage. Ever since Constantine, the Roman Emperor, in A. D. 313, established " Christianity " by law, national establishments of religion have existed and still exist in Europe, and such an establishment is "a discrimination among religious beliefs, an assumption of infallibility, and a denial of religious liberty." The Roman Catholic " Church," ever since Pope Theodore I., in A. D. 648, assumed the title of "Sovereign Pontiff, has denounced as a blasphemous heresy the doctrine that the Conscience is free, not to be forced by human legislation; and it is estimated that, in order to enforce conformity to her religious creed and ceremonial, she has murdered fifty millions of human beings, with every imaginable device of diabolical cruelty—thus shedding enough 'martyr blood' to fill a stream ten feet wide, ten feet deep and twenty-five miles long. The Papal Syllabus of Errors, issued by Pope Pius IX., December 8, 1864, in Article 24., still affirms the right of the Romish " Church" to avail herself of force or temporal power, and there can be no earthly doubt that she will use force and repeat the horrors of the Dark Ages whenever she regains the power to do so. In Article 55. of the same Syllabus she declares that church and state ought not to be separated. It is "one of the anomalies of history that Protestants, coming out of the Roman Catholic ' Church and protesting against her tyrannies, should so readily have copied and emulated her repressive measures. All the Reformers adopted the theory and brought it into universal and oppressive practice that the state ought to legislate for the church. The Greek, the Lutheran the Reformed, the Presbyterian, the Congregational, the Episcopalian, and every other church, except the Baptist, organized previous to the eighteenth century, were organized and governed with this as a recognized and enforced principle, that state governments ought to support and regulate the church, and enact and exact penalties against all who disbelieved the state creed or neglected the state ritual. This was the universal teaching of statesmen and clergy and is to this day, though with somewhat modified phases, in every country on the globe except the United States of America,." Doves and lambs and sheep are proverbially inoffensive, and do not make war upon other animal tribes and so the people of God, who are in Scripture represented by these innocent creatures, do not persecute and destroy other people, but have always, since the ascension of Christ, been zealous advocates of religious liberty. This fact is plainly seen in the history, especially of the Donatists, the Waldenses, and the Baptists. "The first published confession of faith asserting the right of all men to religious liberty was published by English Baptists in A. D. 1611; and in all Baptist documents since there has been no contradictory utterance." Baptists have always advocated, not simply religious toleration, but religious freedom, and that too, not simply for themselves, but for all men. This is one of their fundamental and unchangeable principles, and has begun to be more or less recognized everywhere during the last hundred years, although previously denounced by statesmen as rebellion, and by theologians as abominable heresy. Bancroft, the historian of the United States, declares that the first instance, in the history of the world, of the establishment of a civil government whose corner-stone was absolute soul-liberty was the little Baptist colony of Rhode Island founded in A. D. 1636 by the Welsh Baptist, Roger Williams, who, flying from religious persecution in Massachusetts, bad adieu to wife and loved ones at home, and, in the middle of January, the coldest month of a New England winter, betook himself to the wilderness, inhabited by wild beasts and savages, and was for fourteen weeks, he says, "sorely tossed, not knowing what bread or bed did mean." The Baptists had opportunity to secure state patronage for themselves in Rhode Island in 1636, in Holland in 1819, and in Virginia and Georgia in 1785; but they emphatically refused to do so because they believed and maintained the great Apostolic principle that Christ's kingdom is a spiritual and not a worldly one, and that the alliance of church and state is destructive to religious purity and liberty. By the influence of the Baptists, the first Amendment to the Constitution of the United States was adopted in 1789, forbidding Congress to make any law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. Even the very idea of the local independence of the state governments is believed to have been derived by Thomas Jefferson from a small Baptist church whose monthly meetings he attended for several months in succession about ten years before the American Revolution; Mr. Jefferson declared that their form of church government was the only form of true democracy then existing in the world. The Roman Catholic nobleman, Lord Baltimore, under whom Maryland was settled in 1633, was obliged, in consequence of the Protestant form of the English government, to tolerate Protestants in his colony but the toleration was partial and poor—anti-Trinitarians, including Jews, Arians and Unitarians, were condemned to death, and respect for the Virgin Mary was encouraged by fines and whippings, confiscation and exile. The Episcopalian state glebe lands of Virginia were not ordered to be sold until 1802; and offensive religious discriminations were not removed from the laws of the Congregational State of Massachusetts until 1834; the Baptists and Quakers suffered dreadful persecutions from the established "churches" of these two states in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. President Washington declared that "the Baptists had been, throughout America, uniformly the firm friends to civil liberty;" just as Mr. Locke had said that "the Baptists were from the first the friends of just and true, equal and impartial liberty;" and as Sir Isaac Newton had said that "the Baptists were the only denomination of Christians that never symbolized (held the same faith with) Roman Catholics." "In the code of laws established by the Baptists in Rhode Island," says Judge Story, " we read for the first time since Christianity ascended the throne of the Caesars, the declaration that conscience should be free, and that men should not be punished for worshiping God in the way they were persuaded He requires." In all the States and Territories of the United States there is now an entire separation of church and state, accompanied by universal liberty of conscience. This is a peculiar and inestimable boon which we at present enjoy, and for which we should be devoutly thankful to the merciful providence of God. The time will come, no doubt, when the blessed privilege will be denied even to the people of this now free country (Da 7:25; 2Th 2:1-12; Re 11:7-13; 13:11-18). The apostolic Churches did not persecute human beings on any account, much less for their religion and the true successors of those churches have never engaged in persecution.

7. The Seventh Mark of the Apostolic Church was that, although there were a few exceptions, the members were generally poor, obscure, unlearned, 'afflicted, despised, and persecuted. John the Baptist, although the greatest among those born of women, and filled with the Spirit from before his birth, dwelt in the wilderness of Judea, was clothed with camel's hair and a leathern girdle, like the ancient prophets, and ate locusts and wild honey; and he was finally imprisoned and beheaded. The Lord Jesus Christ, though the creator, upholder, and possessor of all things, yet, as the Son of man, was poorer than the foxes and birds, and had not where to lay His head; He lived nearly all His earthly life obscurely in an obscure province of the Roman Empire; He was unlearned in the wisdom of the schools He was a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief, despised and rejected of men, smitten of God, forsaken by nearly all his followers, and put to a shameful and agonizing death on a Roman cross by the malice of His own Jewish countrymen. He told His Apostles that He sent them forth as sheep among wolves; that, as the world had hated and persecuted Him, so it would hate and persecute them; that the time was coming that whosoever should kill them would think that he was doing God service. And it is generally believed that all the Apostles, except John, were put to death. The most of them were illiterate fishermen, and no one except Paul was furnished with much human learning. To the poor cripple at the gate of the temple Peter said, " Silver and gold have I none." Paul worked with his own hands for his necessities. James says, " Hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which He hath promised to them that love Him?" Paul says to the church in the wealthy city of Corinth : " Ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble (are called) but God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty, and base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, and things which are not, to bring to naught things that are, that no flesh should glory in His presence." The epistle to the Hebrews inspiringly rehearses the unworldly lives of the ancient heroes of the faith. Abel was, for his religion, slain by his own brother. Enoch walked with God, prophesied against an ungodly world, and passed to glory without dying. Noah preached righteousness in the midst of his corrupt generation, and he believed and feared God, and prepared an ark to the saving of his house. The patriarchs sojourned in tabernacles as strangers and pilgrims on the earth, and desired a better, even a heavenly country. Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season, esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt, having respect unto the recompense of the reward. " Others," adds the inspired penman, "were tortured, not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection; and others had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover, of bonds and imprisonment; they were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword; they wandered about in sheepskins, and goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, tormented; of whom the world was not worthy; they wandered in deserts and mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth." This is the truthful picture of God's people during the most of the eighteen centuries since the Apostolic Age. Those living godly, with supreme reference to God, are hated by the world, and suffer persecution; like the prophets and apostles before them, they experience tribulation in the world, but peace in Christ, and they at last come out of great tribulation, and ascend in blood-washed robes to the Paradise of God (2Ti 3:12; Mt 5:10-12; Joh 16:33; Re 7:13-17). They have been persecuted in manifold ways and slain, in all lands, by Pagans, Papists, and Protestants. Comparatively few, and afflicted, and poor, and despised, they have trusted, not in man, but in the Lord, and, as represented by the sun-clothed woman in Revelation, when persecuted by the dragon, they have fled into the wilderness, prepared by God for them, and God's hidden ones have there been nourished by the Most High (De 7:7; Mt 7:14; Zep 3:12; Ps 34:19; Isa 48:10; 54:11; 2Co 4:8-9,17-18; 6:9-10; Heb 10:32-34; Jer 17:5-8; Php 3:3-4; Re 12; Ps 83:3; 1Ki 17; Heb 13:5-6). When put to death, they have prayed for their murderers (Mt 5:44-48; Lu 23:34; Ac 7:60) when driven by persecution to other countries, they have gone preaching the word to people prepared of the Lord to hear it (Mt 10:23; Ac 8; 13:44-52; 14; 16-28.). Among the persecuted people of God have been the Novatians, Donatists, Cathari, Paterines, Paulicians, Petrobrusians, Henricians, Arnoldists, Albigenses, Waldenses, Lollards, Mennonites and Baptists, nearly all of whom were occasionally designated Anabaptists or Re-Baptizers by their enemies, because they disregarded infant or unregenerate baptism, and baptized all adults, whether previously baptized or not, who, upon a credible profession of faith, applied to them for membership in their churches—thus insisting upon a spiritual or regenerated church-membership, the First and the Most Important Mark of the Apostolic Church. The "wilderness" (eremos, desolate, lonely, solitary region) into which the people of God have often fled has been found in the wild forests and mountains of Asia, Europe and America, especially the mountainous districts of the Alps, the Pyrenees, and Wales. Like Lazarus, in the parable of Christ, they have had evil things in this world, but comfort in the eternal world (Lu 16:25). As the poet has truly said:

"The path of sorrow, and that path alone,
Leads to the land where sorrow is unknown."

And again:—

"Trials make the promise sweet,
Trials give new life to prayer,
Trials bring us to Christ's feet,
Lay us low, and keep us there."

8. The Eighth Mark of the Apostolic Church was the fraternal equality, the essential priesthood, of all the members, in accordance with which fact they chose to office among them those of their number whom they perceived to be already qualified thereunto by the Spirit of God—there being but two classes of officers, Bishops, or Elders, or Pastors, and Deacons; the fraternal equality of all the members involving the fraternal equality of the ministry. All the members were received upon a credible profession of their being children of God, heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, born of the same Divine Spirit, branches of the same heavenly vine, members of the same mystical body, made by Christ kings and priests unto God, a royal priesthood, a chosen generation, a holy nation, a peculiar people, living stones built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. Their right to choose their own officers has been shown under the Fifth Mark. The only classes of distinct and permanent officers in the churches were Bishops and Deacons (Php 1:1; 1Ti 3:1-13). The Apostles were extraordinary foundation officers (Mt 16:18; 1Co 3:10-11; Eph 2:20; Re 21:14), princes sitting upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Isa 32:1; Mt 19:28). The qualifications of an Apostle were a special commission from Christ in person (Mt 10:5; Ga 1:1) an actual sight of Him in the body after His resurrection (Ac 1:22-23; 1Co 9:1) the power to work miracles, and confer ability upon others to work miracles (Mt 10:8; Ac 8:14-17; 19:6) and the authority to teach with inspired infallibility (Mt 16:19; 19:28; Joh 16:13; 20:23). In their carefully preserved writings they are their own successors and both Scripture and reason inform us that others, who "say they are Apostles, are liars" (Re 2:2). Modern scholarship has thoroughly demonstrated to every candid mind the utter baselessness of all claims, whether papal or episcopal, scriptural or historical, to authoritative succession from the Apostles. These claims are founded upon deplorable perversions of Scripture and forgeries of history. Every spiritual, nay, every intelligent and unprejudiced mind, will be entirely convinced of the unscripturalness of such claims by a simple reference to the Scriptures adduced to sustain them (Mt 16:18-19; Lu 22:32; Joh 21:15-17; 20:21; Mt 28:18-20; Ro 10:15; 2Co 5:20; 2Ti 1:13-14; 2:2; Tit 1:5; 2Jo 9-10; Jude 3; Re 1:20), especially after learning that nothing in this world is more certain, as admitted by all scholars of to-day, than that the terms " Bishop " and " Presbyter " or " Elder " and "Pastor" are in the New Testament perfectly interchangeable or synonymous, designating but one class of church officers, the ministry of the word, without the slightest difference of order or rank; and that even the Apostles called themselves "Elders" (Ac 20:17,28; Php 1:1; 1Ti 3:1-13; 5:17-19; Tit 1:5-7; 1Pe 5:1-3; 2Jo 1; 3Jo 1; 2Ti 1:6 compared with 1Ti 4:14). Liddell and Scott, in the seventh edition of their Greek-English Lexicon, the very latest and the very highest, nay, the only, authority on Greek-English lexicography, define "presbuteros, an Elder of the Jewish Council, an Elder of the church, presbyter" and they add, " Even the Apostles call themselves by this name." They define " episcopos" (of which the English word " Bishop " is a corruption), "one who watches over, an overseer, guardian, an ecclesiastical superintendent, in the apostolic age equal to presbuteros, but from Ignatius downward, a Bishop." This absolutely settles the question in the mind of every scholar, no matter how much ignorance and bigotry and arrogance may rave; there is not a particle of apostolic authority for distinguishing the Bishop from the Elder, much less for elevating the Bishop over the Elder, and still less for elevating one Bishop, as the Bishop of Rome or Constantinople, over all other Bishops to the blasphemous position, distinctly predicted and denounced by Paul, of the sole and supreme and infallible vicegerency of God on earth (2Th 2:3-4). The history of the ecclesiastical hierarchy has well been called " the history of a triple abdication : first, the community of believers committed their power to the presbyters then the corps of presbyters abdicated to the Bishop; and last, the Bishop to the Pope (in the Vatican Council, A. D. 1870)"—Renan, as quoted approvingly by P. Schaff in the latter's History of Apostolic Christianity. "This subject," adds Mr. Schaff, "may be regarded as finally settled among scholars." " The episcopate," says " Bishop" Lightfoot, one of the ripest Episcopalian scholars of England, "was formed, not out of the apostolic order by localization, but out of the presbyteral by elevation; and the title (Bishop), which originally was common to all, came at length to be appropriated to the chief among them.". Clemens Romanus, or Clement of Rome, supposed to be referred to in Php 4:3, and to have lived from A. D. 30 to 100, and claimed by the Roman Catholics as one of their popes, is the only uninspired Christian writer of the first century whose undisputed writings have come down to us. He wrote a letter for the church at Rome to the church at Corinth, and urges the Corinthian brethren to peace, humility and love. He uses the terms Bishop and Elder as perfectly synonymous. The next so-called "Apostolic Father" is Ignatius, of Antioch, the dates of whose death range from A. D. 107 to 116. The latest scholarship admits only three of the epistles attributed to him to be genuine, those to Polycarp, to the Ephesians and to the Romans. He addresses Polycarp, not as a diocesan, but as a congregational Bishop, as Bishop of the church at Smyrna; he exhorts the Ephesians to humility, meekness and mildness; and he tells the Romans that he does not command them like Peter and Paul, for they were Apostles, but he is a condemned convict, a slave. And so in the other writers of the second century the Bishop is simply the presiding officer among the presbyters of a church, the first among equals, the pastor of a single congregation. Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage A. D. 248-258, was the father of diocesan episcopacy and of Romanism. He represented " the Bishops ae the successors of the Apostles, the chair of Peter as the centre of episcopal unity, and the church at Rome the root of all (radix et matrix ecclesiae Catholicae, root and mother of the Catholic Church, Epistle 45)." But Cyprian conceded only an ideal precedence to the Bishop of Rome, for he accused the Roman Bishop Stephen of error and abuse of power. The first " (Ecumenical council" of Nice (A. D. 325) conferred on the Bishop of Rome no more authority than on the Bishops of Antioch and Alexandria. The canons of the Nicene council were forged at Rome in the interest of the papacy, and this forgery was condemned by the council of Chalcedon A. D. 451. The first pope, in the real sense of the word, was Leo I. (A. D. 440-461), who ambitiously and energetically sought to transform the " church "into an ecclesiastical monarchy, with himself at the head and yet the twenty-eighth canon of the council of Chalcedon (A. D. 451), acknowledged by Rome to be (Ecumenical, elevated the Bishop of Constantinople to official equality with the pope. The vast forgery of the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals was made in the ninth century, and pretended that the popes from Clement I. (A. D. 91) to Damasus I. (A. D. 384) ruled over a church in which the clergy were disconnected with the State, and unconditionally subordinate to the pope. These documents, now admitted by even Roman Catholics to be fraudulent, were used by the popes and papal writers with great effect for six hundred years to establish and increase the power of the popes over the bishops. The first half of the ninth century is known as the period of the " pornocracy," during which the papal chair was filled by a succession of the most licentious reprobates. Hildebrand, or Gregory VII., who was pope A. D. 1073-1080, claimed to be lord over all the nations of the world, and to have the right to depose princes and absolve subjects from the oath of loyalty. Boniface VIII. (1294-1303) issued in 1302 the famous bull " Unam sanctam," which declared that "for every human creature it is a condition of salvation to submit to the Roman Pontiff." At the close of the fifteenth century Innocent VIII. and Alexander VI. once more reached the deepest abyss of depravity. The council of Trent (A. D. 1545-1563) and the Society of Jesuits have made the popes the absolute masters of the Catholic hierarchy and "church," as shown by the pontificate of Pius ix. (1846-1878), who in 1854 decreed the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, or sinlessness, of the Virgin Mary and, in 1864, by his Syllabus of Errors, sweepingly condemned all the principles of religious liberty and of modern civilization; and who was declared by the Vatican council, in 1870, to be infallible in all his official definitions of faith and morals. Thus "the worship of a woman is virtually substituted for the worship of Christ, and a man-god in Rome for the God-Man in Heaven." Heathen idolatry is no worse in principle. Such is the consistent development of what is known in the Protestant and Baptist churches as " the masterpiece of Satan," which is based upon the glaring falsehoods that Christ set Peter over the other Apostles, that He made Peter His sole authoritative representative on earth, that Peter was Bishop of Rome, and that his pretended vicegerency was to be perpetuated in the succession of Roman Bishops. All pretended Protestant apostolic successions are derived entirely from Rome; and yet Rome excommunicates and anathematizes all persons who are outside of her communion. The contradictions of Catholic historians in regard to the succession of the pretended popes of the first century are irreconcilable; the latest and highest criticism acknowledges that an impenetrable cloud hangs over the history of the church during the last thirty years of the first century. Thus has Divine Providence purposely and forever destroyed all possibility of proving the thoroughly unscriptural and carnalizing theory of a material, mechanical succession from the Apostles—a theory which, in its ultimate horrible development by Rome, consigns to everlasting torments all human beings who are outside the pale of such succession. Says the able and learned Presbyterian church-historian, Prof. P. Schaff: " The most learned English divines before the period of the Restoration (1660), such as Cranmer, Jewel, Hooker, Field, Ussher, Hall and Stillingfleet, did not hold the doctrine of the Divine and exclusive right of episcopacy, and they fully recognized the validity of presbyterian ordination. Cranmer's three successors in the primacy (Parker, Grindal and Whitgift), like him, did not question the ordination of the Lutherans and Calvinists. Queen Victoria, when in Scotland, takes the communion from the hands of a Presbyterian parson. Archbishop Ussher, the greatest English divine of his age, who in eighteen years had mastered the whole mass of patristic literature, defended the episcopacy only as a presidency of one presbyter over his peers, and declared that when abroad he would take the holy communion from a Dutch Reformed or French minister as readily as from an Episcopalian clergyman at home. The exclusive High-Church doctrine was first intimated by Bishop Bancroft, of London (in a sermon, 1589), then taught and rigidly enforced by Archbishop Laud (1633-1645), the most un-Protestant of English prelates, who made such a near approach to Rome that he was offered a cardinal's hat, and this doctrine was apparently sanctioned in 1662 by the cruel Act of Uniformity. Since the Synod of Dort (1619) Arminian and High-Church principles have spread rapidly in the Church of England. The AngloCatholicism of the nineteenth century is simply a revival of Laud's system, which un-churched all non-Episcopal churches, and regarded the Anglican church as an independent sister of the Latin and Greek communions. It is a contradiction of the standards of the body, the consensus of its fathers down to Hooker, and an utter misstatement of the historic position of the Church of England." Macaulay says that in 1688 "the Low and High-Church parties, among the laity, were not unevenly balanced, but that the average of intellect and knowledge was higher among the Low-Church clergymen than among their order generally; that, though only one-tenth of the priesthood, there were among them as many men of distinguished eloquence and learning as could be found in the other nine-tenths." Macaulay is the greatest English historian of the nineteenth century and, though himself an Episcopalian, he declares, in regard to the possession of the apostolic succession by the Church of England, that it is utterly incapable of proof, that the transmission of ministerial orders is for 1,500 years (before the Reformation) "buried in utter darkness." It has been well remarked that "the only apostolical succession that is worth anything is the succession of apostolical truth, of the gospel, as apostolical men proclaimed it." Instead of foolishly devoting our attention to "fables and endless unedifying genealogies" (1Ti 1:4; Tit 3:9), we do well to leave these vanities to those who have nothing better, and to obey the direction of Christ to go at once to the Scriptures of Divine truth to inquire concerning the will of God and the way of salvation (Joh 5:39).—The priestly or sacerdotal idea of the ministry, with the power of mediating between God and man, of offering sacrifice to God (in the "mass"), and of pronouncing absolution from sin, is not found in any ecclesiastical writer until the third century, and is altogether inconsistent with the sole mediatorship and eternal priesthood of Christ, and the power of God alone to forgive sins (1Ti 2:5; Heb 8:1-6; 7:15-28; Ex 34:7; Isa 43:25; Mt 6:12; Ac 5:31). The Apostles themselves never claimed these high Divine powers which their pretended successors ambitiously and covetously claim. On the other hand, they were clothed, like their Divine Master, with humility; " they always paid tender regard to the rights, feelings and freedom of all the saints; they recognized in every believer, even in a poor slave like Onesimus, a member of the same body with themselves, a partaker of their redemption, a beloved brother in Christ; they labored for the spiritual interests of the churches with meekness and love and self-denial; Peter humbly calls himself a fellow-presbyter, and raises his prophetic warning against the hierarchical spirit which so easily takes hold of church officers and alienates them from the people (1Pe 5:1-3)." In the last-named verse the Greek word rendered "heritage" is kleros, from which is derived the English word clergy (compare the Septuagint in Nu 18:20 and De 18:2); so that we have inspired authority for calling all God's people " the clergy," instead of limiting this title to a few proud lords.—The ordination of Elders and Deacons was the solemn setting apart, by the church through its Elders, of those members already called and qualified by God for those offices (Ac 6:1-6; 13:1-3; 1Ti 4:14; 2Ti 1:6; Heb 5:4) it was accompanied with prayer and the laying on of the hands of the presbytery or Elders, and sometimes with fasting. Instead of the Spirit being communicated by the hands of the presbytery, the person ordained already had the Spirit, or was called by the Spirit before ordination, or else he was not qualified for the ceremony (Nu 27:18,23; Ac 6:3,5-6; 13:2-3; 2Ti 1:5-7 compared with Ga 5:22; Heb 5:4). The miracle-working powers of the Holy Ghost were sometimes conferred on private members at the same time with the laying on of the hands of the Apostles (Ac 8:17-18; 19:6) but this was essentially different from ministerial ordination. There are six different Greek words used in connection with a sacred office, and translated "ordain" in the English New Testament (poieo in Mr 3:14; ginomai in Ac 1:22; cheirotoneo in Ac 14:23; orizo in Ac 17:31; tithemi in 1Ti 2:7; and kathistemi in Tit 1:5) only the last two of them, tithemi and kathistemi, are defined "ordain" by Liddell and Scott, and the word "command" is given, under the same head, as the equivalent meaning of tithemi; kathistemi is rendered "appoint" in the New Version in Tit 1:5, and so is poieo correctly rendered in Mr 3:14, as we have no record of Jesus putting His hands on His Apostles to ordain them; nor can we suppose that, in Ac 17:31, Paul meant that God put His hands on Christ to ordain Him to the Judgeship of the world. The imposition of hands upon Deacons and Elders was but the solemn and expressive symbol of the designation of them to their sacred offices.—As for ordination to the office of Bishop in distinction from that of Elder, and allowing only such ordained Bishops to ordain, and having such ordained Bishops lay their hands (for confirmation) upon every baptized believer, there is absolutely no New Testament proof of any of these things; they are all the inventions and traditions of men, practiced from the third century by Catholic and similar communions.—" Elder" is a Jewish term applied to the ministry of the word, and denotes the gravity or dignity or wisdom of the office, and was especially used in the Jewish churches; " Bishop" is a Greek term applied to the same persons, and means overseer, and was especially used in the Greek churches; these officers are also called pastors or shepherds, as those who are to guide, feed and care for the flock. The scriptural obligations of the ministry. of the word are to be ensamples or patterns to the church by their godly walk and conversation, to preach the gospel, to watch over the members, to preach, exhort, admonish, reprove and rebuke as needed, to preside in the meetings of the church and see that all things are done decently and in order, and to administer the ordinances within the church (1Pe 5:1-3; Tit 2:7; Ac 20:28; 1Ti 4:16; Mt 28:19-20; Mr 16:15-16; 2Ti 4:2; 1Ti 5:17; Heb 13:7,17,24; 1Co 14:40). The qualifications of the ministry are given in 1Ti 3:1-7; Tit 1:6-9. Instead of one Bishop presiding over several churches, there was, it would seem, a plurality of Elders or Bishops in each of the apostolic churches, as at Jerusalem, at Ephesus, at Philippi, and at the ordination of Timothy (Ac 11:30; 14:23; 15:2,4,6,23; 16:4; 20:17,28; 21:18; Php 1:1; 1Ti 4:14; Jas 5:14); but the distinction between teaching Elders and ruling Elders, observed by Presbyterian and by some Congregational and some Baptist Churches, cannot be proved by the New Testament or from church antiquity; it was invented by Calvin, not in the first or second, but in the third edition of his Institutes (A. D. 1543). Very few Congregational or Baptist Churches now retain the distinction; and many of the ablest Presbyterian writers have abandoned the scriptural defense of it. Only three New Testament texts have been adduced in proof of this distinction (Ro 12:6-8; 1Co 12:28; 1Ti 5:17—the chief stress has been laid upon this last text). If in Ro 12:6-8, ruling marks a distinct office, then there must be six distinct offices in the church, and prophecy, ministry, teaching and exhortation are all distinct offices, and giving and chewing mercy are offices and distinct offices in the church. So, in 1Co 12:28, if " governments" form a distinct office, there must be eight distinct offices in the church. These two texts, therefore, prove nothing in regard to the distinction between teaching and ruling Elders. Now let us examine 1Ti 5:17. If, as has been proved, the terms Bishop and Elder are, in the New Testament, everywhere synonymous, and an essential qualification of a Bishop is "aptness to teach'' (1Ti 3:2; Tit 1:9), all the Elders alluded to in 1Ti 5:17 are teaching Elders, and the distinction there drawn is not an official but a personal one—a distinction of service and not of rank; "the antithesis is not that of teaching and non-teaching Elders, but that of those who rule well and teach zealously, and those who both rule and teach, indeed, but without any particular earnestness." If the term Elder here does not mean a Bishop or preaching Elder, it is the only passage in the New Testament in which the.term Elder has a different meaning. " If the Apostles instituted the distinct office of ruling Elder, they have nowhere prescribed its qualifications. The words translated double honor' mean here, as shown by the next verse, not merely high esteem, but ample temporal maintenance; so that, if this passage does establish the office of ruling Elder, it enjoins that they who hold it shall receive ample pecuniary support; but the New Testament nowhere else enjoins pecuniary support for any church officers except those who preach the gospel. The word malista, translated ',especially,' does not mark distinct classes of persons, but introduces a specification of particular persons belonging to the same general class" (as in Ac 25:26; Ga 6:10; Php 4:22; 1Ti 4:10; 5:8; 2Ti 4:13; Tit 1:10; 2Pe 2:10). The verb kopiao, here rendered "labor," is defined by Liddell and Scott, for this very passage,, "work hard, toil." Thus "the Apostle enjoins that the Elders that rule well must be counted worthy of ample maintenance, especially those of them who laboriously devote themselves to preaching." A sermon on "The Eldership," preached at Lexington, Va., April 4th, 1855, by James B. Ramsey, and still approvingly issued by the " Presbyterian Publishing Company," declares that " in all cases the preaching and ruling Elders are classed together and treated as one body of rulers," and that " ruling Elders are also Bishops, Pastors, leaders, and watchers for souls," and are " entitled to a degree, at least, of maintenance from the church, in proportion as they devote to it their time and energies." The office was unknown in the "church" until the sixteenth century. It is plain, from Heb 13:7, that in the apostolic church ruling Elders were also preaching Elders.—Besides Elders or Bishops, Deacons were elected to office in the apostolic churches (Ac 6:1-6; Php 1:1). Their qualifications are laid down in Ac 6:3; 1Ti 3:8-13. Their duties were to - attend especially to the temporal interests of the church, to serve tables —the table of the Lord, of the pastor or minister, and of the poor (Ac 6:2; 1Co 10:21; 9:9-14; Ga 2:10). Deacons are not, like Bishops, required to be " apt to teach;" but, as they were to be " full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom," and to serve the Lord's table, and the sacred feast was not to be eaten with the disorderly (1Co 5:7-11), and the "wise" brethren were to "judge" between brethren at variance (1Co 6:1-5), and the Deacon, like the Bishop, must "rule his own house well" (1Ti 3:4-12), it would seem that Deacons ought to exercise a special regard for the order and peace and spiritual health of the church. In this manner they can be valuable "helps" to the pastors (1Co 12:28). Philip was not only a Deacon, but an "evangelist" (Ac 21:8), a traveling preacher of the gospel, like Timothy, and probably like Titus; Luke, Mark, Silas and Apollos (Ac 8:4-40; 2Ti 4:5; Tit 1:5; 2Co 8:18-19; Ac 20:6; 2Ti 4:11; Ac 15:40; 18:24) more a founder or  planter, than a pastor or waterer, of churches (1Co 3:6)—rather the doer of a temporary work than the occupant of a settled office (2Ti 4:5). The term evangelist, as "an inspired writer of one of the four Gospels," was not used in the Apostolic Age, but this was a later Custom. The offices of " Arch-Deacon " and " Sub-Deacon " are unscriptural, and were invented in the third century; the title and office of "Arch-Bishop" were invented in the fourth century.. As for Deacons being a lower order of priests or of the ministry of the word, as in the Catholic and some Protestant communions, there is no scriptural authority for this or any other instance of hierarchy in the church of God, where all are brethren; the New Testament writers are especially careful never to use the Greek verb archo, implying despotic rule, to the officers of the Christian church, but they uniformly apply this term to the rulers of the Jews and of the heathens. " It is certain;" says Mr. Stanley, "that in no instance before the beginning of the third century was the title or function of the Pagan or Jewish priesthood applied to the Christian pastors."

9. The Ninth Mark of the Apostolic Church was the possession of a humble, God-called and God-qualified ministry. The qualifications laid down in the New Testament for a gospel minister are that he must be a regenerated, Christ-loving, God-called and God-qualified man—kind, gentle, humble, quiet, firm, virtuous, upright, just, sober, temperate, unselfish, not Covetous, well-proved, exemplary, of good repute, sound in doctrine, able and apt to teach, and divinely impressed with the work of the' ministry, not for ambitious or sordid ends, but for the good of men and the glory of God (Ga 1.; Eph 3.; iv. 8-16; Joh 21:15-17; 16:13-15; Mt 10:1-6; Ro 5:5; 2Co 3:5-6; 1Ti 3:1-7; 4:12-16; Tit 1:6-9; Ac 20:28; 1Pe 5:1-4; 1Co 9:16).

"The human heart," says Mr. Schaff; " craves not a learned, letter-writing, literary Christ, but a wonder-working, cross-bearing, atoning Redeemer, risen, enthroned in Heaven, and ruling the world; furnishing, at the same time, to men and angels an unending theme for meditation, discourse and praise. So, too, the Lord chose none of His Apostles, with the single exception of Paul, from the ranks of the learned; He did not train them to literary authorship, nor give them, throughout His earthly life, a single express command to labor in that way. Plain fishermen of Galilee, unskilled in the wisdom of this world, but filled with the Holy Spirit of truth and the powers of the world to come, were commissioned to preach the glad tidings of salvation to all nations in the strength and in the name of their glorified Master, who sits on the right hand of God the Father Almighty, and has promised to be with them to the end of time." " Christ Himself grew up quietly and unnoticed in a retired Galilean mountain village of proverbial insignificance, and in a lowly carpenter shop, far away from the city of Jerusalem, from schools and libraries. He was independent of human learning and literature, of schools and parties (Joh 7:15). He taught the world as one who owed nothing to the world. He came down from Heaven and spoke out of the fullness of His personal intercourse with the great Jehovah. He was no scholar, no artist, no orator; yet He was wiser than all sages, He spake as never man spake, and made an impression on His age and all ages after Him such as no man ever made or can make." His leading or representative Apostles were Peter, John and Paul. Peter and John were "unlearned and ignorant men " (Ac 4:13); the first adjective here, agrammatos, means, say Liddell and Scott, "without learning, unlettered, illiterate;" the second. adjective, idiotes, means "a private or common person, an unprofessional man or layman, an unskilled, ignorant, ill-informed man." Meyer, the ablest modern exegete, says that the two terms mean substantially the same thing—"the double designation being intended to express the idea very fully, destitute of all rabbinic culture, strangers to theological learning." The Apostles," says Albert Barnes, " had neither wealth, armies nor allies. With the exception of Paul, they were men without learning. They were taught only by the Holy Ghost; armed only with the power of God; victorious only because He was their captain; and the world acknowledged the presence of the messengers of the Highest, and the power of the Christian religion. Its success never has been and never can be accounted for by any other supposition than that God attended it." " God chose the foolish things of the world to confound the wise," declares the Apostle Paul; " and God chose the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty; and base things of the world, and things which are despised, and things which are not, to bring to naught things which are, that no flesh should glory in His presence" (1Co 1:27-29). And the same inspired Apostle declares also that he himself did not receive the gospel which he preached from man, neither was he taught it but by direct revelation from Jesus Christ; and that after this revelation of God's Son in him, he did not confer with flesh and blood, nor go up to Jerusalem to those who were Apostles before him (Ga 1.) and, accordingly, he declares that, when he came even to the learned Greek city of Corinth, he came not with excellency of speech or wisdom, declaring the testimony of God, for he determined to know nothing among them save Jesus Christ and Him crucified; that he was with them in weakness and in fear and in much trembling, and his speech and preaching were not with enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, that their faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God (1Co 2:1-5). His sufficiency was of God, who made him an able minister of the New Testament, not of the letter, but of the Spirit, for the letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life (2Co 3:5-6). Not his Greek learning which he ac- quired in his native city of Tarsus, nor his rabbinic or theological learning which he acquired at the feet of Gamaliel in Jerusalem, enabled Paul to preach the gospel of the Son of God, but only that Divine power with which he was endowed from on high, and which he, with all his natural and theological learning, needed just as much as the ignorant Peter and John, in order to preach the unsearchable riches of Christ (Ac 1; 2; 9; 10). Nay, all his natural, fleshly advantages, Paul counted but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus his Lord, in whom He desired to be found, divested of his own imperfect legal righteousness, that he might know Christ and the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings, being made conformable unto His death, if by any means he might attain unto the resurrection of the dead (Php 3:3-11.)

After these plain, unmistakable statements of the New Testament, what shall we say of the ancient and modern unscriptural, proud, Pharisaic doctrine that human learning is an indispensable qualification of a minister of the gospel of the meek and lowly Lamb of God? What shall we say of the numerous and splendid structures known as " Theological Seminaries," erected in the nineteenth century, for the purpose of preparing or qualifying men to preach the gospel, by a course of study ranging through several years, and occupied with from forty to a hundred books of uninspired man's composition ? What resemblance do these pretentious human inventions bear to the humble, spiritual, Divine methods of the Lord Jesus Christ and His lowly Apostles and other elders of the first century? What a world-wide change, and, in the opinion of the carnal religionists of to-day, what a vast improvement has taken place in the methods of evangelization ! As there is no precept or example of these fine religious improvements among the people of God in the Bible, the question arises where and how did they originate? Enoch and Noah, the two antediluvian preachers recorded in the Bible, had no collegiate training so far as we have any reason to believe. The Egyptian learning of Moses, with his mighty words and deeds, puffed him up, and caused him to run before he was sent, and so thoroughly disqualified him for leading the children of Israel that God saw proper to hide him in the wilderness forty years, and train him in the Divine school at the backside of the desert, before commissioning him to undertake the leadership of Israel (Ac 7:22-36; Ex 2; 3.). As for the " companies" or " sons of the prophets ".mentioned in the books of Samuel and Kings, there is but little authority, in the entire scriptural record, for supposing that they were anything more than schools of sacred music, or that any useful true prophets of the Lord were trained in them; but we are informed that the wicked king Saul was in one of these companies (1Sa 10:5-12); that the prophet Elisha told another company of them to hold their peace (2Ki 2:3); that, in a time of famine, one gathered a lap-full of deadly wild gourds to eat, and Elisha healed the pottage with meal; and that Amos says he was not one of them (Am 7:14). There is no proof that a single prophet named in the Bible was trained in these companies.

In his reply to Win. Hooper, " D.D., LL. D.," Elder P. D. Gold, of North Carolina, says : " You say, Were there not schools of the prophets ? Well, it seems to me that the prophets can give as sensible an account of their call as any one can give for them. Do any of them ever tell us that they were called out of any school, or ever were called to go to any such a place ? They spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. But it is asked, Were not the disciples with Jesus three years before they began to preach? If they are not with Him all their lives, what is their preaching worth? Are the schools in the place of Jesus. or is He to be found by going to them? And is that the way to get to Christ ? But you say; Will not human learning aid man in preaching the gospel—will it not give him words and power Over men's minds, and enable him to preach the gospel in a more attractive form? I am free to admit the value of human learning in man's earthly affairs, and heartily commend its acquisition in that sense. But what does inspiration say about spiritual things, and how they are spoken? `Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.' When the Lord calls a learned man (though He does not call many), that man glories in becoming a fool that he may win Christ. Human learning makes no part of the new man, and the saint who has human learning is just as weak and dependent on God for his crumb as any other, and all are fed with the same kind of food. But say you, After one is certainly called to preach, cannot the schools polish him, and give him more influence over men, and enable him better to command their respect, by keeping pace with human learning? Tell me, from Scripture, where one ever tried it, or where it was ever authorized. How much can frail man add to God's gift? How much pride do you think is necessary to influence man to presume such a task ? Do not the Scriptures pointedly forbid the employment of worldly weapons in building up Christ's kingdom? Is the minister of Christ to suit his message to proud man's taste ? ' We speak wisdom to them that are perfect, but not the wisdom of this world.' It seems to me that the Scriptures make some allusions to theological schools, though in the way of alarm. ' But the time will come when they; will not endure sound doctrine, but after their own lusts will heap to themselves teachers having itching ears.' Much as the Bible is talked of, its doctrine is not endured; but this progressive age calls for theological schools that shall enlighten men to preach doctrines suitable to men's lusts. Men who have devoted so much time and labor in the preparation for the ministry, are worthy of positions of influence and profit. The teachers come down from these schools dosed with a sort of preparation from dead men's brains, that will make them sick enough if God should ever teach them where their dependence lies. How do these schools heap up teachers? They furnish opportunities for obtaining an education, open the way to positions of honor and reward, so that there is but little trouble attending the road, and if money enough could be commanded it would be difficult to tell how many would be heaped up? But they shall have itching ears, and shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables. The doctrines and fables of men are accepted. Andrew Fuller becomes a wonderful standard. He takes repentance and faith out of the covenant of grace, and puts them under the law, in the sense that he makes them man's duty, and not gifts of grace. If salvation comes on account of man's performance of his duty, it is of works in some. sense. He brings in the modern missionary enterprise, a system somewhat like the popish measures for propagating their creed, but unknown to the Bible and to Baptists, and is a disturber of gospel peace and order among churches. His followers have departed from the truth further than he did, as he refused flattering titles which they, accept for modesty's sake without much urging, and they do not preach salvation as nearly by grace as he did, so they are waxing worse and worse. As the world is to be evangelized, the tender mind of the young must be converted by means of the newly invented Sunday Schools, and humanly prepared preachers must be sent to the heathen. Some man must hold the hand of the missionary while he goes down into the wells, and he must see how his bread comes before he goes; and your churches combine in forming such. tremendous agencies of power as your conventions, while you all glory in the fruits of your wise system. That your denomination generally indorse your system is manifest, and what little I write may only have the- effect of influencing them to fall down before their idols, and shout in louder strains, ' Great is Diana of the Ephesians.' "

After the return of the Jews from Babylon they established synagogues and synagogue-schools; and here the Jewish Rabbis zealously accumulated and multiplied, and taught the Jewish youth those interminable Pharisaic traditions which made void the law of God, and which Christ severely condemned (Mt 15:1-9; Mr 7:1-13). Verily, these are unfortunate precedents for the "Theological Seminaries" of the nineteenth century. The first "Christian" theological school, says Neander, and with him agree other historians, was established at Alexandria, in Egypt, about 180 A. D., and lasted about two hundred years. The earliest teachers were Pantaenus and Clement, "converted" heathen philosophers, and their principal aim seems to have been to teach so-called " Christian" tradition, to transform Christianity into philosophy, to depreciate humble faith and exalt lordly knowledge, and to base human salvation upon the natural free-will of man, declaring that the first motion from sin to holiness must and can be made by the sinner himself. This false system became popular, and spread widely throughout the Greek or Eastern " churches." The most learned and celebrated teacher in the Alexandrian school was Origen, a universalist. The study of "theology" was pursued in the Catholic monasteries of Asia, Africa and Europe during the Dark Ages, and those called the " Schoolmen" were the most famous students. The cold, dry, barren, Aristotelian, syllogistic, subtle, frivolous, wearisome, technical, metaphysical, traditionary, mythological, casuistical, pantheistic tomes of the Scholastic Divinity virtually completed the edifice of the Papal Hierarchy, and have been fitly compared by Milman to the great rough pyramids of Egypt, with their immense and useless display of human power, and with their small, dark, labyrinthine passages and chambers, where one may wander without end and find nothing. The Summa Theologise of Thomas Aquinas, the ideal "theologian," fills twelve hundred very closely printed folio pages in double columns, and is the Roman Catholic casuistical substitute for the New Testament—in which the author shows that "he is nearly as consummate a skeptic, almost atheist, as he is a theologian." These School-men proudly wore the magnificent titles of Perspicuous, Subtile, Profound, Irrefragable, Invincible, Angelical, Seraphic Doctors. Like the Jewish Rabbis, these Scholastic Doctors analyzed the Scriptures to death, substituted the shell for the kernel, made void the word of God by the traditions of men. Christ warned His disciples not to be called Rabbi (or Doctor, or Master) "for," says He, "one is your Master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren" (Mt 23:8-12). But, like the theologians of the Dark Ages, their successors in the nineteenth century totally disregard the commandment of Christ, and thus prove that some one else besides Him is their master; and literary and "theological" institutions presume, in professedly Christian lands, to confer these point-blank Antichristian, childish and worthless titles. Little fear have they of God, when they give flattering titles to men (Job 32:21-22). During the nineteenth century a large number of the most famous German professors of theology, or "Doctors of Divinity," have become the most thorough-going infidels in the world, and have labored with persistent and herculean efforts to undermine and destroy the entire Scriptures of inspired truth. They, and others like them, may well be called, in the language of Mr. Spurgeon,* " Doctors of Damnation," sitting in the teacher's seat of the scornful (Ps 1:1). Some men occupying theological chairs in England and in the United States have developed similar tendencies. The great majority of these "Divinity Schools" teach wretched perversions of the truth, even in the letter; and so long as the Scriptures are true, it is certain that no one nor all of them combined can ever qualify one person to preach the gospel Of Christ, for the sufficiency of the spiritual Christian minister is not of men, but of God; the letter, even in all its literal truth, only killeth, but the Spirit giveth life (2Co 3:5-18; Ga 1; Eph 3:7-21). It was the learned religionists of Judea who rejected and crucified Christ; and yet .these men had and searched and idolized the Scriptures, thinking that in them they had eternal life, and ignoring Christ, who is the sum and substance of those Scriptures (Joh 5:39-40). The title of "holy " or "reverend " belongs not to sinful mortals, but alone to the High and Holy Being who inhabiteth eternity (Ps 111:9; Isa 57:15). Elder, or Bishop, or Pastor, is the Bible designation of the minister of the word.—While the Scriptures totally oppose the idea of men being made either Christians or ministers by human inventions and means, they equally and emphatically enjoin upon the minister to "read, search, meditate upon the Scriptures, which are given by inspiration of God, and are profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works; to be earnest to shew himself approved Tinto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth; to be in these things" (rendered in both the Authorized and the Revised Versions, "give thyself wholly to them "), "that his progress may appear to all; to take heed to himself and to the doctrine, and continue in them" (1Ti 4:13-16; 2Ti 2:15; 3:14-17). Like all the dear children of God, the minister should especially desire to "grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ" (2Pe 3:18) and, as the Scriptures testify of Him, the true servant of God will delight to read the precious volume of inspiration, and will beseech the Lord .Jesus by His Spirit to open his understanding that he may understand the Scriptures, even the deep things of God, the unsearchable riches of Christ, the mysteries of the kingdom of Heaven, thus comparing spiritual things with spiritual, and like a good householder bringing out of his treasure things new and old, that he may properly feed the church of God, which He hath purchased with His own blood (Joh 5:39; Lu 24:44-48; 1Co 2; Eph 3; Mt 13:11,52; 1Co 4:1; Ac 20:28; Joh 16:13-15; 21:15-17; 1Pe 5:1-4).—The call to preach is proved by the ability to preach to the edification of God's people. The internal call "lies in gifts bestowed, and in the disposition of the man's mind to make use of them in the service of God; for God never calls a man to any service but He gives him abilities for it; which, when a man is sensible of, and is satisfied God has bestowed a gift upon him, he cannot be easy to wrap up his talent in a napkin, but is desirous of making use of it in a public manner; not by mere impulse, through vanity of mind, and with ambitious views and sordid ends, but from a principle of love to the souls of men and to the glory of God : of this internal call a man's gifts are an evidence to himself and others." We may be sure that God does not call a man to the ministry, and then leave his qualification to men. When a man is called of God to the ministry, he at the same time has the gift or the qualification (Ex 4:11-12; Isa 6:1-9; Jer 1:4-10; Da 1:17-21; Am 9:14-15; Lu 1:15; 3:22; 4:1,14-15; Mt 10:1-7; Ac 9:20; 20:28; Ga 1:15-16; 2Co 3:5-6; 4:5-6; Eph 3:7-8; 4:11-16).

*Mr. C. H. Spurgeon is regarded by millions as the greatest preacher of the nineteenth century. His Sunday morning sermons were for some time telegraphed by cable across the ocean, at an enormous expense, and published in the Monday morning edition of a half-dozen American newspapers, an honor conferred on no other minister in the world. Well, Mr. S. himself relates that, after he had begun preaching in 1852, his father and others strongly advised him to enter a theological college and prepare more fully for the ministry, and that he had concluded to do so, but was withheld from such a course by the providence and the voice of God; the former strangely preventing an appointed meeting with the college tutor, and the latter loudly startling he him with the words, " Seekest thou great things for thyself ? seek them not!" Mr. S. says that he then looked at his motives and intentions, and he resolved, though he anticipated obscurity and poverty as the result, to renounce the idea of collegiate instruction, and to go on preaching the word in his humble way to his humble people. He acknowledges that it was the Lord who mysteriously guided him in his perplexity, saying to him, " This is the way; walk ye in it." How inconsistent is this early individual experience of Mr. Spurgeon's with his subsequent establishment of a "Pastors' College" in London, and with his own remark in a recent discourse! " I wish I knew how to preach," said he. " I wish not to use a single word of fine language, for I believe that oratory has been the curse of the Christian church. My one aim is to get at the heart and bring the sinner to Christ."

10. The Tenth Mark of the Apostolic Church was the fact that, while the ministry received voluntary help from the churches, they were not salaried, but labored themselves, more or less, for their own support. As already shown, the members were mostly from the middle and lower classes of society, such as fishermen, peasants, mechanics, freedmen and slaves; and as they were few and poor themselves, and each church had several Elders, it was hardly possible for them to furnish entire support to their Elders. Even "the Jewish Rabbis taught gratuitously, and derived their support from an honorable trade and from the free gifts of their pupils. The prevailing sentiment at the time of Christ favored a combination of intellectual and physical labor as beneficial to health and character." Each Jewish child was taught some trade. Jesus was not only a carpenter's son, but, until He entered upon His ministry at thirty years of age, a carpenter Himself (Mt 13:55; Mr 6:3; Lu 3:23) then He gave all His time and strength to the cause of God, and for three years "His humble wants were more than supplied by a few grateful disciples from Galilee; so that something was left for the benefit of the poor" (Lu 8:3; Mt 27:55; Mr 15:41; Joh 13:29). His charge to His Apostles, when He first sends them out, is, "Freely ye have received, freely give; provide neither gold nor silver nor brass in your purses, for the workman is worthy of his meat" (Mt 10:8-10). Those whose hearts were opened of the Lord would gladly receive and entertain them in their houses (Mt 10:12-13; Ac 16:14-15). "Disinterestedness is one of the most needful and beautiful ornaments of him who proclaims the free, unmerited grace of God, and exhorts men to seek first of all the everlasting blessings of the kingdom of Heaven." The ministry were not to turn the work of preaching into a common trade, stipulating beforehand for a regular and fixed salary, and, like a worldly hireling, preaching for filthy lucre's sake, and, like such a one, when the price is not paid, fleeing because he is a hireling (1Pe 5:2; 1Ti 3:3; Tit 1:7; Joh 10:13). But nothing is plainer in the Scriptures than the Lord's ordination that they who preach the gospel (not some other gospel, which is not another, but they who preach the gospel) should live of the gospel—that they who sow unto the church spiritual things should reap of the carnal things of the church—that, as those called of God to the ministry of the word supply the spiritual wants of the flock, so their own temporal wants should be supplied by the flock according as God has prospered them (1Co 9:7-14; Ga 6:6; 1Ti 5:17-18; 1Co 16:2). Still, let it never be forgotten by the true minister of the gospel that the inspired Apostle who gave all these injunctions as to the temporal support of the preachers of the gospel testifies that he used none of these things, neither did he write these things that it should be so done unto him; that necessity was laid upon him, yea, woe was unto him if he preached not the gospel; that his reward was in preaching the gospel of Christ without charge; that he had coveted no man's silver, or gold, or apparel; that his own hands had ministered to his necessities and to those that were with him; that he had labored night and day, because he would not be chargeable to any (1Co 9:15-18; Ac 20:33-34; 1Th 2:9) that his ministry had been passed in weariness and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness, besides the daily internal care of all the churches; that he took pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ's sake, for when he was weak, then he was strong; that he would very gladly spend and be spent for the people of God, though the more abundantly he loved them, the less he was loved (2Co 11:27-28; 12:10-15). Noble, self-denying, Christ-like servant of God, freely did he receive, freely did he give; the abundant grace bestowed upon him was, indeed, not bestowed in vain and to that Divine grace alone he ascribes all his unparalleled service and sacrifice for Christ (Mt 10:8; 1Co 15:10). "He never collected money for himself, but for the poor Jewish Christians in Palestine, to whose sore needs other Christians, in their poverty, contributed (Ac 11:27-30; 24:17; Ro 15:25-26; 1Co 16:1-3; Ga 2:10). Only as an exception did he receive gifts from the Philippian Christians, who were peculiarly dear to him (Php 4:15-19). And, by precept as well as by example, he earnestly warns ministers against the love of filthy lucre, which is peculiarly unbecoming in them, and almost annihilates their good influence and usefulness; and he exhorts them to contentment, hospitality and disinterestedness" (Tit 1:10-11; 1Ti 3:2-3; 6:6-19; Ac 20:17,33-35).—The circumstances of those called to preach the gospel are quite different. " Although God's ministers are generally poor," says Elder Gilbert Beebe, of New York, " yet there are evidently cases where one minister is more in want of help than another; some have large families, others have none; some few are wealthy, and need nothing from their flock, others are entirely dependent, and are to live of the gospel; some, again, are not so closely occupied in the labors of the gospel as to prevent their laboring some part of their time, and thus, in part, minister to their own necessities. A minister of Jesus should never be above laboring with his hands, and we are persuaded that Christ's ministers are not; still, when it is in the power of a church to relieve their minister from the cares of this world, that he may devote his time principally or wholly to the work, it is right they should do so. But nothing is more apparent than that the worldly system of contracting with preachers to preach by the day or year for a stipulated amount of lucre presents a charm which, allures thousands, whom God has not called to preach His gospel, from the bar and other pursuits into the ministry, thus, by the greediness of lucre, making merchandise of the gospel. In regard to the meagre assistance given by some of our churches to their ministers, much of the fault lies with the preachers in withholding the proper admonition of the gospel; but a still greater fault is in the frequently preaching as though they thought it wicked for the ministers of Jesus to receive remuneration from their brethren for their time, service, etc. Let this subject, with every other in the New Testament, receive due consideration and prompt action." “Ministerial support," says Elder W. M. Mitchell, of Alabama, "is a point not to be regulated by agreement between the church and minister, but it is a standing law regulated by the authority of God. Let churches and ministers see that they do not add to it, nor diminish from it. The minister may and ought to do some work if able to do it, and ought to use every lawful effort of industryEnd economy so far as he can without impairing his pastoral duties, and he should not use the liberality of his brethren to foster pride, vanity or idleness, neither in himself nor in his family, but for a decent support, and for relieving his own mind and hands, that he may be the wore serviceable to his brethren and churches. He should do this even for the sake of example, if nothing else (2Th 3:7-12). When the turning point of pastoral services is placed on a money basis by any preacher, it would be best for the church to withhold from him." “The voluntary system," says Mr. Schaff, "best corresponds with the spirit of the gospel, was practiced by the church for the first three centuries, and is the most advantageous to the kingdom of God. Legal enactments for the payment of tithes to the ministry, as to the priests among the Jews, are not met with in Christendom before the sixth century." Since that time the connection of “Church" and State has made the legal support of the ministry of the " established church" the custom in Europe; but the Constitution of the United States fortunately forbids such an establishment and support of any religion in this country. Yet regular stipulated ministerial salaries, though unknown in the apostolic church and in the first three centuries, are given in nearly all the religious denominations of the United States, but not among Old School, Primitive or Bible Baptists.

11. The Eleventh Mark of the Apostolic Church was the sending out of the divinely called and qualified ministry by the Holy Spirit in themselves and in the churches, their going forth, whithersoever the Lord directed, in simple dependence upon Him, and their preaching the gospel to every creature, whether Jew or Gentile, and especially shepherding the lambs and sheep of Christ. During the early part of His ministry Jesus called His twelve Apostles and sent them forth to preach, forbidding them to go to the Gentiles or Samaritans, and directing them to go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (Mt 10:1,5-7) and He furthermore directed them to charge nothing for their services, and to provide nothing beforehand for their support; and He told them that, while a few would receive them, they would, like Himself, be hated and persecuted by the great majority of men; and He instructed them when persecuted in one place to flee to another, and fear not those who could kill only the body, but rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell; and He intimated to them that they were very precious in His sight, for the very hairs of their head were all numbered, and the all-seeing God would be with them; nay, He even identified Himself with them, saying, " He that receiveth you receiveth Me, and He that receiveth Me receiveth Him that sent Me" Mt 11:9-30). What an unworldly commission! In what an unworldly manner were the Apostles to enter upon it! How unworldly must have been the motives of Christ and His Apostle! How plainly they acted as though this world were nothing, and eternity were all! How few human beings are there now in the world like them!---Christ gave to the seventy disciples instructions similar to those which He had given to the twelve Apostles (Lu 10:1-16). His language in Lu 22:35-38 is manifestly not literal, but allegorical, meaning " The predicted time of trial for the Master and His followers is now at hand; you may expect hardship, contempt and persecution hereafter much more than heretofore;" for two swords were not enough to defend eleven persons from millions of foes, and Christ healed the wound inflicted by Peter's sword, and commanded His too forward disciple to put up again his sword into its place (Mt 26:51-52), thus showing that the weapons of their warfare were not to be carnal, but spiritual (2Co 10:1-5).—Just before His ascension He told His Apostles that they should, in a few days, be endued with the power of the Holy Ghost, and they should be witnesses unto Him both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth (Ac 1:5-8). He said, "All power is given unto Me in Heaven and in earth. Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you; and, lo, I am with you alway, unto the end of the world" (Mt 28:18-20). Or, as Mark gives the commission, "Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but He that believeth not shall be damned" (Mr 16:15-16). Instead of preaching only to the Jews, as He had commanded them during His ministry (Mt 10:5-6), the Apostles, after the ascension of Christ, were to preach to any human being that they met in all the world; and they were to go forward in simple dependence upon Him who had all power in Heaven and earth, and who would always be with them; and they were everywhere to preach the gospel, that is, according to inspired authority, " the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth, whether Jew or Greek" -- "Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling-block, and unto the Greeks foolishness; but unto them who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God" (Ro 1:16; 1Co 1:23-24). Ezekiel, in the valley of very dry bones representing the whole house of Israel, simply prophesied, by Divine direction, the almighty power of God that was soon to be exerted in their behalf—how that God would open their graves, and cause them to come up out of their graves, and put sinews and flesh and skin upon them, and breath within them, and they should live, and know that the Lord had performed this mighty work (Eze 37:1-14) it was not the work of the bones or of the prophet or of any created arm, but exclusively the work of Almighty God, and all the living house of Israel know it. So the Apostles were commanded by Christ to preach, and did preach, not the power of dead sinners or of human appliances of any kind, but the power of a Divine and Almighty Savior to save every sin-laden soul—yea, even the amazing power of the voice of the Son of God to penetrate the soul of the spiritually dead sinner, and make him live (Mr 16:15; Ro 1:16; Mt 1:21; Joh 5:25; Eph 2:1-10). The Apostles could not utter that voice, much less can any other men; not the Apostles, but only the Divine Spirit, could impart spiritual life and hearing to one dead in trespasses and sins, and make him a new creature in Christ, prepared to hear and believe the gospel and be baptized and be saved (Joh 6:63; Eph 1:19-20; 2:1-10; 2Co 5:17-18; Joh 3:1-8). The Apostles had no more power to do the work of the Spirit in regeneration than they had to do the work of the Father in election, or the work of the Son in redemption—all these works being equally Divine. Only those ordained to eternal life believe, and this ordination is of God (Ac 13:48; Ro 8:29-39; Eph 1:3-14; 2Th 2:13-14; 1Pe 1:1-5).—Now, as God alone knows who and where are His elect and redeemed people to whom it is His holy will for His. gospel to be preached that they may hear and believe and be saved, and as He has not instituted His ministry in vain, it is quite certain that, just as the Son did during his earthly ministry, so must the Spirit now direct His ministers where to go. The Apostles received such directions from the Spirit, as we learn in the book of Acts (Ac 8:29,39; 10:19-20; 11:12; 13:1-4; 16:6-7,9-10; 18:9-11; 21:4,11; 22:21; 23:11; 27:24). They went as thus directed by the Holy Ghost; and, as Christ had instructed them, when they were persecuted in one city, they fled to another (Ac 8:1-25; 12:17; 13:50-52; 14:5-7,19,26; 16:37-40; 17:5-15; 18:6; 20:1-7; 21-28). Thus directed by the Spirit, and driven by persecution, these true, unworldly, poor, and mostly unlearned servants of God, depending upon Him for support, and despised, hated, scourged, stoned and imprisoned by the rich, proud heathen and Jewish religionists, traversed the Roman Empire, and found some of God's people wherever they went, whose hearts were opened by the Lord to believe the gospel and take pleasure in entertaining the ministry of the word (Ac 16:14-15). They thus found and taught and guided and tended and fed (not goats and dogs and swine, but) the dear lambs and sheep of Christ (not with the chaff and husks of human learning, vain philosophy, false science, and the mere externals of religion, such as rites. and ceremonies, upon which gracious souls cannot live, but) with the sincere milk of the word, and the strong meat of Divine, sovereign and all-sufficient grace, and the sound doctrine of the Apostles and prophets (Eze 34:11-31; Isa 40:1-11; Joh 10:14-16,27-30; 21:15-17; 1Pe 5:1-5; 2:2; Ac 20:28; Heb 5:12-14; Ro 8:29-39; 11:5-7; 3:24-31; 4:16; 5:19-21; 6:23; 1Co 1:23-31; 2; 2Co 12:9; Eph 1; 2; 1Pe 1:1-5; Isa 45:24-25; 61:1-3; Jer 23:6; 33:16; 31:31-34; Col 2:8,16-23; 1Ti 1:4; 6:20; Ga 2:21; 3:10,17; 4:10-11; 5:1-6).

The dear people of God who thus partook of the spiritual treasures brought them by His called and qualified and sent servants, loved these poor, persecuted and faithful ministers of the word, and freely gave them of their carnal treasures for their support. "It is God's order," says Elder J. R. Respess, of Georgia, "that those to whom the gospel is ministered are the ones to minister in carnal things to the preacher. God opened the heart of Lydia, and He is the same God now. We grant that, if the letter of the gospel is forced upon an unwilling people, those sending it must be at charges for it; but when God sends it, He sends it to a person whom He will prepare to receive it; and, if they do receive it, they will care for those preaching it. They will, if they are worthy of it, and able to do it. Though even then God's ministers are made to approve themselves ministers of Christ, in necessities, distresses, cold, nakedness and hunger. No other ministers save God's ministers will endure such things for the love of God; men will endure such things for the love of the world, but not for the love of God. In human schools children are pretendedly taught Christianity now as they are taught geography and arithmetic, and men are taught to preach as a doctor is taught medicine; and, in the same worldly manner in which a commercial agent is sent by a merchant to a foreign country for traffic in merchandise, the so-called `missionary' is now sent by his employers to heathen lands. Anybody can afford to trip over to foreign countries if the sacrifice is done away; a mere spirit of adventure may prompt a man in going; a love of science or fame will make men do it, make them encounter great dangers, privations and hardships. See how many have perished by cold and starvation in search of the North Pole. The Jesuits set up the cross in the trackless wilderness of this country amongst the Indians, years and years ago; and so did trappers and hunters make their sign there, too. But when God sends His true servants, they go in His Spirit, to do His work, and, not to please the flesh; they get no honor of men; no paeans are sung to them for the great sacrifice they are making; and they go often, if not bound in chains as Paul was, bound in spirit, encountering sneers, ridicule, persecution and contempt from the Rabshakelis of the world. (God and man and true religion are the same to-day that they were in New Testament times.) As for many heathens for whom Christ died perishing for the lack of liberal contributions made to the 'missionary' cause in professedly Christian lands, we don't believe a word of it; such declarations dishonor Christ. That Christ loved His people with an everlasting love; that He gave Himself for them; suffered and died for them; that a woman never loved her little babe, or a husband his wife, as Christ loved the church; and that God spared not His only Son, but gave Him for us to die, the just for the unjust; and after all the sufferings of Christ after His resurrection and ascension and mediation—having, too, all power in Heaven and in earth, and over all flesh, to give eternal life to all that the Father has given Him—and then to say that they are perishing because some stingy miser will not throw in money, or some proud, vain woman wears a diamond pin, or some unwilling man will not go to preach, or some fleeing Jonah goes to Tarsus, is absolutely ridiculous. There is not a husband in the world that loves his wife, having the power that Christ has, would leave her to pine and die on some foreign shore; and much less would Christ. No doubt the Pharisees had a mission system in Christ's day, for we are told they compassed sea and land to make proselytes—went everywhere propagating their religion. Paul had that religion before he was a Christian. It was respectable in the eyes of the people, and they looked with great contempt upon Christ and His disciples. Christ and His religion are the same to-day as then. Men in nature did not love the religion of Christ then, nor do they yet; nor did they receive it by worldly wisdom, because it was and is God's decree that men, by wisdom, should not know God. ‘For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?' Why then resort to it, seeing it is foolishness with God, to effect the purpose of God? 'For you see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh' etc. Our confidence is this: That the Lord will prepare His called servants to serve Him as He wills; that He will imbue them with His Spirit and endow them with power from on high, so that they will demonstrate His Spirit in their work and glorify Him. Thus it is that we find some of them called without learning sufficient even to read a hymn, but spelling out, so to speak, the Scriptures by pine-knot fires at night when the day's work was over, and arriving at a proficiency in the word rarely equalled; men of robust minds and faith, compared with whom the men of mere worldly learning are in their littleness but dwarfs, but mole hills to mountains. (Consider, for instance, the case of John the Baptist, with his wild food and raiment and surroundings, than whom, says Christ, there was none greater among those born of women.—Mt 3; 11:11). If God wishes an educated minister, like Paul, He calls him. The Old School or Primitive Baptist ministers are Bible missionaries, traveling, as directed by the Spirit, in the manner of the Apostles, in dependence upon the God of Israel, tens and hundreds of thousands of miles. Why we do not and have not gone over all the world, is not for us to explain—any more than it is a matter for us to explain why so few, even here, in this professedly Christian land of increasing pride and greed and dishonesty and selfishness and immorality and hypocrisy; believe the truth as it is in Jesus. And that others have been over the world is no great matter after all, unless they have benefited the world more than they have the Sandwich Islands, from all accounts of those demoralized and depopulated people." During the hundred years since these islands were first visited by Europeans, the native population has decreased from about 400,000 to about 40,000; and though the people are more generally educated than any other people, in the world, nearly every one being able to read and write, intemperance, licentiousness and disease abound; and Mr. J. R. Graves, an "Old Landmarker Missionary Baptist," editor of the "Tennessee Baptist," says, in the issue of his paper of June 10th, 1882, that "if the bottom facts were only known, it would be-found these Islanders are only pseudo-Christianized heathens, and are to-day made tenfold harder to convert to Christianity than they were before a missionary ever touched the island. The work," he adds, "was done by Pedobaptists, unchecked by Baptist teachings or influence. The poor natives were taught exactly by the Confession that if they would mentally accept the forms of Christianity instead of idolatry, and be baptized for the remission of their sins, they would be Christians and saved. What has been done in these islands," continues Mr. Graves, "is now being done in Africa and Asia by Pedobaptist missionaries." "We oppose such Mission Societies," says Elder Gilbert Beebe, in the "Signs of the Times," "as are independent of the church of God, which we hold to be the only divinely authorized religious society upon earth; but we have, through the columns of a former number of this paper, offered to support the Lord's ministers or missionaries to the utmost of our ability, even to the dividing of our last loaf with such of them as go out without purse or scrip, relying upon the sure mercies of David, without waiting to get the Lord's promises indorsed by a Mission Board. We feel disposed to let such as have hired themselves out to Missionary Boards stand or fall to their own master, knowing that his servants they are, to whom they yield themselves servants to obey.' We consider all that a kind Providence has put into our possession belongs to the Lord, and as His stewards we are ready to deal it out to His servants according to His word." Such, no doubt, is the feeling of every true Bible Baptist.—The history of scriptural and unscriptural missions will be given in the next chapter of this volume.

12. The Twelfth Mark of the Apostolic Church was that it was absolutely the only divinely recognized religious organization in the world. There was no forbidden, unhallowed and corrupting alliance between the church and worldly societies and human institutions, combining believers and unbelievers, for carrying on God's work of evangelizing the nations; although, as it would seem, such confederacies, if ever necessary, were most essential in the first establishment of the feeble church on earth. When Israel came out of Egypt God forbade them ever to return to the carnal delights and idolatrous corruptions of Egypt any more (De 17:16; Jer 42:13-22). And when the mighty Assyrian army was approaching Jerusalem and threatening Israel with destruction, and some carnal, unbelieving, rebellious Israelites desired to go down to Egypt to get the assistance of her strength, and wisdom, and silver, and gold, and gods, the Lord pronounced a woe upon them, for taking counsel of another besides Hint, and for trusting in the shadow of Egypt instead of in the living God; and He directed them to cast away their idols of silver and gold, and to rest quietly and confidently in the Holy .One of Israel, and they would see His salvation (Isa 30; 31). And the Israelites, with Hezekiah their king, had the grace given them to obey the Divine command. They trusted implicitly and alone in the God of Israel for deliverance, and the angel of the Lord slew, in a single night, one hundred and eighty-five thousand of their Assyrian enemies, and drove the remainder back to their native land, and not one Israelite was harmed (Isa 36; 37). These wonderful and ever-to-be-remembered facts in sacred history are thus well described by the poet

"The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold,
And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold;
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea,
When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.

"Like the leaves of the forest when summer is green,
That host with their banners at sunset were seen:
Like the leaves of the forest when autumn hath blown,
That host on the morrow lay withered and strown.

"For the angel of death spread his wings on the blast,
And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed;
And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill,
And their hearts but once heaved, and forever were still.

"And the widows of Ashur are loud in their wail,
And the idols are broke in the temple of Baal;
And the might of the Gentile, unsmote by the sword,
Hath melted like snow in the glance of the Lord."

The one thing needful, therefore, for Israel is, not to seek a ruinous alliance with the shadowy, unreal and deceptive wisdom and gold and strength and idols of Egypt or the world, but to trust alone in the only
true and living God, who, with but a glance or a simple volition or word of His, can destroy their last enemy in a moment. "Thus saith the Lord: Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from the Lord; " while, on the other hand, God says, "Blessed is the man that trusteth in the Lord, and whose hope the Lord is" (Jer 17:5-8). Every step toward Egypt is a departure from Jerusalem; every leaning toward man is a desertion of God.

"We readily admit," says Elder G. Beebe, "our opposition to the present system of Bible societies as religious institutions for the conversion of the world; but we are so far from being opposed to the gratuitous circulation of the Bible (without note or comment), that in a preceding number [of the `Signs of Times'] we have offered to supply a whole country at our own expense. We are opposed to Tract Societies, and we are ready to give the reason of our opposition; but we are not opposed to the circulation of Bible truth in pamphlet, tract, newspaper, or any other form, gratuitously or otherwise." " Our people," says Elder J. R. Respess (in the "Gospel Messenger " ), "do not affiliate with the temperance societies of the world, but none favor temperance among all classes more than we do; and in the church we require it, so that a drunkard cannot remain in the church. But we hold that a Christian should be temperate because he is a Christian, and not because he is a member of a temperance society; that Christ and the church should be honored by his temperance, and not a society composed of all sorts of men, whether infidel, or profane, or adulterous, or of whatever character. For a member of the church of Christ to resort to a society of worldly men in order to become a temperate man himself, or to make somebody else temperate, is to forsake Christ and turn to man to do that which Christ had failed to do, or was incapable of doing, and to say that the grace and power of Christ were not sufficient to do what a society of men could do, thus ascribing more glory and honor to the society than to the grace of God. If our influence as Christians and church members fails upon the world, then we have no. more that we can do or are required to do. What man believes that Christ would have gone into a secret chamber with a crowd of Sadducees, Pharisees and Herodians, with all sorts and classes of men, and yoked Himself with them to abstain from wine or other spirits to make men temperate [or for any other professedly benevolent object]? Even the thought is monstrous, almost sinful. Then His people, in whom He dwells and walks, have no right to carry Him and yoke Him with unbelievers in these organizations. But, after all, these temperance societies have confessedly failed, and there is now a resort to mightier legislation, to the strong arm of the law, to make men temperate, and still drunkenness increases. [The extensive and rapidly increasing use of opium as a substitute for alcoholic stimulants is by no means a proof of improvement in morals. We are opposed to religious Sunday Schools taught by the blind leaders of the blind and regarded as nurseries of the ' church;' but we maintain that parents should raise their children morally, and to respect God, and to read the Scriptures; and we are not opposed to any one who knows the truth teaching the truth to any one else on any proper occasion.] It is claimed that these fine modern institutions have made the present age what it is; but those who make the claim should be ashamed to confess it. For the present age is, perhaps, an almost unprecedentedly bad one. There is more infidelity in the world at this time than, perhaps, ever was in any other age of the world, all men, except a very small remnant, caring very little for any particular doctrine except the almost universally received doctrine of works and money. The age is bad, socially, morally and politically; and no thinking man will deny it. Men are greedy, selfish, dishonest, cruel and unmerciful. Even modern religionists call this a nation of drunkards. Lying, false swearing and murder, are things of everyday occurrence. Look at the corruption in the capital of the nation —the Star Route prosecutions, the office-holders that have, upon salaries barely sufficient to maintain them in their positions, become millionaires—the open bribery at elections. A President is murdered by a. disappointed office-seeker, in the very heart of the capital, in broad daylight. Look at the oppression of the poorer classes by monopolies; they are ground by these monied princes between the nether and upper millstone. They can put the price of meat and grain up or down at their own will, and no man hinder. [Look at the wide-extended undermining of the very foundations of civil society, not only by the Mormonism or simultaneous polygamy practiced, in spite of congressional legislation, in Utah, and rapidly infecting the adjoining territories, and gathering in tens of thousands of converts by most industrious and unscrupulous missionaries visiting and poisoning every region of the civilized world, but also by the rapidly and alarmingly increasing number of unscriptural divorces, facilitating successive polygamy, in the Northern and Western States of the Union.] One thing we can say, and are glad to say, that the Primitive Baptists are not responsible for this condition of things; we have had no hand in it. The poor, tried and afflicted people of God, though few and nothing in themselves, should remember that the battle is not theirs, but the Lord's; that more are they that be with them than they that be with their enemies; and when our eyes are opened, and faith is given us, then we can trust in the Lord and be strong and courageous, and not be afraid of all the multitude arrayed against us." It is only when we are weak in self that we are strong in the Lord; only in our weakness is His strength made perfect; when we most feel our helplessness and nothingness, His grace is all-sufficient for us (2Co 12:9-10; Php 3:3). Whether the Lord deliver us from the fiery furnace or not, we are not to disobey and dishonor Him, and worship the gods of the heathen. "Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers," says the inspired Apostle to the church; "for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? and what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? and what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you, and will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty" (2Co 6:14-18). Numerous Scriptures forbid the intimate association of God's people with the heathen or unbelievers (Ex 34:11-16; De 7:1-11; 22:9-11; Ezr 9; Ne 13:1-3,23-31; Ps 26:4-5; 44:20-21; 106:35-48; 1Co 15:33; Jas 4:4; Joh 15:18-19), for the expressed reason that such associations are 'invariably corrupting to the people of God. Especially corrupting must be such alliances as are based upon money, which is represented in the Scriptures as the god of this world, and the love of which is a root of all evil (Mt 6:24; Lu 16:13; 1Ti 6:10). From such money-based societies let it be deeply impressed upon our minds that Peter, who had no silver or gold, and Paul, who had to work day and night for his daily bread, and even the Lord Jesus Christ, who had not where to lay His head, would have been debarred, unless some friend had paid their fee or a miracle had been wrought for that purpose. Can it be possible that such Egyptian or worldly alliances of the children of God, so repeatedly and pointedly forbidden in both the Old and the New Testament of Scriptures, are of the Lord and will be blessed of Him? Besides corrupting the people of God, these alliances demonstrate confidence in the flesh and a lack of faith in God—that is, a departure and alienation from God, and, to the extent they reach, an identification with unbelievers. God solemnly calls upon all His dear children who have been ensnared and carried down into Babylon" Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues" (Re 18:4). Babylon was an idolatrous nation; and it is demonstrably certain that, if human language means anything, the language employed by a large number of high officials in these modern religious confederacies represents these human means and methods as the most important and indispensable requisite for the conversion and salvation of the world—that is, they represent these human institutions as gods, and thus, confederating with Babylon, professed Christians have become idolatrous too, just as the Scriptures abundantly warn us. Christ and His Apostles, let it be indelibly impressed upon our minds and hearts, instituted absolutely none of these forbidden, unhallowed and contaminating, idolatrous and ruinous Egyptian and Babylonian confederacies. There were in the apostolic church no such auxiliary religious societies as Foreign Missionary Societies, Home Missionary Societies, Bible Societies, Tract Societies, Education Societies, Dorcas Societies, Temperance Societies, Secret Benevolent Societies; neither were there any Infant Church Memberships, Substitutions of Sprinkling or Pouring for Baptism, Sunday Schools, Religious Picnics and Excursions, Church Fairs, Festivals, Church Organs, Holy Shooting at the Mark for money, Protracted Meetings full of Holy Altars, Pharisaic Preachers, Anxious Benches and Mourners' Seats, Life Memberships in Religious Societies for sale at $100 each or less, Pulpit Affiliations with unregenerate 'and unbaptized religionists, Female Revivalists, Theological Seminaries, Doctors of Divinity, Reverend Gentlemen, a Man-Called, Man-Qualified, and Salaried Ministry, Corrupting alliances of Church and State, Authoritative and Imperious Religious Bodies above the individual Churches, Bishops above Elders, Popes, Cardinals, Prelates, Diocesan Bishops, Arch-Bishops, Metropolitans, Monks, Nuns, Jesuits, Holy Wafers, Holy Days, Ave Marias, Holy Images, Holy Relics, Holy Candles, Holy Incense, Holy Prayer-Books, Holy Litanies, Holy Silken Gowns, Holy White Muslin Robes, Holy Inquisitions, supplied with Holy Racks, Holy Tortures, Holy Red-Hot Tongs, with which to pinch the flesh and pull • out the tongues of Christians, Holy Crusaders to hunt them down with barbarous armies and slay them by thousands, Holy Sale of Indulgences to Sin for money enough, Holy Confessionals, Holy Penances, Holy Purgatories. Without these outward means of men's and Satan's- invention, and in direct opposition to all human and diabolical schemes and powers, the word of God grew mightily and prevailed, so that in the 70 years from A. D. 30 to 100, according to the general estimate, the number of Christians increased to five hundred thousand in all parts of the heathen Roman Empire. It was the glorious work of the Almighty Spirit of God, who quickeneth whom He will, and bestows spiritual gifts on men according to His good pleasure, who has but to breathe upon the valley of dry bones and they will live, while, without the Divine Spirit, all the wise, pretentious, monetary, unscriptural devices of men are less than nothing and vanity. It was a stone cut out without hands that smote and destroyed the great metallic lifeless image of worldly glory in Nebuchadnezzar's vision, and that became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth—the stone representing the indestructible kingdom of the God of Heaven (Da 2.). It is upon the immovable rock of His own eternal Divinity that the Son of God is building, and will continue to build, His church, against which the gates of hell shall never prevail (Mt 16:18—pctra, rendered "rock," is a great mass of living rock imbedded in the earth, while Petros, rendered "Peter," is but a small fragmentary stone, -made lively or living by the life of Christ within, and built, with the other Apostles,  by Christ upon Himself—see 1Pe 2:4-10; 1Co 3:11; Eph 2:20-22; Re 21:14). "Except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it" (Ps 127:1). The Righteous Branch, even Christ, " shall build the temple of the Lord, and He shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon His throne (Zec 6:12-13). The hands of the spiritual " Zerubbabel have laid the foundations of this spiritual house; His hands shall also finish it, and He shall bring forth the head-stone thereof with shoutings, crying, Grace, grace unto it "—"Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, saith the Lord of hosts" (Zec 4:6-9).

No doubt it is a paradox and a mystery to the world that the Apostle Paul, who affirms, more abundantly and emphatically than any other inspired writer, the sovereignty and almightiness of Divine grace, and the great fundamental doctrine of salvation by grace alone, without the deeds of the law, was the greatest, most industrious, most self-sacrificing worker for God that ever lived—he declares that it was the almighty grace of God which thus wrought in him (1Co 15:10; Eph 1:19-23; 2; 3; Php 2:12-13) he exhorts his brethren, partakers of the same heavenly calling, thus to be followers of him; but let it be profoundly observed that none of the religious works which this highly favored servant of God, after his conversion, engaged in, and none of the religious works to which he exhorts his brethren, were corrupt imitations of a wicked world, or unholy alliances with the servants of Satan.

The position of the apostolic church must be the standard and example to be followed by all subsequent believers in Christ; and all subsequent bodies of people professing Christianity may, by comparison, see where they stand, whether on the side of Divine truth, or on the side of human error. As they conform to the Pattern, they are to be accepted and, as they lack this conformity, they are to be rejected.

If there is a command from Christ to observe any one or more of the customs or institutions just enumerated as not observed by the Apostles and primitive saints, then let it be pointed out and obeyed. But, if such cannot be shown, then we must fall back and rely implicitly upon the doctrine and example of those who are seated upon twelve thrones to judge the twelve tribes of Israel.

04 Chapter IV


"In the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom" (one church): Da 2:44.

"Thou are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it." Mt 16:18.

"There was a man sent from God (not by any man, set of men, or board) whose name was John." He was sent to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.

This first Old Baptist preacher knew the Lord by revelation before he was born. He was not prepared in any of the schools of men. He was not trained in a Sunday school for none was in existence until A. D. 1781. No stipulated salary for preaching was promised him. He demanded fruits meet for repentance before he would baptize them, just like Old Baptists do today. He preached the power of God: "God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. That is the way Old Baptists preach today. He felt his unworthiness, so does every true Old Baptist preacher today. He was the first Baptist preacher, and was therefore a Primitive Baptist. Those whom he baptized were prepared of God before he baptized them. Old Baptists demand the same evidences today. He baptized Jesus by immersion, so do all true Old Baptist preachers today. Jesus, being baptized by a Primitive Baptist preacher, was therefore a Primitive Baptist. Jesus set up His own Church of His disciples, therefore it was a Primitive Baptist Church. The apostles, being followers of Jesus, were Primitive Baptists. They preached Predestination (Ro 8:29-30; Eph 1:5), Election (Ro 9:11; Eph 1:4; 1Th 1:4; 1Pe 1:2), Total Depravity (Ro 5:12; 3:9-24; 8:7; Eph 2:1), the Wisdom of God (Pr 15:3; Isa 66:18; Ps 94:11; Ac 15:18; 1Jo 3:20; 2Ti 2:19), Special Atonement and Redemption (Heb 9:12,15,28; Eph 1:7; Joh 17:2; Mt 1:21; Joh 10:11; Eph 5:22-25; Tit 2:14) Effectual Calling (Joh 5:21,25; 10:3; Ro 8:30; 2Ti 1:9; Ro 11:7; Tit 3:15), Final Preservation (Joh 10:28; 6:39,44; Ro 8:29-35; 1Pe 1:5), the Resurrection of the Body (Ps 115:4,12-14,16,18,18; 1Th 4:14; Joh 6:28; Php 4:20; Mt 25:34,41,46), Baptism (Mt 28:19; Ac 8:36; 10:47), the Lord's Supper (Lu 22:19-20), Feet Washing (Joh 13:14-15,17), Life and the New Birth precedes belief (Joh 5:24; 11:26; 1Jo 5:1), Good Works (Eph 2:10; 2Ti 3:16-17; Tit 2:14; 3:8; Jas 2:17-26).

These principles were held to by the Apostolic Church and they contend for the same today. The Apostolic Church was a kingdom separate from the world and was forbidden to form an alliance or fellowship with the world (please read Joh 3:19-21; 17:14; 18:20,36; 2Co 6:14-17; Ga 6:14; Eph 5:11-12; Col 2:20-23; 1Jo 2:15-16).

The Apostolic Church was hated and despised by the world. The Apostles were whipped, imprisoned and traveled in bonds and "chains and were nearly all put to death for the doctrine which they loved. The world hates the Primitive Baptists as badly now as it did then. If they had the law power our mouths would be closed today.

Impostors entered the Primitive Church, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. They led away disciples after them. The righteous in the church have been hated by those who are unrighteous and their lives will be sought. None of these things moved the Apostles and should not move us.

Brother preacher, if you are in the Old Baptist Church seeking popularity, you are in the wrong place. The true church is the last place to go for policy or popularity. The Apostles and ancient churches were persecuted by the Jews and idolatrous people of all nations. But God wonderfully blessed their labors, and many were baptized and churches organized, being loyal to the doctrine of grace. It is said that those Primitive churches were united only by the common tie of faith and charity or love. That every church formed within itself a separate and independent body. "They were Baptist Churches because they were composed of baptized members, and were independent of each other in government."

Orchard says, "The first and most fatal of all events to the primitive religion, was the setting up of a Christian Academy at Alexandria. Christians had been reproached with illiteracy, and this school was set up in 170 to get rid of the scandal. It seemed that the Alexandrian school was a nursery in which nearly all the evils were germinated, the practice of which finally led to popery.

This should be an important lesson to the church of today. In trying to prepare boys for baptism by teaching, the church became filled with men who never had the love of God implanted in their hearts. It this practice corrupted the church in the Second Century, what will it do for the church in the Twentieth? - Daily. No infant baptism or sprinkling up to this date.

In the Alexandrian School, it seems, originated a sentiment that the natural or carnal mind must be powerfully impressed with literal knowledge of Christianity, which knowledge constitutes them fit subjects for baptism, and to aid young minds and weak capacities they adopted the use of images, which have gained such notoriety in the Church of Rome."-Owens.

We see a disposition among the clergy then to accommodate the religion of Jesus Christ to the superstitious and selfish notions of both Jews and Pagans. This led to laxity in discipline, and hence the church became corrupted by allowing a multitude of unregenerate people to enter her holy precincts-men who knew nothing of the saving grace of God. Her laxity in discipline and opening the door to the world caused her to become popular. But it was only laying the foundation for Rome, the mother of harlots. The daughters are like their mother.

Orchard says, "The churches during this early period were strictly Baptists in their practice and constitution." Each church up to this time possessed its own government within itself. "These early interests stood perfectly free from Rome, and at after periods refused her communion.

"When Decius came to the throne in 249, he required by edicts all persons in the Empire to conform to Pagan worship. Forty years' toleration had greatly increased professors of Christianity, and they were found in every department of the government. They had been so long unaccustomed to trials that the lives of many were unsuited to suffering.

"Decius' edicts rent asunder the churches, multitudes apostatized, and many were martyred."—Owens.

They were persecuted in almost every torturous manner.

It seems in two years the trial abated, and many apostates applied for Christian fellowship. Novation contending for the purity of the church, strongly opposed the readmission of the apostates, but he was not successful. The choice of pastor in the same church fell upon Cornelius, whose election Novation opposed, because of his readiness to readmit apostates who had forsaken the true religion of Christ and fell down to the gods of the Pagans. Quite a multitude forsook the church for idolatrous worship, but the true followers of Christ were not driven from Christ and never will be.

Novation opposed all these new ways and would not submit to them. Novation and the minority, who believed in strict church discipline, withdrew from the disorder of Cornelius, or the majority, and established a separate church of their own, free from such idolatrous worshippers, and they would not receive members from the apostates only by rebaptizing them.

"Following this division, the Baptists over the Empire followed the act of Novation and separated themselves from the new ideas of church discipline, and thus went by the name of Novationists. The slack Cornelius Party who left the order of God's house and accepted those idolatrous apostates were known as the Catholic Party.

"Novation, with every considerate person, was disgusted with the hasty admission of such apostates to communion, and with the conduct of many pastors who were more concerned about numbers than purity of communion. Novation was the first to begin a separate interest with success, and which was known for many centuries by his name. One Novatus of Carthage, coming to Rome, united himself with Novation, and their combined efforts were attended with success.

We now come to the point where the foundation was laid by Novation and his adherents (strict Primitive Baptists) for a lasting division between the strict order and the liberal or broad, disorderly party. The orderly Scriptural or Primitive Baptist Church had Novation as their leader, who was shortly assisted by Novatus from Carthage. The disorderly, unscriptural party was led by Cornelius under the influence of Cyprian of Carthage, who was of the slack, any way worldly party. This unscriptural party called a council and condemned Novation. Error has always opposed the right. Satan opposed our blessed Savior. Anti-Christ has always persecuted Christ. Novation, aided by Novatus, and no doubt other Gospel preachers that had espoused the Novation cause, soon established churches in cities, towns and countries.

Eusebieus says, "Novation became the first pastor in the new interest, and is accused of the crime of giving birth to innumerable multitude of congregations of Puritans in every part of the Roman Empire, and yet all the influence he exercised was an upright example and moral suasion. These churches flourished until the Fifth Century."

Mosheim says: "They consider the church as a society where virtue and innocence reigned universally, and none of whose members from their entrance into it, had defiled themselves with any enormous crimes. They looked upon every society that which admitted heinous offenders to its communion as unworthy of the title of a true Christian Church."—Owens, pages 11 and 12.

Mr. Jones says, "In the year 251, Novation was ordained the pastor of a church (the strict, orderly church) in the city of Rome, which maintained no fellowship with the Catholic Party."

Novation is spoken of as a man of great learning and irreproachable in' words. There were many hard things said against him and his followers. They were complained of for their rigidness in discipline and rebaptizing members from other communities. A strict adherence by the church to the laws of the Savior has been the cause of abuse from Arminians and the children of the bond woman and her children in all ages of the world. Doubtless the Catholic Party would say Novation caused the division!

Campbell, the founder the Campbellites, said: "The Baptists can trace their origin to the Apostolic times and produce unequivocal testimonies of their existence in every century down to the present time."—Campbell-Walker Debate, page262.

We have come now to the Fourth Century and we have not found where the Apostolic Church had a board, convention, theological school, Sunday school, ladies' aid society, instrumental music in worship, sprinkling for baptism, fleshly revival meetings, any disciplinary body over the church with separate constitution and rules of decorum, nor where they allowed their members to join anti-Christian secret societies, or combine in union and fellowship with the world. They have ever been a separate people from the world.

The scenes already narrated, that the Baptists had to encounter and pass through in the last century, have prepared the mind of the reader to anticipate the sufferings that await them. The close of the third century presents to our view the Pagan religion wielding the power of the Roman Empire engaged to exterminate the Christian religion, and the corrupt party professing Christianity making every effort, using hard names, misrepresentation and slander, to put down those who were endeavoring to keep the Church and Gospel pure. We see the prediction of the Apostle fully verified (Ac 20:29-30; 2Th 2:7).

We see Pagan Rome (the great red dragon) ready to devour the Man Child (Jesus) and His Church until the beast (papal Rome) arose, exhibiting the same deadly persecuting spirit, trying to exterminate the true church from the earth.

This murderous dragon passed an edict to force all Christians to sacrifice to their gods and pull down their sanctuaries, to burn their books and writings, and to deprive them of their civil rights and privileges. Under this edict the magistrates employed all kinds of tortures and punishments that human depravity could invent to force Christians to apostatize and ministers of the Gospel to become the object of the emperor's aversion.

Jones' Church History, page 161, says: "There were not less than seventeen thousand Christians put to death in the space of one month, and that during the continuance of it, in the province of Egypt alone, no less than one hundred and fifty thousand persons died by violence of their persecutors, and five times that number through the fatigues of banishment, or in public mines to which they had been condemned."

Galeriaes, who had inflicted such untold barbarities upon poor Christian people, experienced the most severe afflictions as God's wrath was poured out upon him before he died, granted Christians the right to express their private opinions and to assemble for worship without molestation.

When Constantine came to the throne, he and Lucinius granted Christian people permission to live according to their own laws and institutions. An edict to that effect was published A. D. 313. Under this edict every subject of the empire was allowed to profess either Christianity or Paganism, unmolested.

These two rival princes soon turned their arms against each other, Lucinius fell and left Constantine in the undisputed possession of the empire.

"This amicable state of things remained but a short time. Constantine, becoming convinced of the folly and impiety of the Pagan superstition, exhorted all his subjects to embrace the Gospel, and at length he employed all his authority to abolish the ancient heathen worship."

We now see Constantine taking a firm stand in favor of Christianity. He professed to believe the Gospel, and many of his officers likewise. He conferred honors on those slaves that would receive baptism. He offered a reward to others, on their embracing Christianity, so that twelve thousand men, besides women and minors, were baptized in one year. In 319 he relieved the clergy of taxes, and in 320 issued an edict against the Donatists, and some suffered death. He now incorporated Church and State. He assumed the title of bishop and claimed the authority of regulating the external affairs of the church. And he and his successors convened councils, in which he presided and determined all matters of discipline. This constitution of things was an entire departure from the order of worship established under Divine direction, by the Apostles of Christ, in the Primitive churches.

Constantine's leading motive was evidently one of political expediency and personal aggrandizement. When he undertook to unite Church and State and constitute the Kingdom of Christ into a kingdom of this world, he made a great mistake, and was found pandering to Anti-Christ rather than serving Christ, who most emphatically declared before Pontius Pilate, "My Kingdom is not of this world."

For the first three centuries the ministry were unsalaried, and received only irregular voluntary contributions from the private members, who were themselves comparatively few and poor. But Constantine instituted the worldly and corrupting practice of paying the Catholic ministry a fixed salary from "church" funds from imperial and municipal treasuries. This custom favored ease and luxury, allured a host of unworthy persons into the service of the church, and checked the exercise of free giving among the people.

The Sabbath. "In remembrance of Christ's resurrection the ancient church, like the Apostolic Church, observed the first day of the week (Sunday) as a day of sacred joy and thanksgiving, of public worship of God, and of collections for the poor; but neither the ancient nor the Apostolic Church ever called that day the Sabbath. In the year 321 Constantine appointed the first day of the week, which he called "the venerable day of the sun," in reference both to the Roman sun god, Apollo, and to Christ, the Sun of Righteousness, as, in some respects, a day of rest."

The first funeral sermon was preached by Constantine.—Hassell's History, pages, 390-91

Mosheim says that a true Apostolic bishop had the care of one Christian assembly, which at that time was, generally speaking, small enough to be contained in a private house. He was a servant, not a master or boss. The churches, also, in those early times, were entirely independent; none of them subject to any foreign jurisdiction, but each one governed by its own rules and its own laws."

Constantine erected splendid churches (for Catholics), richly adorned with paintings and images, bearing a striking likeness of heathen temples.

As the Catholic church grew corrupt, the body (true Old Baptists) that withdrew from them the last of the Third Century, continued strict in doctrine and discipline, and thus met the opposition of the nation. This strict (Primitive Baptist) Church was known as Novationists, Donatists, Montanists, and many other names because they refused to receive the Catholics without baptism. We have found the Novations in the Third Century, and in 303 the able man, Donatus, of Carthage, bitterly opposed the loose discipline and false doctrines of the Catholic church.

It is said that Donatists and Novations were together on the following: First, for purity of members, by asserting that none ought to be admitted into the church but such as are visibly true believers, and real saints; second, for purity of church discipline; third, for independence of each church; fourth, they baptized again those whose first baptism they had reason to doubt. They were consequently called re-baptizers and ana-Baptists.

The Novations (Primitive Baptists), or the church in Italy, had been very successful and were planted all over the Roman Empire. Although strict in discipline and sound in doctrine, yet they had great influence. In the restraint in 331, however, they suffered much. They were forbidden to assemble for worship, and many of the church buildings were destroyed, because they would not adhere to the Catholic church.—Daily.

Elder Hassell says, page 386: "The baptism of youth, it is maintained by many, began in this (Fourth) century.

In the year 370 the Emperor, Valens sent for Basil to baptize his dying son, Galetes; the ground of the request was the illness of the youth. Basil refused to do it and was eventually done by an Arian bishop. . . . So that it was agreed eventually that they should also baptize as soon as born, or soon thereafter, so they also, by this means, in case of death, might escape the flames of hell! And either about 256 A. D., in Africa, or 370 A. D., in Rome, is where youth's or children's baptism, without faith, came from; not from Christ or His Apostles."

The bishops became enraged against the Novationists (Baptists) for baptizing all persons who came over to their communion from the Catholic party. In the Fourth Lateran Council an order Was made to banish them (the Baptists) as heretics, and these orders were supported by an edict, in 413, issued by the Emperors Theodosius and Honorius, declaring that all persons re-baptizing and re-baptizers should both be punished with death. Albanus, a zealous minister, with other Novationists, were punished with death for re-baptizing. . . . "The combined methods of oppression led the faithful followers of Christ to abandon the cities and seek retreats and more private settlements in the county; in the doing of which they made their way into the valleys of Piedmont, which is no doubt the retreat and wilderness spoken of in Re 12:16.

About this time they began to be called Waldenses.

We have now traced the Novationists, a people of the same order, practice and discipline, into the same country. May not all these properly be called Baptists—a name which combines together all branches of the Church of Christ, which in different ages were called by the names of their elders or preachers, or a name given them by their enemies?

413. The Novationists had hitherto flourished in Rome, having a great many places of worship and large congregations; but the rising power of the Catholic interest, its union with the sword, the ambitious character of its officers, etc., prompted them to crush every opposing interest. They consequently robbed the Novationists of all their churches and drove them into obscurity. . . . A council was called at Arles and at Lyons, in 455, in which the views of the Novationists on Predestination were controverted, and by which name they were stigmatized. These people now retired from public notice, yet it is pretty manifest that while some of them sought asylums in other kingdoms, many of these despised people continued in Italy.—Owens.

Orchard History, page 165, says: "Persons holding sentiments in accordance with the Waldenses were very numerous in Spain; they were thousands and tens of thousands."

In Fifth Century. Hassell's History, pages 397 and 398, says: "Augustine affirmed that God is an omnipotent sovereign, and all men are entirely dependent upon Him; that all the human race were in the loins of Adam and fell in him. and therefore born totally depraved; that Divine grace is absolutely unmerited, indispensible and irresistible in the salvation of the sinner; that from its eternal design to its eternal accomplishment, grace does all the work of salvation, even working in the sinner all His good will and all His good works, so that he shall go into the Divine presence as a poor, helpless beggar, a poor, lost sinner, saved by grace alone from first to last, and shall be thus prepared to give God all the glory of his salvation."   "God's election and predestination of the sinner to eternal life were altogether of free and unmerited grace, and not at all conditional on the sinner's repentance, faith and good works, for these are declared in the Scriptures to be the fruit of God's Spirit in the heart” (Ps 107:1-31; Isa 45:24-25; 64:6; 66:10; Jer 31:1-9; Ro 3:24; 4:5,16; 5:19-21; 8:29-30; 9:16; 11:16; Mt 1:21; 2Ti 1:9; Eph 1:3-4, (etc.)

This doctrine is what all true Primitive Baptists believe today.

Alexander Campbell said, "Justin Martyr's public defense of the Christians of the Second Century is a sufficient document to show that the Baptist sentiments at that time universally prevailed" —Campbell-Walker Debate, page 265. Mr. Campbell further says: "Thus I have shown, that even in England, the Baptists have continued from the Apostolic times to the present day, and also that there have been in every century advocates for Baptist principles"— Ibed.. page 278.

We have shown that the Primitive Baptist Church was apostolic in faith and practice from the apostolic age until the Fifth Century. They opposed Roman Catholicism, the mother of harlots. They baptized all who came to them from the corrupt party, just like Old Baptists do today. They had no institutions of men or allowed their members to belong to oath-bound, Christless secret orders. They believed in a complete separation between the church and Anti-Christ. They contended for a strict discipline and pure membership. No gambling, profanity, drunkenness, adultery, fornication, lawlessness, perjury, dishonesty, lying, stealing or other immoral conduct allowed. They were known by their fruits. Such conduct should never be allowed. The ministry of the church were chaste, godly men, generally poor, and preached the Gospel because they loved it. There was a sacred bond of love that bound the true ministry together, so they were not back-biting or envious of others. Their discipline was enforced by churches alone. There was no disciplinary power over the church. Nobody could deal with and exclude a member but the church to which one belonged, and to which he was amenable, and nowhere else. There was no separate constitution or rules of decorum from the church. The ministry and the church were despised and rejected of men. Their hardships were great. They looked to God alone for their perpetuity. None patronized the mother of harlots by sending their children over to join her institutions. May the dear old church ever preserve those apostolic marks and all be cemented in love. Surely they have been an afflicted and poor people, but rich in faith. All true Baptists should lovingly adjust their differences and be sweetly united in love and unity.

The Apostolic Church rebaptized all that came to them from other communities, and refused to receive or baptize children.

The Catholic Party, it seems, believed that water baptism was ' essential to eternal salvation. Hence the question arose, "If salvation is not attainable without baptism, how are our children that die without being baptized to be saved? * * * Augustine did preach infantile purity as the Arminian world does in this century, but his arguments were that original sin was taken away in baptism, which soon drove him into Pedo-baptism. And for the purpose of giving more strength to his doctrine, he called together at Mela, in Numidia, 92 ministers, and Augustine himself presided. This assembly was afterward called the Council of Mela. They there solemnly declared that whosoever denies that little children by baptism are free from perdition and eternally saved, that they be accursed. This was in the year 416. At Girona, in Spain, says Dr. Robinson, seven men of different provinces made the first rule for infant baptism. Charles the Great, in 789, issued the first law in, Europe for baptizing infants. The practice of baptizing infants had obtained quite generally in the Catholic church after the Fifth Century, but at first by immersion, and afterwards to sickly children by pouring, and sprinkling, finally obtained. Stephen the Pontiff, 754, gives his opinion that if children. were sickly, pouring, in such cases of necessity, would be valid baptism.—Owens Hist., p. 27. The Catholic Party was the mother of the institution of infant baptism and also sprinkling and pouring. The true Baptists maintained from the New Testament that the Church consisted only of virtuous persons, who had been born of the Holy Ghost. They took the New Testament for the rule of their faith and practice."—Owens.

Mr. Orchard says: "To review the history of such a people, so correct in morals, simple in spiritual worship, Scriptural in faith and practice, for the period of above four centuries, is a pleasing employment."

"In the preface of the first French Bible, the translators say that they (the Waldenses—Primitive Baptists) have always had the full enjoyment of the heavenly truth contained in the Holy Scriptures ever since they were enriched with the Apostles, having in fair manuscript, preserved the entire Bible in their native tongue from generation to generation" (Moreland's Hist., p. 14).

"They took no oaths, but used a simple affirmation; they believe in the doctrine of the Trinity, and baptized believers; they refused baptism to infants, when it came into use in other churches, and were consequently reproached with the term re-baptizers or Anabaptists.

Many of the daughters of Antichrist (Catholics) have become ashamed of their mother, and have laid claim to these people (the Waldenses) as their ancestors. This is in accordance with the Prophet: "Let us be called by thy name to take away our reproach" (Isa 4:1). Beza affirms the Waldenses were the relics of the pure Christian Churches; some of them were the poor of Lyons. The Waldenses were the off-spring or successors of the Novationists, who were persecuted and driven from Rome A. D. 413, and who for purity in communion were called Puritans. The name of Paterines was given to the Waldenses (Baptists), who for the most part held the same opinions, and therefore have been taken for the same class of people, who continued till the Reformation under the name of Paterines or Waldenses. There were no differences in religious views between the Alibgenses and Waldenses. All these people inhabited the south of France and were called in general Albigenses, and in doctrine and manners were not distinct from the Waldenses." * * * 'They formed their Churches of only good men. The Waldenses were in religious sentiments substantially the same as the Paulicans, Paterines, Puritans and Albigenses."—Owens Hist., pages 31, 32.

See the ridiculous abominations of Catholicism, the mother of Harlots: "The festivals of fools and asses were established (in Seventh Century) in most Churches. On the days of solemnity they created a bishop of fools, and an ass was led into the body of the Church, dressed in a cape and four-cornered cap, church dances, feastings on the altar, revelry, and obscene farces, were the ceremonies observed on those festivals, and in many dioceses these extravagances were continued for several centuries. This picture is only a sample of many extravagances practiced in those days (by the Catholics), and that, too, under the sacred name of the religion of Jesus Christ" (Owens Hist., p. 32). Shame! SHAME!

It is shown that the true Church of God, in this dark age, rejected infant baptism, held to close communion, were orthodox in the doctrine of the Trinity, they knew of no other Mediator than the Lord Jesus Christ.

"They were hooted in council for calling the Catholics a wordly community, and re-baptizing such as joined their Churches."

Mosheim says their standard of perfection was so high in Christian morals, that their increasing congregations were divided into two classes of disciples, which can be traced through the Albigenses, Waldenses, Germainic, and Dutch Baptist Churches, from this parent stock. Sylvanus spent twenty-seven years of his life in preaching the Gospel in different provinces. * * "The preaching and exertions of these people to establish and maintain a pure system of Gospel truth, seemed to be attended with Divine approbation, and multitudes embraced a Gospel simply and fully preached" (Owens Hist., p. 34). Sore persecution followed, Sylvanus fate in Italy of such Christians who bore various names for various causes.

Eighth Century—They held that a Christian Church ought to consist of only good people—had no power to frame any constitution, aside from what Christ and His Apostles authorized, and that it was wrong and not right to take oaths; it was not lawful to kill mankind, nor should he be delivered up to officers of the law to be converted from error, that faith alone in Jesus Christ could save a man; the benefit of society belonged to all its members, the Church ought not to prosecute; the law of Moses was no rule for Christians. The Catholics then baptized by immersion.

Orchard says: "During the kingdom of the Goths and Lombards, the Baptists had their share of Churches and Baptisteries in those provinces, though they held no communion with Rome, or any other hierarchy." Their places of worship were soon taken from them and transferred to the Catholic Party.

"In the commencement of the Ninth Century, those people that may be termed Baptists were quite numerous in Italy. * * * Those of their churches where baptism was administered, were known by the name of Baptismal Churches, and to such Churches all the Christians in the vicinage flocked for baptism. When Christianity spread into the country, the people met for worship where they could, but all candidates for baptism came up to the Baptismal Church to receive the ordinance. In time, Baptisteries were built in the country and, like the old ones, were resorted to by the neighboring inhabitants.

We have traced the Church of Christ, from its formation at Jerusalem, through Italy, Africa, Spain and France, and some other small provinces, and we see that the Catholic Party at Rome, situated as they were, in the great metropolis of the empire, became opulent and proud, and the self-sacrificing spirit of the meek and lowly Saviour soon ceased to be the object of their desires or a criterion for their action. * * * "When the Catholic Party began to persecute these Baptists and they had to fly to other parts for safety, we see the interposition of the Divine hand in directing their course toward the valleys of Piedmont, where His Church should assemble, and the ingathering of His people from all parts where the floods of persecution were raging against them, and these valleys bore testimony to the truth, and received the promised nourishment from their Divine Master, "for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent"-1260 days—years (Re 12:14).

"Having traced a people from the Apostles down to the century of which we speak, known by different names, at different times, yet all holding the same tenets, preaching the same doctrine, practicing the same ordinances, discarding ALL human inventions in religion, opposing the innovations of the Catholic Church, observing the Scriptural order in all matters of religion, and now concentrating in these valleys where the Captain of their salvation designed them to have some repose" (Owens Hist., p. 40). It seems that the earth (the world helped the church) in the person of a man who presided over the Catholic interest in Piedmont, who held that Jesus Christ is the alone head of the church. He struck immediately at the root of Popery. He condemned the Catholic creed, and contended that the word of God, and that alone, as the only ground. of the Christian faith, and that men are justified by faith without the deeds of the law. He discarded their images; condemned the pope, and contended that Jesus Christ founded His own Church upon the rock, Christ Jesus. Of course the Catholic Party became much enraged against him. Thirteen true Baptists were burned alive.

(By Elder Jesse Cox).

Historians agree that Christ founded the Baptist Church, He, Himself, being baptized by John the Baptist, the first of Primitive Baptist preachers. He was therefore a Baptist, a Primitive Baptist and His followers were baptized by a Primitive Baptist and the church Jesus set up was a Primitive Baptist Church (Da 2:44; Mt 16:18; Heb 12:28). "Here Jesus came to the porter (John the Baptist) for admittance into the sheepfold, (church), (Mr 1:9). "And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan.Mr 1:10; and straightway coming out of the water, He saw the Heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove, descending upon Him." That Jesus was baptized in Jordon there can be no doubt. Then to constitute a legal member of the church he must have experienced all that is understood spiritually by regeneration and being born again, and then submitted to the ordinance of baptism by immersion in water, which must be administered by a legal administrator, who has been baptized and come under the imposition of hands. That such a kingdom was set up from the preaching of John the Baptist is very evident, and with the ordinances, as Jesus instituted the sacrament of the supper on the night in which He was betrayed; and immediately on His ascension we find about one hundred and twenty of them in church doing business in the year 33; and in a few days more we find them all together of one _accord, when they received the miraculous gift of the Holy Ghost, and after Peter preached, there were added unto them about three thousand. How could they have been added to them, if they had not been organized before?

"But at the preaching of John He set up a visible kingdom composed of spiritual subjects. Or to separate the wheat from the chaff.

That it was set up is evident, or it never could have suffered violence; nor could men press into it; and if not set up until the day of Pentecost, then our Lord never entered the visible kingdom. That it was not set up with full power until after the ascension is admitted, and that all the ordinances were instituted and practiced, and the keys of the kingdom committed to Peter, with the promise, "Whatsoever ye (Apostles) bind on earth shall be bound (ratified) in Heaven." p. 147.

That this kingdom will continue in a visible state is evident from the following Scriptures: "And He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of His Kingdom there shall be no end (Lu 1:33).”And I say also unto thee that thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it (Mt 16:18). "But of the Son He saith, Thy throne, O God! is forever and ever; a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of Thy Kingdom" (Heb 1:8). His Kingdom is an everlasting Kingdom, and His dominion from generation to generation" (Da 4:3). "And His Kingdom that which shall not be destroyed" (Da 6:26). "My Kingdom is not of this world" (Joh 18:36.—Jesse Cox, page 149.

"The Baptists as will be evident from the above exposition of their principles, claim their origin from the ministry of Christ and His Apostles. This is the claim of Baptists generally. They further claim that all the Christian Churches of the first two centuries after Christ were founded and built up on the principle they profess; in proof of which they appeal to the high critical.

"In 1019 a synod was held at Toulouse to consider the most effectual method to rid the province of the Albigenses, and though the whole sect was, in 1022, said to have been burnt, yet the emigrants from Bulgaria, coming in colonies into France, kept the seed sown and the churches recruited, and soon after the same class of people was found inhabiting Languedoc and Gascony. * * *

"The corruptions of the man of sin (Roman Catholicism) had now become so apparent to all men of discernment who had the privilege of reading the Scriptures, that they could no longer shut their eyes to the fact that the Catholic Church was a sink of sin and not the repository of Gospel truth. And from this time up to the reformation by Luther, we shall have occasion to notice many reformers, who appeared boldly contending for the truth, all of which had no tendency to weaken the iron grasp that the man of sin held upon the world of mankind, and prepare the way for the overthrow of secular power. But while we record the valuable services of reformers (the earth helped the woman-church), and the reader contemplates their noble efforts, let us bear in mind that the Church of Jesus Christ have sacredly kept the truth of the Gospel, from the days of the Apostles, through successive centuries, and have stood in every age as a beacon light to all those who have seen the danger of being carried away into the pool of destruction by the corrupting waves of the sea of Rome. No doubt those reformers, with their numerous followers, added much to the interest of the true church and were hailed by our brethren as the dawn of better times. About the year 1035. three reformers made their appearance, Bruno and Berenfarius of France, and Gundulphars in Italy, all of whom labored much to reform the corruptions of the Catholic Church.

"* * * Having taken a brief notice of the Baptists, or Church of Christ, in France during the Eleventh Century, we now come to notice them in the valleys of Piedmont during the same time. The leading object of these people seemed to be to disseminate truth, practical godliness and piety."—Owens History, pages 47, 48.

These valleys afforded an asylum for the poor persecuted Baptists of other countries who refused to receive the mark of the beast. They were a happy people, where neither pride, arrogance, popularity. Self-aggrandizement. love of wealth the religion of Jesus Christ was practiced in its purity, and its name indicated the practice and character of its subjects.

Their enemies acknowledged they were very zealous, that they (men and women) never ceased from teaching, night or day. They had the Old and New Testaments, and they teach and learn it so well that they had seen and heard a countryman recount all Job, word for word. and divers who could perfectly deliver all the New Testament: and that men and women, little and great, day and night, cease not to learn and teach. The contrast betwixt the Church of Anti-Christ and the true witnesses of the Lamb, during the Twelfth Century was very great. While the priests, elders and bishops of the former were wallowing in wealth and affluence, neglecting the reading of the Scriptures, which are able to make men wise unto salvation, but depending on their national power for the success of the church, the poor Baptists were engaged in reading the Scriptures, fasting and praying, relying on the oath and promise of their God for success. Teaching, preaching, and other religious exercises, were the only amusements they indulged in, when they were not laboring for natural .sustenance. What a spectacle! A whole people engaged in the service of God, without schism or division.

The system adopted and the privilege granted by the Church to all the members to exercise whatever gifts they might possess in exhorting and teaching, were very well calculated to bring to view all gifts that were calculated to be beneficial in the dissemination of truth, and the consequence was many useful gifts sprang up among them, who were not only of great use at home, but itinerated through other kingdoms, and kept the smoldering coals of truth alive where the beast was exercising his power. In this Eleventh Century is when the pope of Rome assumed universal power and jurisdiction over the emperor." Owens History, pages 48, 49.

It is said, "Many great families protected and employed the Baptists, because their upright walk and conduct produced confidence in them and faith in their religion."

Principles believed by the Baptists in the Twelfth Century: The Church of Rome is the whore of Babylon.

We must not obey the pope and bishop, because they are the wolves of the Church of Christ, etc."—Owens History, pages 60 and 61.

It is said in the Thirteenth Century an innumerable multitude of the poor despised Baptists was burned alive throughout Germany, and a greater number converted. Persecution has never been able to quench the flame of God's love in His children.

Fourteenth Century—For 130 years after the destruction of the churches in France, the Waldenses in these valleys experienced a tolerable portion of ease and a respite from the severity of a general persecution, all of which time they multiplied greatly, and were as a people whom the Lord had evidently blessed.

Hassell's History, page 443, says: "As many as four hundred 'heretics' (Baptists or Church of Christ, so-called by Catholics) were sometimes burned in one great pile, to the great rejoicing of the Catholics. Twenty thousand men, women and children were slain indiscriminately in the capture of Beziers, and two hundred thousand during that year (1209). The number of Alibgenses that perished in the twenty years' war is estimated at from one to two million. Whoever was a heretic was to lose his property and be reduced to slavery. Every house in which a 'heretic' was found was to be destroyed.

"* * * The Council Toulouse, in 1229, under Pope Gregory IX, prohibited 'laymen' from possessing or reading the Bible in the mother tongue, and the same pope in 1231 prohibited laymen from disputing on the faith under penalty of excommunication."

By his bull Unam Sanctum, issued in 1302, he declared that strict submission to the pope of Rome was absolutely essential to salvation for every individual of the human race." Page 449.
Hassell's History, page 473, says: "The Sixteenth was the century of the birth, from Roman Catholicism, of Lutheranism, Episcopalianism and Presbyterianism—High-Church Episcopalianism departing least and Presbyterianism, the youngest daughter departing most, from the principles of their old mother—Roman Catholicism. They persecuted one another but mother and daughters united in persecuting the true followers of Christ—the Baptists."

"The Church of Rome," says Mr. W. E. H. Lecky, "has caused more wars, has shed more innocent blood and inflicted more unmerited suffering, than any other institution that has ever existed among mankind."—Hassell's History, p. 499, 500.

Missionary Board. Elder Hassell history, p. 516, says: "In 1622 Gregory XV., the first pope who had been a pupil of Jesuits, established the first great missionary board in the world, the prototype of all other missionary boards, whether Catholic or Protestant, having in charge the entire Roman Catholic missionary system. The body is still in existence. * * * To promote the same purpose of Catholocizing the world the next pope, Urban VIII., established, in 1627, a seminary or college (theological school) for propagating the faith, to which young men from all nations are brought at an early age and gratuitously instructed in languages and sciences, and fitted out for the missionary work. This college was subordinated entirely to the congregation of cardinals or missionary board."

The reader can see where missionary boards and theological schools had their origin, with Roman Catholicism, the mother of harlots. A salaried ministry started by the Catholics. The first. organ used in worship, by the pope of Rome, 666.

The persecuting Catholics had burned the books of the true worshipers of God, the Apostolic Church, so that we can not get a very clear knowledge of them except from their enemies, but while they at times made mistakes in faith and practice, they repented and preserved the identity of the church and stood aloof from the world and acknowledged Christ as the only Head and Lawgiver and that from the righteous decision of a Gospel Church there is no redress. They had no affiliation with the Catholic party, they admitted none but penitent believers to baptism, which mode, all the way, was by immersion. They practiced close communion. They were sorely persecuted and their preachers preached the Gospel freely. The churches administered to their ministry by voluntary contributions. Up to the Seventeenth Century we find the Baptist Church a separate body from the world. No boards, conventions, theological schools, ladies' aid societies, Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A. B. Y. P. U., oyster suppers, ankle auctions, instrumental music in worship, fleshly protracted meetings, members belonging to oath-bound semi-religious, Christless secret orders. The churches contended for Godly living among the membership. In the darkest ages we feel sure that there were a few in the different countries who adhered steadfastly to the faith and practice of Christ and His Apostles. They had no organized associations, but the churches were cemented together by love, each church being independent to attend to her own internal affairs, yet all local churches labored to preserve the same apostolic faith and practice, so as all could sweetly dwell together in love, peace, unity and fellowship. We would be glad to have space to mention many things through the ages that would be interesting to the inquirer, but shall omit many important events for the present. We wish to state, however, up to this (seventeenth) century there was not a Methodist Church, Free Will Baptist, Missionary Baptist, Campbellite, Mormon or Adventist Church in existence. No Russellites, Holy Rollers, Christian Scientists, etc. All these, together with Rome and her daughters, are too young to. have any claims whatever to be the Church of Christ. Christ founded His Church while He was here at Jerusalem. He never founded but one. He has only one wife and has never been divorced.

We quote from Daily's History, page 106.

We now come to our own country, the United States. Elder Daily and others claim: "From the most recent and thorough investigation it is believed that Dr. John Clark (a physician) and eleven other persons formed, at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1638, the first Baptist Church of America. Clark resigned the care of the church in 1651 to return to England, and was succeeded by Obediah Holmes. The pastors and members of this church remained Calvinistic until about the year 1820.

That church has contended for these principles over 200 years. No missionary societies in the Baptist family when this church was organized.

The Baptists A. D., 1742, adopted the London Confession of Faith with two additional articles known then as the Philadelphia Confession of Faith.

Southampton Church, Bucks County, Penn., was constituted in A. D. 1746. Organic members from Pennepek Church.

Pennepek Church was constituted A. D. 1687. It was gathered by the faithful labors of Elder Elias Keach, who was also its first pastor. He was the son of the noted Benjamin Keach, of London, who was a member of the convention that drew up and published the London Confession of Faith in A. D. 1689.

Kehukee Church, North Carolina, was constituted A. D. 1742; Kingwood, N. J., A. D. 1746; Ketocton, Va., 1751; Hartford, Md.. 1754; Wilson, N. C., 1756; Falls of Tar River, N. C., 1757; Broad Run, Va., 1766; Mill, Va., 1770; Clear Springs, N. C., 1770; Leather-wood, Va., 1772; Eno, N. C., 1773; London Tract, Pa., 1780; Abbotts Creek Church has been constituted, I think, about 165 years. Three churches in the upper Canoochee Association, Georgia, were constituted over 100 years ago.

Many more churches that we could mention that were constituted long before there was a Missionary or New School Baptist Church in America, that have never departed and are standing for the Primitive faith upon which they were constituted.

The following is a list of a few Old Baptist Associations constituted before the mission spirit entered America that are standing firm upon the original ground occupied by the true Baptist Church back to the Apostolic age: Kehukee Association, North Carolina and Virginia, constituted 1765; Ketocton, Va., 1766; Salisbury, Md., 1782; Baltimore, Md., 1793; Salem, Ky., 1785; Warwick, N. Y., 1791; Tate's Creek, Ky., 1793; Delaware, Del., 1793; Chemung, Pa., 1796; Miami, Ohio, 1797; Mayo, Virginia and North Carolina, 1798; Mountain, District, 1799. Thus in 1800 there were in the United States sixteen Old School or Primitive Baptist Associations, containing about 200 churches and 10,000 members.

(By Jarrell).

"In the year 377, the Emperor Gratian, for their denial of infant baptism, confiscated Baptist churches, and prohibited all their assemblies, public and private.

The adherents of infant baptism, discovering that they lost by controversy, A. D., 404, sent a deputation to the Emperor Honorius, requesting that the penalties of the law, against the Baptists, be strictly enforced. In A. D., 413, the Emperors Honorius and Theodosius issued an edict against the Baptists, declaring that the persons re-baptized and re-baptizing, should be punished with death. (Baptists then received no alien baptism of any kind). This was strictly enforced.—Orchard Vol. i. p. 90, 93, 94. Cramps Hist. and Benedict p. 10.

-From this time Romanism ruled the world until after the Reformation. For the unceasing opposition of Baptists to infant baptism, with other Romish abominations, during this time millions of them were martyred."—Jarrell 15.

"The Reformation was a glorious movement, so far as it extended. But as its leaders had been nursed and raised in the bosom of the Romish church, they naturally imbibed much of her nature. This they retained and mixed into the Reformation. The old Romish abomination of infant baptism they had too freely imbibed, to be able to repudiate it. Hence they were all adherents of the union of Church and State, and therefore were persecutors. John Calvin, the father of the Presbyterian Church. . . . Calvin had Servetus, whom he called a Baptist, Inst. b. 4, c. 16, sec. 16), says Dr. Draper, an infidel, brought to the stake at Geneva; and for two hours, roasted in the flames of a slow fire, begging for the love of God, that they would put on more wood, or do something to end his torture."—Draper's Int. Development of Europe, p. 492.

January 14th, of the same year, these Presbyterians observed as a day of fasting against this abominable Baptist heresy of liberty of conscience.—Orchard Vol. 2, p. 273.

"In 1646, the general assembly of Scotland, supported an appeal to Parliament, asking for the Baptists to be fully declared against, and that no person disaffected to Presbyterian Church government, set forth by Parliament, might be employed in any office of public trust."—Curry, p. 15.

Luther (the founder of the Lutheran Church) and his followers were as severe persecutors as ever the Presbyterians were. In a letter to Memius and Mycorrius, in 1530, Luther wrote: 'I am pleased that you intend to publish a book against the Ana-baptists (Baptists), as soon as possible. Since they are not only blasphemous, but also seditious men, let the sword exercise its right over them; for this is the will of God!—Life of Luther, p. 24.

Kurtz says Baptists were everywhere imprisoned, banished or executed.—Kurtz's Ch. His. Vol. 2, p. 157.

"In Virginia, under Episcopal rule, the Baptists suffered as they suffered in New England. Through iron windows of jails Baptists there preached against infant baptism, and preached the Gospel of the Son of God. The lock and key of the old Culpepper jail, from which James Ireland, dated his letters, 'From My Palace in Culpepper,' today in the museum of Richmond College, rests from their glorious work of binking Baptists for preaching against infant baptism, and for being Baptists. So let them rest." Jarrell's Hist., p. 32, 33.

"Though Baptists have their history written with their own blood, never have they spilled the blood of others. From the days of Christ to the present, emblazoned upon their banner has been their motto: Liberty of conscience now and forever."—Jarrel, p. 33. We have an abundance of evidence showing that Baptists have ever believed in religious liberty. They have been sorely persecuted but have never persecuted others.

"They (Baptists) have a continued existence from Christ to the present. Drs. Yjey and Dermont, says: 'The Baptist may be considered as of old, the only religion which has continued from the times of the Apostles, as a Christian society which has kept pure the evangelical doctrines of religion through all ages." Baptist Succession, p. 106.

"Long before the rise of Luther and Calvin they (Baptists) lay concealed in almost all the countries of Europe.—Mosheim Ch. Hist. Vol. 2: Ch. 3.

"The Penny Encyclopedia, Morell, in his Memorials, and Mosheim, says that there were about 800,000 Baptists in the Twelfth Century. Dr. Allix says they were spread all over Europe in the Eleventh Century. Froude says they were known to the world at the time of the Reformation."—Froude's Hist., Eng. p. 538. Kurtz, a Lutheran, says that in 1525, in St. Gaul alone there was a Church of 800 Baptists."—Kurtz's Ch. Hist. Vol. 2, p. 65. Philosopher Locke said: "The Baptists were from the beginning friends and advocates of absolute liberty—just and true liberty, equal and impartial liberty."—Curry, p. 64.

That infidelity from the wickedness of the human heart is more intolerant than Roman Catholicism. That for our Liberty of Conscience we are indebted to Baptists alone. To Baptist principles, with God's blessings, the world will finally ascribe its liberty."—Jarrell 61.

(D. B. Day).

Authorities in Church history—Mosheim, Neander, Hagenbach, Jacobi, and Bunsen. They further claim to be able to trace their history in a succession of pure churches (Cathari), essentially Baptist, though under various names, from the third century down to the reformation. These churches, from the fifth century onward, were subjects of systematic persecutions from the State Churches, both in the East and in the West."—"The Baptists are the only body of Christians that has not symbolized with the Church of Rome." The article on religious liberty in the amendments to the American Constitution was introduced into it by the united efforts of the Baptists in 1789."—D. B. Ray, p. 257, 260, Ray-Lucas Debate.

D. B. Ray says, p. 262: "I state here, however, that the Baptists bear the Bible Characteristics of the Church of Christ, because they have the Bible succession and hold the other peculiarities that characterize the true Church of the living God.--"The Kingdom of Christ has no end. It has the succession. It has been perpetuated. It has stood until the present time." . . . "The fearful error into which men have fallen is, that the church of Rome either is now or was once the true Church of Christ, and that she became Apostate, and consequently men have set about the pious work of trying to reform that Apostate Church, to make the true Church of Christ! I want to introduce the Scriptures now to show that such is not the case, that the Church of Rome is not now the Church of Christ; that the Church of Rome never was the Church of Christ; and that the Church of Rome never will be the Church of Christ.-2Th 2:3; Read Re 17:3-6. She is mystery Babylon, the Great, the Mother of Harlots and abominations of the earth."

D. B. Ray, p. 270 shows that our greatest historians say that the (Baptist) Church has stood the conflict of 1800 years and it stands now, and will stand until Christ comes. . . . "I state, dear brethren. mat those churches that trace their history through the Papal succession, from the Church of Rome, cannot be that Kingdom of God. It is impossible. It is known, and I say it in kindness, that all the branches of the Pedo-Baptist family have descended. either directly or remotely, from the Church of Rome. The reformers (Calvin, Luther, Henry VIII.) of the Sixteenth Century came out of the Church of Rome. True succession falls to the Baptists by inheritance. If every word of uninspired history was blotted out, if every line had been entirely destroyed, burned with the martyrs of the church, still it falls to the Baptists. Why? Because we are the only people outside of Rome that has any succession, that makes any claim to succession. I say others only make that claim through the Church of Rome, and that being so, it falls to us, by inheritance." D. B. Ray, p. 271, says: "Historians have no difficulty in locating the 'rise' of every denomination, of every church on earth, except the Baptists. We can go back and tell where the Church of Rome started; where the British Church started; but, unless we go to Jesus Christ as the founded of what is called 'Baptist Church' that man does not live that has been able to point to any man as the founder and head of that church. . . . "I go to the Baptists, and ask the Baptist historians, 'who was your founder? Where did this church originate? And they will point to the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ is the fountain." (The Primitive Baptists is the only people who have always stood aloof from the doctrines of men.—L. H.)

D. B. Ray, p. 272 says: 'We have now seen that the Baptists, who were formerly called Anabaptists, and, in latter times, Memonites, were the original Waldenses; and who have long, in the history of the church, received the honor of their origin. On this account, the Baptists may be considered as the only Christian community which has stood since the days of the Apostles, and as a Christian Society, which has preserved pure the doctrines of the Gospel through all ages."

Benjamin Franklin (Living Pulpit, p. 348), says: "A community, not, founded at the right time is not the Kingdom of Christ." Page 350: "If Popery was born too late, or is too young to be the true Church, what shall be said of these communities (so-called churches) born in the past three centuries? They are all too young by largely more than a thousand years. No church that came into existence since the death of the Apostles can be the Church of the living God."

Any organization founded this side of Christ and His Apostles, was founded by the wrong party, at the wrong place and is toot young to be the Church of God. Therefore, Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Methodists, Missionary Baptists and others were born too late and cannot be the Church of God. "My dove, my undefiled is but one."

D. B. Ray says, "Dr. Allix, in regard to these ancient Waldenses, says: Wherefore, that I may once for all clear this matter, I say, first, that it is absolutely false that these Churches were ever founded by Peter Waldo. Let them show us any author of that time who asserts Peter Waldo ever preached in the diocese of Italy, or that he founded any Church there. I own, indeed, that Peter Waldo's taking care to have the Holy Scriptures translated into the vulgar tongue, the Churches of Italy reaped much benefit from that version, whereof we have to this day some old copies in the library of the University of Cambridge. But this does not, in the least, infer that Waldo ought to be considered the founder of them. I say, further, by the acknowledgement of the enemies themselves of the Waldenses, it is absolutely false that these churches claimed an origin from Peter Waldo. . . . The Waldenses claim to be the bride of Christ, which fled into the wilderness from the face of the dragon."

D. B. Ray, further says: "It appears that the Waldenses professed faith and a change of life before baptism. Little infants can't do this. Not in one of these ancient Waldensian Confessions can the gentleman find an article about infant baptism. This fact forbids the idea of infant baptism. Then here is a document that was prepared by the ancient Waldenses, said to have been long before the time of Waldo himself, which condemns infant baptism. I state that there is no document known in the world—dated document—prior to 1508, that charges the Waldenses with infant baptism. The learned historian, Wm.-Wall, one of the ablest writers on the Pedobaptist side, has ransacked all the documents of the past, and with all his learning, he found no traces of infant baptism among the ancient Waldenses; and, I affirm here, and when I do so, I affirm that to be a fact, that there is no evidence known on earth of infant baptism among the ancient Waldenses. The ancient Waldenses claimed an uninterrupted succession from the time of the Apostles."—Ray & Lucas Debate, p. 382-384.

(By Elder J. S. Newman).

Historians abundantly teach that in the division of the Church at Rome that Cornelius was very slack in discipline and would tolerate almost anything. Novation contended for strict discipline and keeping the church pure. He contended for Bible practice and would not tolerate nor fellowship Corelius and his corrupt party. God blessed his labors in planting many churches, in Gospel order in the Roman Empire. His enemies abused and persecuted him severely and accused him of being the cause of the trouble in the Church at Rome, Those who depart will invariably blame somebody else with their wrongs. A writer says: 'During the first three centuries Christian congregations all over the East subsisted in separate independent bodies, unsupported by government and consequently without any secular power over one another. All this time they were baptized (Baptist) churches.'—Rob's Eccl. Res. p. 55.

Again he says: "They charge Novation with being parent of an innumerable multitude of congregations of Puritans all over the Empire; and, yet, he had no other influence over any of them than what his good example gave him."

"The first and most fatal of all events to the Primitive religion was the setting up of a Christian academy at Alexandria in the year 170. In this school human creeds were first taught and united with baptism.—Orchard p. 65.

We here see that the church made mistakes even at that early date and even in the days of the Apostles. We learn from that school the fatal mistake of blending religion and education which laid the foundation for grave subsequent evils which led to blending of Church and State by the corrupt party, the revealing of the man of sin.

"The Waldenses were never in communion with the (Catholic) Church."—Owens, p. 8.

Paul Perrin says: "The Waldenses were for a time out of mind in Italy, and were the off spring of Novationists, who were driven from Rome in 400."—Owens, p. 39.

"Churches were established in the valleys in the second century." —Owens, p. 40.

"The Picards or Waldenses baptized and re-baptized such persons as joined their churches and had always done so."—Owens, p. 69.

"The Albigenses in the sixth century baptized all that came to them from other communities."—Owens, p. 26.

"The Donatists were called Re-baptizers.--Owens, p. 21.

"The Novations were put to death for re-baptizing.—Owens, p. 25.

"It seems that the Alexdrian School was a nursery in which nearly all the evils were germinated, the practice of which finally led to popery."—Owens, p. 8.

"It seems that in all ages of the world the great sin of the Baptists, in the eyes of all anti-christian profession, has been what they call re-baptizing."—Owens, p. 83.

"They objected to the name Anabaptists, because it misrepresented them. They considered unless a person is baptized by immersion and a legal administrator they are not baptized at all."—Owens, p. 81.

"In 251 Novation was ordained the pastor of a church in the city of Rome, which maintained no fellowship with the Catholic Party. They were complained of for their rigidness in discipline and re-baptizing members from other communities."—Owens, p. 12.

"The Baptists declared instrumental music in their church superstitions and unlawful."—Mosheim, Vol. 1, p. 296.

The above principles are held sacred by Primitive Baptists today.

Mosheim, in speaking of the Baptists, said, in 860 they believed: "That God did not desire or will the salvation of all mankind, but of the elect only; and that Christ did not suffer death for the whole human race, but for those persons only whom God has predestinated to eternal salvation."—Vol. 1, p. 227.

"In 732 they said, 'All that have been, or shall ever be saved, have been chosen of God before the world began.' "—Jarrell on Election, p. 47.

Elder Newman quotes S. M. Smucker, p. 40-41:

"The doctrinal system of this denomination of Baptists, is Calvinistic and orthodox. They believe the eternal decrees of God, in reference to the salvation of the elect, and hold that such as have been predestinated to be saved from the foundation of the world shall be saved and no others. In speaking of the 13th century, Mr. Smith in his history of the Christian Church, said on page 297: "They asserted, that all who had been and shall be saved have been elected of God before the foundation of the world; and that whosoever upholds free-will, absolutely denies predestination, and the grace of God."

"The Waldenses in the Twelfth Century believed in unconditional election and special atonement."

In the Twelfth Century the Waldenses (Baptists) say: "Art. II. We hold in abhorrence all human inventions, as proceeding from Anti-Christ, which produce distress, and are prejudicial to the mind." —Jones Hist., page 266, 267 and 278.

In 1540 they say: "Art. I. We believe there is but one God, who is a Spirit, the Creator of all things, the Father of all, and through us all who is worshipped in spirit and in truth, upon whom we are continually dependent, and to whom we ascribe praise for our life, food, raiment, health, sickness, prosperity, and adversity. We love Him as the source of all goodness, and reverence Him as that sublime Being who searches the reins and trieth the hearts of the children of men.

Art. 2: "We believe that Jesus Christ is the Son and image of the Father, that in Him all the fullness of the God head dwells, and that by Him alone we know the Father. He is our Mediator and Advocate; nor is there any other name under Heaven by which we can be saved. In his name alone we call upon the Father, using no other prayers than those contained in the Holy Scriptures, or such are agreeable thereunto.

Art. 3: "We believe in the Holy Spirit as the Creator, proceeding from the Father and from the Son, by whose inspiration we are taught to pray, being by Him renewed in the spirit of our minds; Who creates us anew unto good works, and from whom we receive the knowledge of the truth.

Art. 4: "We believe there is one holy Church (the invisible or inorganic kingdom, L. H.) comprising the assembly of the elect and faithful that have existed from the beginning of the world, or that shall be to the end thereof. Of this Church the Lord Jesus Christ is the head; it is governed by His word and guided by the Holy Spirit.

In the church (organic, L. H.), it behooves all Christians to have fellowship. For her He (Christ) prays incessantly, and His prayer for it is most acceptable to God, without which indeed there could be no salvation."

Their confession continues showing that ministers should be blameless in their life and doctrine and should feed the flock of God not for filthy lucre's sake, etc."

Elder Newman says: "I have before me a copy of the History of the Waldenses by Peyran. On Page 462, he said: 'That this church consists in the union of believers, who, chosen of God before the foundation of the world, and called with an holy calling are united to follow the word of God, and cherish a salutary religious fear, namely, such as is productive of holiness and a reformation of manners."

1643, London Confession of Faith—Art. 3: "God hath decreed in Himself, before the world was, concerning all things, whether necessary, accidental or voluntary, with all the circumstances of them, to work, dispose and bring about all things, according to the counsel of His holy will, to His glory (yet without being the author of sin or having fellowship with any therein): In which appears His wisdom in disposing all things, unchangeableness, power and faithfulness in accomplishing His decree; and God hath, before the foundation of the world, fore-ordained some men to eternal life, through Jesus Christ, to the praise and glory of His grace; leaving the rest in their sin, to their just condemnation, to the praise of His justice."

Art. 6: "All the elect, being loved of God with an everlasting love, are redeemed, quickened and saved, not of themselves, nor their own works, lest any should boast, but only and wholly by God, of His free grace and mercy, through Jesus Christ, who is made unto us by God, wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, redemption and all in all, that he that rejoiceth might rejoice through the Lord."

Art. 21 says: "Jesus Christ by His death did purchase salvation for the elect that God gave unto Him; these only have interest in Him, for whom He makes intercession to His Father in their behalf, and to them alone doth God, by His Spirit apply this redemption; as also the free gift of eternal life is given to them, and none else." There is no' conditionalism in the above. The foregoing was believed by our people long before there were any Boards, Conventions, Sunday Schools, etc. There were no Missionary Baptists back there. They were plain old Baptists. The seven churches that drew up the above articles of faith were called Anabaptists.—Neal's Hist., Vol. 2, p. 475.


Welch Tract Church, Newark, Delaware, constituted A. D. 1701, the oldest Primitive Baptist Church in the United States. Eld. J. H Grime. a missionary preacher says:

"This (Welch Tract) is perhaps the most noted church, especially from a historical point of view, in the United States. It figures more largely in the history of the Baptists of this country than any other church on the continent. It was one of the five constituent churches of which the Philadelphia Association was constituted in 1707. It is the source from which have sprung more churches than any other church in this country. All Baptists historians point to this old mother church with pride. It is the mecca of all Baptist debates. When a Campbellite or a Methodist assails Baptist succession, or tries to cram the Roger Williams ruse down their throats they fly to old Welch Tract Church, and through her link themselves onto the Welch Baptists, through which we have clear sailing to the days of the Apostles. In my imagination I see a Baptist debater in a debate with a belligerent Campbellite. The Campbellite attacks the succession of Baptist (Missionary) churches when the Baptist, as with a flashlight, throws old Welsh Tract Church out before the audience, and with a triumphant air defies the onslaughts of his bombastic opponent. He takes the pains to inform his opponent that this old Welsh Tract Church which was constituted in Europe more than two hundred years ago, is still in existence, coming down to us from Wales without change. All these things are facts. But there is another fact which he does not tell. This Welsh Tract Church is a Hardshell Church.

Now, I challenge Brother Barker to point out any change whatever in this old Welsh Tract Church in either doctrine or practice that would militate against it as a true church of Jesus Christ. Will he do it? I wait to see. . . .

We next cite the Hopewell Church of New Jersey. This has always, admittedly, been a Hardshell Church. That is, it declined, from the very beginning of the modern missionary movement, to have anything to do with them. This is the church which Brother Moody called an ugly knot on the log! Well, let's see something of this church. This church was constituted of twelve, five of whom were by the name of Stout, in Mercer County, New Jersey, in the private residence of Joseph Stout, April 23, 1715. They were constituted upon the following eight fundamental principles, (afterwards adopting the London Confession of Faith), as follows:

“1. Three oneness of God.
“2.  His self-existence and sovereignty.
“3. The total depravity of the natural man.
“4. The eternal, personal, unconditional election of all the members of the body of Christ.
“5. The specialty and defiteness of the atonement.
“6. The necessity of a spiritual birth in order to worship God in spirit and in truth.
“7. The sovereign and efficacious operation of Divine Grace upon all the vessels of mercy.
“8. The baptism of believers by immersion.

This church has never varied from these principles for over two hundred years. Few churches have done more in the formation of our denominational life in America."--J. H. G.

See minutes of Flint River Association, Ala., for 1908, under caption: "Who Are the Primitive Baptists?”

Elder Stewart says: "Here, in a few words in a small space is presented by Missionary Baptists themselves the strongest historical defense we have ever seen of the claims of the Primitive Baptists."—Primitive Pathway, p. 52.

You can see what Mr. Grimes, a Missionary Baptist historian of note says in the above.

Those two churches referred to above were organized true old Baptist Churches about 100 years before Modern Mission entered America. They, and many more old Baptist Churches in America, are older than the Mission Baptists.



(Introduced by Twelve Men at Kettering, England, October 2, 1792; Led by Fuller and Carey)

Departures—Dr. John Gill, of England, who was a great writer and preacher about 180 years ago, contended for Election, Predestination, Special Atonement, the Resurrection of the Dead, both of the Just and Unjust, and the final Glorification in Heaven of All for Whom Christ Atoned. After him Andrew Fuller, the founder of the Mission Baptists, arose. He was born in 1754 and died in 1815. His parents were poor and he had only the barest rudiments of an English education. He concluded that we should offer salvation freely to all sinners, without distinction, and in 1782 he published an essay entitled, "The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptance." This involyed him in a bitter controversy of twenty years with those who loved the old Bible principles.

Mr. Fuller thought the church was going too slow, he wanted to get them out of the old ruts, and like Israel of old, when they wanted a king to be like other nations, he wanted to put forth his puny hand to steady the Ark of God—send forth misionaries to save heathens—a disbelief in Christ who came into the world to save sinners and He accomplished the work He came to do (Mt 1:21; 1Ti 1:15; Ac 4:12; Isa 42:1-3; Heb 1:3; 10:14; 1Jo 1:7). He shall not fail nor be discouraged. To show his weakness and distrust in God, Fuller, Carey, and others formed the first Baptist Missionary Society at Kettering, England, October 2, 1792, and the first collection for its treasury, amounting to 13 pounds, two shillings and six pence, was taken up. Mr. Fuller was chosen and remained secretary until his death, traveling almost continually through the British Isles and pleading for the mission cause. Carey was sent as a missionary but he had a promise of the Missionary Society to support him before he would go. He looked to men and money instead of having faith in God.

Mr. Fuller makes the astonishing statement that his own church was in a famished condition of spiritual life and found no salvation except in becoming identified with mission work. Alas that the mission idol should be substituted for Christ!—Hassell's History, p. 341. God has never delegated the authority to any man or set of men, board, convention, or church, to send His preachers anywhere. God calls and qualifies and sends His preachers wherever He pleases, not to give life, but to teach, comfort, feed, strengthen and establish the living children of God. The Great Sovereign of the Universe does not eed the help of poor puny man in our salvation.

This mission spirit is the spirit of Catholicism. You will notice that the English Home Missionary Society, founded A. D. 1797—not by Christ. Baptist Irish Society, 1814; Baptist Highland Mission 1816; Society for Aged or Infirm Baptist Ministers 1816; Baptist Building Fund, London, 1824; Baptist Tract Society, 1841; Southern Baptist Convention (Home and Bible 1845; American Bible Union, 1850; American Baptist Historical Society, 1853; For Mission Department, Baptist Missionary Society, London, 1792; American Baptist Missionary Union, formerly the Baptist General Convention, 1814; General Baptist Missionary Society, 1816; American Baptist, Free Mission Society, 1843; Southern Baptist Convention, Foreign Mission, 1845—Hardy-Wallace Debate, page 288.

All of the above unscriptural machinery prove their distrust and unbelief in God and their confidence in men and money. In order to save the children they have instituted the Sunday School god,, which was founded by Robert Raikes, Gloucester, England, 1781.

Hassell's History, page 529, says: "Robert Raikes, of Gloucester, England, is generally admitted to have been the founder of modern Sunday Schools. In 1781 he hired teachers to instruct some poor children n Gloucester in reading and in the catechism on Sunday. His example was extensively imitated in the British Isles and the United States; and, by the end of the eighteenth century, the instruction had almost universally become gratuitous, and was said to be far superior in quality to what it was before, because now springing from pure benevolence. It is claimed by the Methodists that John Wesley (the founder of the Methodist), first in 1784, suggested that the instruction should be gratuitous, and also. expressed the hope that Sunday Schools would become nurseries for Christians. "(Art. on S. S. McClintock and Strong's Cyclopedia of Biblical, T. and E. L. vol. x., p. 21). The writer of the Article just mentioned declares that, within the last fifty years Sunday Schools have come to be regarded as an essential branch of church action, not merely in England and America, but throughout the Protestant world, whether in home or mission fields, and he intimates, at the conclusion of His Article, that in the Sunday School, he sees the problem of the conversion of the world in process of solution. It thus appears that, for nearly 1,800 years of the Christian era, the Church was destitute of an essential requisite in this world (according to modern teaching), and the problem of the conversion of the world had not begun to be solved!"

Sunday School fanatics are undertaking to teach the carnal mind, which is emmity to God, heavenly things, the natural man to receive spiritual things, the unborn how to be born of the Spirit, the dead how to get life by their own efforts, which never can be done. (Ro 8:7-8; 1Co 2:14; Joh 3:3-7; 5:21-25; 8:43-47; Heb 8:10-12). If Sunday Schools had been right and essential our Blessed Saviour would have authorized them. His law is perfect. The Sunday School is the greatest machine on earth to proselyte the world into idolatrous religion.

No sin is condemned more than false religion. "Woe be unto you Scribes, Pharisees and Hypocrites," etc. It is wrong to send your child to such an anti-Christian institution whose proselytes, if they had the law power, would blend Church and State and exterminate everyone who believes in Salvation by Sovereign Grace.

Benedict—"Fifty Years Among the Baptists," 1859, p. 83, says: "The cause of this movement, (sending the Gospel to the heathen) may be traced to the conversion of A. Judson and Luther Rice to the sentiments of the Baptists, while on their way to India as missionaries, under the patronage of the Pedo-Baptists. The unexpected change in those two young men, as a matter of course, made no small stir in the Pedo-Baptist ranks, as might be naturally expected. Mr. Judson, at the time of his Baptism, in Calcutta, preached a sermon on the baptismal controversy, which was republished and widely circulated in this country. Mr. Rice soon returned to America to seek pecuniary aid for assisting in establishing a Baptist mission in the East, and to select suitable persons for an undertaking to which the attention of (some) American Baptists was now directed in a sudden and unexpected manner."—(An entirely new movement, new societies, unheard of in the Apostolic age. L. H.). Up to this time, this large and increasing body seemed to have had no idea that they had either the call or the ability to send out missionaries to foreign lands. Fuller and Carey and others started this new machinery to save the unsaved A. D. 1792. Rice established missionary societies in America which led to a final division of the Baptists. The true old Baptists opposed this new movement all the time.

It is truthfully said that in foreign missions the Roman Catholics have led the way.

Hassell's Hist., page 764, says: "Let us consider for a moment, concise account of the origin and progress of the foreign missionary society among Baptists in the United States, which then (1857), being only 43 years old, was tottering to its foundation by internal commotions, and likely to be abandoned even by its originators. What an apology for Bible and Apostolic authority for an institution 43 years old! Born 1814—hence you see the Missionary Baptists of the United States were born 1814. Renounced the Church of Christ (Primitive Baptist) in 1814, and denounced her as an old-fashioned. worn-out concern!"

Hassell's Hist., page 764, says: "Let us consider for a moment some of the marks which Benedict gives of old-fashioned Baptists: 1. They believed that Christ died for the elect only. 5. They dwelt much on the decrees and purposes of God, and dived deep, in their way, into the plans of Jehovah in eternity, and thereby brought to light, as they supposed, the -hidden treasures of the Gospel. They were Christians in their doctrinal sentiments. They ascribed the whole work of salvation to God alone. They were staunch defenders of a limited atonement, and would not entertain the general atonement system of Andrew Fuller. They taught that all for whom Christ died would be certainly called and saved. They were careful not to ordain a man to the ministry unless he was sound in the ancient faith. They were slow to engage in any new enterprises, and were jealous of collegiate training for their ministers. They were called Old Baptists and were opposed to ministers reading their sermons, favoring extemporaneous discourses altogether.

Elder Gilbert Beebe, one of the ablest ministers of his day, in Coffees' History, pages 21-2, says: Brother Carr, when I became a member of the Baptist Church in 1811, no religious institution was known or patronized, to my knowledge, in conection with the Baptists of the United States. Not a college, theological school, Sunday School, missionary or tract society existed in this country. Not long after my membership the heresy of Andrew Fuller, of England, began to be promulgated among us. Not long after this Dr. A. Judson and Luther Rice, who had been educated for the ministry by the Presbyterians, were by their denomination sent as missionaries to the East Indies, and on their way agreed to change their profession, and on their arrival in Bismark they were baptized by Dr. Carey, a so-called Baptist minister from England, and Rice returned to originate a mission spirit among the Baptists of America.

Elder T. P. Dudley, of Kentucky, and his father served Bryan Church for ninety-four years. This church was constituted in 1786 and always was a sound old Baptist Church. Elder Dudley was ninety-five years old when he fell asleep in death, A. D., 1886. He makes the following statement in Hassell's History, page 731:-"Let it be remembered that those institutions, moneyed religious societies, theological seminaries, Sunday Schools, etc., etc.,) were unknown in the country until within the present century, and yet their advocates tell us that they are Old School Baptists. Did the Apostles or subsequent ministers who made similar sacrifices, wait to make a contract with a missionary board for a stipulated salary, and thus make themselves hirelings; or did they, in ordaining subsequent ministers, give it in charge that they should not preach for a church or churches unless they were paid for it? We contrast the course of the Apostles and pioneers with that of the advocates of modern inventions of men to evangelize the world and determine who are Old School Baptists. The commission given by Christ to the Apostles is as silent as death on the subject of missionary, Bible, tract and temperance societies and Sunday Schools, with all the modern inventions originated by men as aids in evangelizing the world. The Apostles did not advocate such and the London and Philadelphia Confessions of Faith urge no such measures. In 1818 the Kehukee Association received sixteen copies of the fourth annual report of the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions from the United States Convention at Philadelphia. This shows the age of the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions to be four years. It was born of spurious philantrophy and false zeal in 1814. We are naturally led to inquire: How did the churches and the people of God in America get along without it until the auspicious year dawned upon the world ? If it was necessary in 1814, was it not necessary in 1714 and in 1614, and in every hundred years backward, through to the Apostolic age? If it was not necessary until 1814, was it necessary then or can it be necessary now ? We find nothing of it previous to this time in the American Churches, and nothing of it in England previous to the days of Fuller and Carey.

The subject of missions was proposed to the Kehukee Association by Martin Ross in 1803; it was never proposed before that time. The Association was constituted in 1765, and was therefore thirty-seven years old before the subject was ever brought to her notice. The subject was new to her then, and those originating it must of course be called a "new order," or New School Baptists. The age of the mission enterprise is much less than a century in North Carolina.

We cannot see how such organizations as these can be called Churches of Christ, because those of them who departed from the original fold were excommunicated from church privileges and Gospel fellowship.

Whatever they did thereafter was done in a state of disorder, or as excluded members, whether it was to form churches, adopt creeds, baptize persons, or administer the elements at communion season. All is in disorder, and consequently should not be recognized by the true church as legal or valid. Whatsoever has sprung from this impure source of course must be impure also; and their baptisms, as well as their false doctrines, must be rejected and disowned by the true Church of Jesus Christ."—Hassell's History, page 750.

Prophesied Departures From Christian Doctrine and Practice.

"Religious or Sunday Schools—These were and are mainly intended as so-called nurseries for the "Church"—to teach children the elementary principles of the denomination, and to induce them to become members of the denomination that teaches them. In the Old and the New Testament times, parents were required by God to teach the leading truth of the Scriptures to their own children (Ge 18:19; De 4:9-10; Eph 6:4; 2Ti 1:5; 3:15). But, disobeying this Divine command, and trying to transfer this duty to other unqualified persons, the Catholics, in the Second Century, during the week, and the Methodists and Episcopalians in the Eighteenth Century on Sundays, established religious schools to train children for their denominations, and nearly all other religious sects, including the Unitarians, Mormons, Mohammedans, and Buddists, have followed them, so that nearly one-fourth of the people in the United States attend these Man-Made schools, and neglect "Church" services. Salvation by human righteousness and by dead formalities are taught in these schools, and, in a great many of them, the deadly errors of miscalled "Higher Criticism or Rationalism or Infidelity are taught, and the plastic minds of children are poisoned for life against the most vital Bible truths and against the people of God who believe and maintain those unpopular truths. Primitive Baptist parents who allow their minor children to attend these Arminian and Infidel Schools, virtually give them to Babylon. Instead of even making children moral, Mr. Wilbur F. Crafts, of Maine, Superintendent of the International Reform Bureau, has recently declared that there are, in the United States, seven times as many youthful criminals as there are adult. What a stupendous failure is this idolized human institution substituted for the Divine ordinance of parental instruction!

"Humanly Pre-Arranged Protracted Meetings—Designed to excite people into a profession of religion. They were invented in the Eighteenth or Nineteenth Century, and are a reflection upon the wisdom and mercy of God, presuming to dictate to the Holy Spirit when to operate upon people, and to regenerate sinners. When the Lord appoints a meeting as at Pentecost and graciously continues it, a great blessing results; but when denominations do this and deceive people into a religious profession, to increase their membership, it is a curse to the people thus deceived, and to many who do not join them, as it seems to prove that religion is a mockery.

"A Salaried Ministry—This is not found in the New Testament,, and reduces preaching to the level of a worldly business. The prophets and the Apostles were not hired by men to preach, but were called and qualified of God, and were hated, imprisoned, scourged, tortured, impoverished and slain by men. It is right for those who minister of their spiritual things to us to receive of our carnal things. It was the glory of Paul, the chief Apostle, to preach the gospel of Christ without charge (1Co 9:7,18), and so it is the unselfish delight of the true ministry now to do the same; but those who are taught in the word should esteem it a precious privilege to communicate to those who teach them, as Christ's disciples delighted to minister to Him of their substance (Lu 8:3), and as the Churches of Macedonia, in their poverty, abounded in liberality to him in his afflictions. (2Co 8:1-2; Php 4:10-19). The most of Primitive Baptist ministers have families, and are poor, and lovingly devote much of their time and labor to the service of God and His people, and it is clearly taught, in the Scriptures, that those whom they serve should, with equal love and self-denial, minister to their necesities.

"Instrumental Music in Churches—This custom was practiced in the Old Testament tabernacle and temple, but not by Christ or His Apostles, who simply and heartily sung psalms and hymns and spiritual songs (Mt 23:30; Mr 14:26; Eph 5:19; Col 3:16). The use of instrumental music in public worship during the Christian Era was introduced by Pope Vitalian, 666 A. D., in Roman Catholic services, and has been imitated by Protestants and the most of Baptists in modern times; but the Orthodox Jews and the Greek Catholics have never practiced this unspiritual custom, preferring the God-given and articulate and far superior human voice, as do nearly all Primitive Baptist Churches. We practice sacred singing in our homes and Churches, and do not need a man-made instrument. S. HASSELL.

"The Knowledge of the Holy Scripture From a Child."--2Ti 3:15.

The Apostle Paul, in this verse of his last letter, declares that "from a child thou (Timothy) hast known the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus," that the unfeigned faith which dwelt first in Timothy's grandmother Lois, and his mother Eunice, and also in him (2Ti 1:5), that faith which Paul says is the gift of God (Eph 2:8), the fruit of the Spirit (Ga 5:22), of which Jesus is the author and finisher (or completer, Heb 12:2). The word rendered "child" in 2Ti 3:15 means "babe." His meaning evidently is that the believing grandmother and mother of Timothy; in their own home, as Abraham had done (Ge 19:19), and as God had instructed His people (De 6:1-9) taught Timothy the truths and commandments of the Lord, as set forth in the Holy Scriptures, and that God had given Timothy the same genuine faith in Christ Jesus as the substance of the Scriptures, and as his Saviour that He had already given to dwell abidingly in His grandmother and mother, although Timothy's father was a Greek or Gentile (Ac 16:1-3), his mother being a Jewess. His grandmother and mother had not presumed to disobey this plain commandment of God to "train him up in the way he should go" (Pr 22:16), to "bring him up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord" (Eph 6:4), and had not presumed to substitute, in place of this perfect divine institution, the modern inefficient human plan of sending him to a Sunday School or Public Bible Class, which is unknown to the Scriptures, and which the Roman Catholics claim to have invented in the 17th century, and which the Methodists and Episcopalians imitated in the 18th century, and which the other Protestants and New School Baptists imitated in the 19th century, and which the Mohammedans and Buddhists have adopted in this century, and which our Progressive brethren in Georgia are now adopting, and under which the world is rushing to ruin.

My father, Elder C. B. Hassell, followed the Divine method of teaching his children the Scriptures in his home, and leading them in singing the songs of Zion, and in family prayer every day; and I did the same while my children were with me; and this was the former general custom of the Primitive Baptists; and while we could not, and told them we could not save them eternally, but that only God, by His atoning Son and renewing Spirit, could save them from sin and hell, they have been reverent, moral, sober, and useful and respectable citizens, and they have kept out of. Arminian denominations, and some of them have, by Divine grace, become true followers of Christ. This daily family worship of God is of far greater importance than all the humanly invented and idolized Sunday Schools, Church organs, and protracted meetings, and money drives in the world.


(By Benedict and G. W. Stewart).

"Sunday Schools and Bible Classes, end all the other institutions of modern times, for objects of Christian benevolence and moral re- form, which are now in such successful operation with us, and other communities in the land, were wholly unknown in my early day," —Benedict, p. 20.

"A few Education societies had been formed in those early times for the purpose of affording pecuniary aid to theological students who here and there appeared among us, and it is not a little interesting to trace the progress of some of those feeble beginnings to a seminary growth and, in the end, to collegiate maturity. Fifty years ago, the account is soon rendered, a few small societies had been established in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Charleston, and a few other places, by the aid of which missionaries were sent out. . . . "Elder Rooker, who was the first missionary of the Charleston Society, was sent to labor among the remnant of the Catawba Indians in South Carolina. About the same time, the New York Society sent Elder Elkanah Holmes on a mission among the six nations."—Benedict, 'p. 18.

When I look back I can hardly realize the changes which have taken place in our denomination, in my day. It seems incredible that a society which so lately was so slow to engage in any new enterprise, and was jealous of any collegiate training for its ministers, should at this early period have so many colleges and kindred institutions spread over the land; that such a flood of periodicals, so much should have been done by our people in the home and foreign mission departments, in the Bible cause, in the publication of Baptist literature, in Sunday Schools and Bible classes, and in kindred labors of various kinds; and all since I first began their history."—Benedict, p. 21.

This shows conclusively that the Mission Baptists is a new society. The writer shows above when it was born in the U. S.

"Fifty years ago there were but little more than thirty Baptist ministers in all the country who had been through a course of collegiate training, and but eight on whom the title of D. D. had been conferred."—Benedict 50.

"Forty years ago the dormant energies of our denomination in this country began to be aroused in favor of sending the gospel to the heathens. The cause of this movement may be traced to the conversion of Adrion Judson and Luther Rice to the sentiments of the Baptists, while on their way to India as missionaries, under the patronage of the Pedo-Baptists. This unexpected change in these two young men, as a matter of course, made no small stir in the Pedo-Baptist ranks, as might be naturally expected. Mr. Judson at the time of his baptism, in Calcutta, preached on the baptism controversy, which was published and widely circulated in this country. Mr. Rice soon returned to America to solicit pecuniary aid for assisting in establishing a Baptist Mission in the East and to select suitable persons for an undertaking to which the attention of the American Baptists was now directed in a sudden end unexpected manner,

Up to this time, this large and increasing body seemed to have no idea that they had either the call or ability to send out missionaries to foreign lands. "(This was entirely a new practice Among Baptists).—Something had to be done in a few locations in the early part of the foreign mission enterprise."—Benedict, pages 83 and 84. Jesus the Great Head of the Church sends His preachers and has never delegated this authority to any man, board or convention to send His preachers anywhere to preach. This enterprise was following Rome instead of Christ.

"Mr. Rice, in his public performances, dwelt but little on sectarian matters, but the deplorable conditions of the perishing heathen was his principle theme. . . .

"He soon traversed the whole of the United States (compassing sea and land, L. H.), and formed an acquaintance of great extent, and at an early day, by means of printed circulars, which were scattered broadcast over the land, and letters of his own writing, this industrious man opened correspondence with all who had shown any sympathy for the cause in which he engaged. Soon societies of various kinds arose in all directions, for the promotion of this new undertaking, and thus a foundation was laid for the foundation of The Old Baptist Triennial Convention.

This body was organized in Philadelphia, in May, 1814, and under its direction all Baptist affairs pertaining to foreign missions, for about thirty years, were managed, when the name of the body was exchanged for that of the American Baptist Missionary Union. This change was made in New York, in May, 1845."—Benedict, p. 86 and 87.

Error will grow like poisonous weeds. The Lord has never deputized Mr. Rice or any other man to save the heathen. He came to save sinners (Mt 1:4; 1Ti 1:15) and accomplished the work He came to do. "Cursed be man that trusteth in man, or maketh flesh his arm." "Vain is the help of man."

"Forty years ago large bodies of our people were in a state of ferment and agitation, in consequence of some modifications of their old Calvinistic creed, as displayed in the writings of the late Andrew Fuller, of Kettering, England. This famous man maintained that the atonement of Christ was general in its nature, but particular in its application, in opposition to our old divines, who held that Christ died for the elect only. He also made a distinction between the natural and moral inability of men.

Dr. John Gill, of London, was, in his day, one of the most distinguished divines among the English Baptists, and as he was a noted advocate for the old system of a limited atonement, the terms Gillites and Fullerites were often applied to the parties in this discussion.

Those who espoused the views of Mr. Fuller were denominated Arminians by the Gillitemen—they differed but little on any other points except those which have been named. On election, the Trinity, etc., they all agreed."—Benedict, p. 101.

"Our old Baptist divines, especially those of British descent, were generally strong Calvinists as to their doctrinal creed, and but few of them felt at liberty to call upon sinners in plain terms to repent and believe the Gospel, on account of their inability to do so without Divine assistance. They could preach the Gospel before the unconverted, but rousing appeals to their consciences on the subject of their conversion did not constitute a part of their public address. . "In that age it was customary for many of our ministers to dwell much on the decrees and purposes of God, to dive deep, in their way, into the plans of Jehovah in eternity, and to bring to light, as they supposed, the hidden treasures of the Gospel, which they, in an especial manner, were set to defend. . .

"The Philadelphia Confession of Faith, published in that city in 1742, was the standard of most of the Old Baptist Churches in this country, especially in the Middle and Southern States. This Confession was copied mostly from one published by the Baptists in London, in 1689. .

"Then, and with our orthodox Baptists, a sermon would have been accounted altogether defective, which did not touch upon Election, Total Depravity, Final Perserverance, etc."—Benedict, p. 102.

Mr. Benedict says: "In my early day the Associated Baptists were all professedly Calvinistic in their doctrinal sentiments.

"On the introduction of the Fuller system (shows it is a new system—never had been among the Baptists before Fuller, 1792, showing, too, they cannot be the Apostolic Church, L. H.). A very important change followed on the part of many of our ministers in their mode of addressing their unconverted hearers on the subjects of repentance and believing the Gospel. . . Church members then received much more attention from our public speakers, than those who stood without its pale."—Page 105.

"The Fuller system, which makes it consistent for all the heralds of the Gospel to call upon men everywhere to repent, was well received by one class of our ministers, but not by the staunch defenders of the old theory of a limited atonement. According to their views, all for whom Christ suffered and died would certainly be effectually called and saved. These conflicting opinions caused altercations of considerably severity for a time among the Baptists who had hitherto been all united on the orthodox side. The Gillites (the old orthodox Baptists), maintained that the expostulations of Fuller were unsound, and would subvert the genuine Gospel faith. If, said they, the atonement of Christ is general in its nature it must be so in its effects, as none of His sufferings will be in vain; and the doctrine of universal salvation will inevitably follow this dangerous creed. While the dispute went on, it was somewhat difficult for the Fullerites to pass muster, on the score of orthodoxy, with the old school party, or be on terms of entire cordiality with them. But so greatly has the standard of orthodoxy been lowered, even among those who are reputed orthodox, from former times, and so little attention do most of our church members of the present day pay to the doctrines which are advanced by their ministers, that this whole story will probably be new to most of them, except the older class. —(The old School Primitive Baptists, L. H.). Afew persons may now be found in most of our congregations, who are so well informed, and who pay so much attention to the preaching they hear, that they are able to detect any unsoundness in the doctrines advanced; but this is not generally the case with the great mass of our members as it was in a former age. At present, the modes and manners, and the eloquence of their ministers, engaged more of the attention of our people, than their doctrinal expositions; and most of all they look for those attractions which are pleasing to young people, and which will collect large assemblies, and enable them to compete with their neighbors in numbers and style. With this end in view, nothing that will sound harsh or unpleasant to very sensitive ears must come from the preachers, the old-fashioned doctrines of Predestination, Total Depravity, Divine Sovereignty, etc., if referred to at all, must be by way of circumlocution and implication. 'Ever since he was settled with us,' said one, 'our minister has preached on election, and still never mentions it openly.' "—Page 107.

Mr. Benedict, though a Missionary, stated facts clearly and shows that the Mission, or Fuller Party, had left the old faith and practice of old Baptists and have no right whatever to claim identity with original Baptists. There is only one true Church and when you leave that you go to the world where they love pride, style, conditionalism, human merit and boast of what they are doing for the Lord and not what the Lord has done for them. Their religion is fleshly, cold and formal and extols the creature and abases the Creator.

Mr. Benedict says: "I also noticed that the old-fashioned ideas among the Baptists, representing human depravity, conviction and conversion, and what they call the religion of the heart, were but lightly esteemed among the smooth theologists of the liberal school—all such notions as they advanced were treated with ridicule and contempt."—Page 113.

He further says: "Before the rise of modern benevolent institutions our associations were at full liberty to attend their own proper work without interference from any quarter."—Page 166.

The Introduction of the Organ Among the Baptists.

This instrument, which from time immemorial has been associated with Cathedral pomp and prelatical power, (Rome) and has always been the peculiar, favorite of great national churches, at length found its way into Baptist sanctuaries, and the first one employed by the denomination in this country, and probably in any other, might have been seen standing in the singing gallery of the old Baptist meeting house in Pawtucket, about forty years ago, where I then officiated as pastor. . . 'The changes which have been experienced. in the feelings of a large portion of our people has often surprised me. Staunch old Baptists in former times would as soon have tolerated the Pope of Rome in their pulpits as an organ in their galleries, and yet the instrument has gradually found its way among them." . . "How far this modern organ fever will extend among our people, and whether it will on the whole work a re-formation or de-formation in their singing service, time will more fully develop." —Pages 206 and 207.

The first organ was introduced into religious worship by the Pope of Rome, A. D., 666. Beware of the Pope! It is far better to follow the lowly Jesus than the Pope.

Sunday Schools—"Fifty-four years ago, when I began my ministry in Pawtucket, being then a licensed preacher, and student in college, I found a quiet little company of poor factory children, under the care of the village school master, who had a moderate compensation for his services from a few factory owners, for the children all were free. The main object of this juvenile seminary was to impart the rudiments of common school education, but-from the day on which it was kept, it was called a Sunday School. This benevolent undertaking was set in motion seven years before this time by the late Samuel Slater, of cotton mill notoriety, for the benefit of the poor, ignorant, and neglected children who had gathered round his mill, then the only one in the place. Pawtucket at this time was a small village, with but few meeting-going people in it, without any church or settled minister on the ground. The first in a Baptist Church was formed in 1805. We had heard of Raikies' enterprise in England, in the Sunday School line. (The first Sunday School on earth was founded by Robert Raikes, Gloucester, Eng land, 1781), and his plan was copied by this new American institution, which still on an improved platform in a numerous pedigree in Pawtucket and vicinity. This sacro-secular concern was moulded into the shape of modern Sunday Schools about forty years ago. . . .

"By degrees Bible reading and a moderate share of religious instruction had been introduced into our usual but very useful establishment, until by mutual agreement the old system was dispensed with and a new one was adopted. . . The claim of Pawtucket, of having started the first Sunday School in America, for a long time remained undisputed; but the late years, a number of rival claims of priority in the business have been set up."—Benedict; pages, 227 and 228.

The Sunday School is of human origin and the intention of it at first, as shown, was to teach the poor children to read and write that could not go to a literary school. Later, they tried to dump it off on the church as a soul-saving machine and a nursery to the church which is the grossest of idolatry. They undertake now to teach the carnal mind spiritual things, and teach the unregenerate to know the Lord which the Lord condemns (Heb 8:10-12). I will quote from two witnesses by Elder G. W. Stewart, showing what they teach, viz: "The ultimate object of the Sunday School is the salvation of the children."

"The Sunday School ends in the church, and the church in salvation."

"The Sunday School is the nursery of the church."

"The Sunday School is the life-boat of ship Zion."

"It is one of the strongest arms of the church; the right hand that grasps and wields the sword of the spirit to cut down error and slay sin."—Page 261.

Don't you see that the Sunday School eliminates Christ from the salvation of our children and causes them to trust in the Sunday School as the Savior?

Elder Stewart says to show what children are taught in the Sunday Schools, I will quote again: "I have this day been before God, and have given myself—all that I am and have—to God; so that I am in no respect my own. I have no right to this body or any of its members; no right to this tongue, these hands, these feet, these eyes, these ears; I have given myself clean away!

"Now you see what you have got to give God, my darling Lucy.. Lucy was silent for a time, then she said, half aloud: 'I don't believe God wants them.'

"He does want them; and He is looking at you now, to see whether you will give them to Him or keep them yourself. If you give them to Him you will be careful never to let them do anything naughty, and will teach them to do every good thing they can."—Anon.

"Jesus stands before you now. Some day you will be before Him. What we do with Him now decides what He will do with us at the last great day. He suffered all this for us. What can we do for Him?"

This last quotation is from the Primary Quarterly for Sunday Schools, Presbyterian, April, May and June, 1904.

"Will you not give Him (Jesus) your heart and your fresh young life today, and love and serve Him all the rest of your days ?" —Id.

"Two worlds are interested in you. Christ is thinking upon you and so is Satan."—The Teacher, May, 1904, New School Baptist.

"What God wants to do is to save us. He can do that only as we come to Him with acknowledgement of the truth."—Id.

"You boys and girls can begin to love Him and remember Him, as well now as when you are older. Let us ask Jesus to take our love and keep us remembering Him always."—Id.

Such teaching as this certainly ministers to the pride, vanity, self-conceit and presumption of the human heart, children as well as adults, for here the impression is clearly made upon the minds of the children, first, that they can do as they please about being saved—in other words, they are independent and can do just as they like; second, that they are saved by their own righteousness, works, coming, yielding, will or obedience; third, that God is dependent, wanting to save them if they will only let Him. Children must surely feel tremendously important within themselves after being thus taught. Such teaching as this is a denial of the doctrine of human depravity, which is a part of the fundamental teaching of the Gospel of Christ. It is a denial of human helplessness and dependence upon God for salvation, and is a practical rejection of the obedience and righteousness of Christ. Jesus taught that a corrupt tree cannot bring forth good fruit."—that no man could come to Him except he be drawn by the Father. Paul taught that "they that are in the flesh cannot please God." . . Elder Edens tells what they are teaching in Sunday Schools of today, and testifies that it is utterly false and criminal. He says: "The parent, the guardian, and the Sabbath School teachers are telling the children—be a good little boy, be a good little girl, and you will get to heaven. Is that so ? We solemnly answer—NO! We wish to say that all such writing, teaching, and preaching is utterly false and criminal, and that God will not hold him or her guiltless who does it."—Two Witnesses, pages 269, 270.

In their Sunday School they teach for doctrines the commandments of men. They are taught to trust in man instead of God. They teach law for grace. They make the creature a sovereign and God a supplicant, wanting to save but the sinner will not let Him. They teach their different creeds. Pedo-Baptists teach sprinkling for baptism, and the whole of them teach free will, free agency, and creature righteousness in the salvation of sinners, and that Christ's righteousness is insufficient. Their whole theory is false. If Sunday Schools are necessary to save our children now, would they not have been necessary in all the ages past? Christ did not institute such an institution. The doctrine they teach in such schools is anti-Christian. Elder Stewart says, "One of the advocates of modern Sunday Schools says the Sunday School stands for reformation, for information, inspiration, and regeneration. We cannot accept anything like this, for it puts the Sunday School in the room or stead of the Holy Spirit and the New Birth, and is idolatry of the deepest dye."

A noted Methodist minister of this section said: "The modern up-to-date Sunday School is one of the veriest hum bugs of the land."—Primitive Pathway, pages 9, 10.

The Bible tells the parent to train up the child in the way it should go (Pr 22:6), but does not say to send them to somebody else to train them. They teach false doctrines to the children and usually Sunday School pupils are the worst behaved children at church. The country is full of Sunday Schools and crime is on the increase. Children instead of obeying their parents, the parents now often obey the children to their grief and sorrow.

Mr. C. L. Chilton says: "There was never a time in the history of the world, perhaps, when there were as many Sunday School teachers and scholars, and as many young peoples societies, and yet never a time when there was more practical infidelity among these very young people, or more worldliness or hardess of heart." "No orderly Primitive Baptist will allow their children to attend modern Sunday Schools as scholars, for to do so is to encourage them in idolatry; hence, we have said in our articles or declarations of faith that we will not fellowship Sunday Schools, and that means that we will not fellowship members that suffer their children to attend them."—Elder G. W. Stewart, Two Witnesses, page 270.

Bible Baptists should not tolerate any institution of men. Our dear Savior gave us a perfect code of laws in the New Testament. We need nothing more. We cannot teach the carnal mind spiritual things, (Ro 8:7; 1Co 2:14; Heb 8:11-13).

—G. W. STEWART, Two Witnesses.


(By Elder Hassell, Scarbrough and Others).

Membership and influence in these societies in Non-Catholic denominations are based upon the payment of so much money every year, or for life. The first one was founded in 1622 by the Roman Catholic Pope, Gregory XV., and was intended to Catholicize the world. It was called "The Congregation for the Propogation of the Faith"—that is, for the world-wide dissemination of the superstitions and the abominations of Rome, to make money, and control governments, and to make the human race abject slaves of the Romish Pope and his missions, or to massacre them by the millions, as they had done by the thousands in Mexico and Peru during the Sixteenth Century. The Catholic governments of Spain, Portugal and France were the special promoters of those missions, and their soldiers were far more cruel and immoral than the non-Catholics or heathens whom they tried to proselyte. The Protestants since 1691, and the Baptists since 1792, though considering the Roman Catholics as benighted idolaters, have imitated them in the formation of money-based missionary societies, and the Greek Catholics, though considering the Roman Catholics as unbaptized heretics, have also followed them, since 1824, in forming such societies. But the Protestants, Baptists and Greek Catholics have not been so cruel and immoral, in their missionary propaganda, as the Roman Catholics, and they have been more useful to foreign heathens, in translating the Bible and the Testament into their languages, and in suppressing cannibalism, human sacrifices and infanticides, and idolatry, and in establishing hospitals and orphanages among them, and the Catholics have imitated Protestants in some of these things.

The Moravians, since 1732, trusting, not in money-based societies, but in the providence of God, have gone to the poor and humble fields of Greenland, Labrador, the West Indies, South Africa, and Australia, heroically doing hard service which others would not touch, in what they believed the cause of Christ, and met with extraordinary success. And so Hudson Taylor, and his wife, and others with them, since 1862, in what is called "The China Island Mission," have penetrated to the furthest bounds of China, depending, not on man, but on God, and proved to the Chinese their heavenly unselfishness in serving them and in preaching the Gospel to them, and have met with friends everywhere, and their sacrifices and labors have been wonderfully blessed (see pages 586 and 605 in my Church History). But, like the great majority of their falsely educated members at home, so the great majority of the money-based societies in foreign lands seem to believe in money and men and machinery far more than in God, and to proclaim salvation partly by grace, but mostly and effectually by works, another gospel which is not another, but a perversion of the Gospel of Christ (Ga 1:6-9), and, as reported by the most recent and reliable observers, to have plunged, like most of the theological seminaries. and colleges and universities and high schools and Sunday Schools, and preachers and periodicals of Christendom into the abyss of infidelity, evolutionism, and materialism, denying the Divine inspiration of the Scriptures, the creation of the universe by God, the fall of man, redemption by the Son of God and regeneration by His Spirit; the deity and resurrection of Christ, all the miracles of the Bible, the resurrection of the dead, their judgment after death, and the consignment of the wicked to hell, and the reception of the righteous into heaven. If these reports are true, Modern Money-Based Missions, instead of being a blessing are a curse to humanity. Of the seventeen hundred million people in the world, it is claimed that the Catholics have converted above five million heathen, and the Protestants and Baptists about five million, but that only about one-third of these converts are real members or communicants. If, thus, in 300 years (since 1622), they have converted only one in 170,000 of the human race, how long will it take them to convert the remainder? The everlasting Bible truth is that God is the only Saviour of sinful men and women and children, according to His purpose from eternity, and by the blood of His Son and the power of His Spirit. Primitive or Old School Baptists (called Strict Baptists in England and Australia) have, without money or price, unaided by Money-Based Societies or Conventions or Boards, as did the Apostles and the ministers of the early Churches in the Roman Empire, proclaimed this Divine, free and blessed Gospel in all English-speaking countries, and when the Lord by His Spirit directs them, and opens the way by His providence, they will rejoice, in the same free manner, to proclaim the true Gospel of the grace of God in all the world to every creature, and they will be helped on their way, after a godly sort, by their brethren (3Jo 6); all the redeemed of the Lord will be saved (Isa 35 and Isa 53; Joh 6:27-40; 10:15-30; Ro 8), and then shall the end come (Mt 24:14).


J. A. Scarboro says: "Then Constantine, the Roman Emperor, by emperial decree, declared Christianity the established religion of the Roman state, proclaimed himself head of the church, with the result that the pagans rushed pell-mell to unite with the church, without any reference to conversion, bringing their pagan superstitions, rites and ceremonies with them, and the church sank to the plane of political paganism. This step led to a contest between the Emperor and the Pope for sole and united political and ecclesiastical power vested in one office, which terminated in 610 in the surrender of the temporal power of the Pope by the Emperor Phocas. From that time the power of the pope was absolute in politics and religion. He declared himself absolute monarch of the earth; that he was God's vicegerent; that he was God. His subjects worshiped and addressed him as 'God.' He issued decrees of life and death; crowned and uncrowned kings, treading upon their necks; he enacted, interpreted and enforced laws to suit himself; he marshalled armies to convert sinners and destroy dissenters by force; he poured the taxes and penance of the so-called Christian world into his treasury; he canonized 'saints,' and burned `heretics;' he did as he willed; he robbed the living to glorify the dead; he beggared dissenters to enrich his followers; he despoiled kingdoms to build cathedrals and support his propaganda; he invented indulgences for sale and made merchandise of morals, virtue, life and souls to enrich himself. In the words of prophecy: "He sat in the temple of God, showing himself that he was God." (2Th 2:4).

After more than three hundred years of ambitious scheming, devising and planning, the religious world was "organized," unified and imperialized. The Pope could now "elicit," combine and direct the energies of the Christian world in one sacred effort to conquer the world for Christ. And he claimed the authority of Christ and the guidance of the Holy Spirit in all he did, and cursed all who objected. He used both the Bible and church authority; if these failed, tradition; if all failed, he could make more scripture and tradition as occasion demanded; failing in all this, the stake, sword or guillotine settled the argument his way.

This compact and centralized organization stood intact for about one thousand years. Surely if organization, "sanctified common sense" and gold could "conquer the world for Christ" it would have been done. Did it . succeed ? Let every Protestant sect on earth answer; Episcopalian, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Methodist, what do you say ? No! No!! No!!! they cry in chorus.

What do you Baptists say? Rome is the mother of harlots!"

Very well; we have learned another lesson from prophecy and history, what is it ? It is that humanly devised plans, men, power, and gold, cannot conquer the world for Christ, that this work transcends the wisdom, wealth, power and character of men; that departure from God's word and Divine management. . . . Whenever we substitute our wisdom, plans and organization for God's, we (undertake) to thwart God's to the extent we succeed, so that God must destroy ours to save His own.

The Episcopalians came from the Roman Catholics, under the leadership of the Voluptuous King Henry VIII. in 1528. Its creed is abridged from the Roman Catholic creed—it is a daughter of Rome. . . Its organization and methods are borrowed from Rome, the monarch of England taking the place of Pope. It is ritualistic and heretical. All Baptists reject its authority. Spurgeon thundered the truth against it. .

"The first mission board was organized by the British Parliament on July 27, 1649; the act was entitled 'A Corporation for the Promoting and Propagating the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New England.' The government appointed a president, treasurer and fourteen assistants, and gave the corporation power to 'acquire lands, goods and money.' . . This is the first missionary board recorded in history. It originated in no church, but by British Parliament. This was 143 years before the Baptist organized their society in England. (See Encyc. of Missions, Vol. page 167).

The next society and board was organized by the English Episcopalians and chartered by William III., in 1701. He named the officials and fixed a life tenure for certain ecclesiastics. Like the first, it came from a recommendation of Parliament and received its authority from the King, and though it is Episcopal in doctrine it is political in organization, and of course, since the Episcopal church is governed by the British crown through its bishops, no one else has any voice in it. . .

The next was North Olsler, Denmark, in June, 1721, form of church government not stated.

The fourth was the Moravians at Hernbutt, 1732. Their government was Episcopal.

The fifth was by English Baptists in 1792, at Kettering, England (the first mission board ever in the Baptist church, Ed.). It was formed voluntarily, and defacto, by twelve preachers who assembled for that purpose at a private house, during the session of a Baptist Association at Kittering. The formation of a Mission Society was a cherished ambition of Carey: Neither he nor the other preachers seem to have thought of asking the churches, as churches, to undertake the work 

Then sixth, the Congregationalists of America in 1810, and seventh, American Baptists in 1814.

For proof, see Encyclopedia of Missions. That the first society and board had its origin, not in the New Testament or among those considered orthodox Baptists, but by British Parliament, and was political in origin and Episcopal in practice (the thing is of the world and not of God, L. H.).

The Churches of Christ did their work from the establishment of Christianity until 1649 without a mission society or board.

The genius and idea of an organized federation of churches under prelatical bishops or general managers is of Papal origin, and was borrowed from the political methods of the Roman Empire. While Baptists have a New Testament form of local church organization and government, they are trying to build up an Episcopal form of missionary organiaztion and management, borrowed from the Roman genius, and the two things are in immediate and irrepressible conflict."—J. A. Scarboro, on Boards, pp. 4-10. Whoever pleads loyalty to them at the expense of church autonomy is only in method; if, with good intentions, they have borrowed a system and created an agency which after a hundred years has slowly entrenched itself in their affections, and now, having acquired endorsement and power it raises the hideous head of Episcopacy to strike the heart of the Baptists who have warmed and nourished it in their bosoms, to destroy our peace and existence, then the paramount duty of every Baptist is—Bible in hand and the love of God and liberty in their hearts—strike it dead! .. "Find authority for such a thing if you can. . . .

"It is conceded on all sides by Baptists that there is no Bible authority for conventions and boards. Here the Texas Baptists and Herald: 'But Conventions and Boards are of men, they are failures!" . . . "Everything in our history warns us to beware of the factional part of a Baptist and does not understand nor respect that institution which Jesus Christ set up and of which it is said, `the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.' . .

"For a hundred years we have looked to men as leaders; we have made leaders and our home-made leaders have led into division, strife and failure; they have led to the borders of Episcopacy, whence the way leads on to prelacy and popery; and they have disagreed among themselves and now more than ever disagree; they have led us from the way of the Divine to that of human authority and now we must part with the Bible as our law and Christ as our Leader if we go further with them. . . .

Possibly we are asking God to do for us what He has already done if we will give up our plan and accept His.

"The insufficiency, failure and dangers of the convention—board system of mission work are seen and felt everywhere. .

"North and South the cry is: 'What shall we do? Our plans are failures!" . . "Everything in our history warns us to beware of the accumulated power. of such establishments."

Brethren Graves, Fuller, Holcomb, J. N. Gordon, H. Harvey, S. H. Ford, S. L. Morris, G. W. Smith, D. B. Ray, B. H. Carroll, R. C. Burleson, S. A. Hayden, J. B. Gambrell, J. B. Cranfill, J. L. Burrows, Z. C. Taylor, J. B. Hawthorne, W. A. Jarrell, all say, directly and indirectly, there is no Bible authority for Conventions and Boards. The vast majority of present day Baptists persistently refuse to give it any practical support. From 1814 to 1827 half the Baptists in America repudiated the system of publicity. If the system is a practical failure then a hundred years is enough time and labor to invest in it. . . . Dr. Gordon said: 'Who can say there is not need in these 'days of a return to primitive methods and a resumption of the church's endowments?"—J. A. Scarboro, Bible Baptists and Board System, pp. 20-26.

Mr. Scarboro says: "The Bible knows nothing of Associations until in England in 1653 (First was in Wales 1651, says Hassell's History. The first as cited by Aruntage, page 558, was church organizations and hence gives no laws for their government or trial of offenses committed by them. For this reason their laws, if they have any, are like their origin and authority of human devising. The Methodist Conference and Baptist Conventions, with all their creation, are outside of the Scriptures. If they violate the laws of Christ, how can they be tried? Again he says, pages 30-51: "No rule for it (board) in the Bible; (1) No precept; (2) No precedent; (3) Begun in British Parliament 1649 and Episcopal; (4) Prohibited by Christ. . . Puts human before Divine authority; puts money before men; produces strife and division • • •

So gentlemen of the jury, if you are related by blood or marriage to a Baptist Convention or Mission Board, you will please leave the panel and be seated in the audience, where you can witness the trial.

"The Bible is the Law, you are the Jury; here are the witnesses. Let us proceed: Benedict, p. 644: 'In describing this modern machinery (Mission Board), I shall attempt to show that it is the fault of the churches which has called it into action; and furthermore, that it will be difficult to dispense with it until they so far come up out of the wilderness, and they shall have learnt to do their own work within themselves and go alone.

Armitage, p. 116 says: "The New Testament contains all that entered into the faith and practice of the Apostolic Churches: 1—`The word of God was their only rule of faith and practice.' 2.—`In the Apostolic age, the church was a local body; and each church was entirely independent of every other church.' 3.—`Each of the Apostolic Churches elected its own pastor directly, in the exercise of their free suffrage.' 4.—`The Apostolic Churches were actively independent of the state.' . . . 'But still, wherever A Human Standard is set up in place of the Scriptures, it is always more zealously preserved than the teachings of revelation. A fanatic who corrupts the word of God is more heartily fellowshipped by many modern churches, than he' who opposes human decrees and inventions against the Scriptures; while he who insists upon obedience to their authority, excites the greatest possible odium, because, to do this wounds the pride of man. Men pay a great price for saying that the right to legislate for Christian churches belongs to Christ alone. Yet, He has given His law in the Bible, and every form of church life that is not in accordance with that law, directly sets it aside. So then, in a very important sense, it partakes of disloyalty to say that Christ has not made sufficient provisions for his churches in the scriptures, in everything that affects their well being." p. 116.

Dr. S. H. Ford says: "Previous to 1792 there was no foreign missionary organization in existence, . . At Kittering (Oct. 2, 1792), was formed the first foreign missionary societies in existence.'—Brief Sketch of Baptists, pp. 89-90.

There is no Scripture authority for Boards and Conventions. It Cannot be found in the word of God, for it is not there!

Richard Fuller boldly affirmed on the floor of the convention in Baltimore that it (the convention) was unscriptural and unwise.—J. R. Graves, in Tennessee Baptist.

"A thousand times better for that Board to be blotted out than for it to exist another day to the dishonor of Christianity."—In Tenn. Baptist, Dec. 25, 1858.

"Our missionary organism originated with our English brethren at the time of the revival of the missionary zeal, through the influence of Carey, Marshman and Fuller. . . . Let it be borne in mind then, that our missionary organism is of human origin, and of very recent date, entirely outside and independent of the churches, and not known in the primitive ages of the church.'—Tenn. Baptist, Sept. 8, 1860.

"The Churches of Christ never heard of such a consolidated missionary machinery as we now have until a few years past. Brethren, stop, think of it. Is it Scriptural? Was it known in the age of the world when missions were most successful? . . .

"The present is a failure; all future ones of a similar kind will he.. . . In this article we shall maintain that these organizations in their present form are not only contrary to the letter, but also to the genius of the Gospel, and also to the usage of the Baptist denomination."—Tenn. Baptist, May 12, 1860.

"Any organization which has for its foundation a money basis is unscriptural."---Tenn. Baptist.

H. C. Holcomb says: "They (Boards) are dangerous to the independence and rights of the churches. I could give instances in proof of which I say, but presume they will not be disputed. And lastly, they detract from the honor and dignity of the Church of Christ; they rob God in the house of His friends. . . . Now, brethren, let us return to the ancient order of things. Let us confess our departures from the word of truth before God."—Tenn. Baptist, Sept. 17, 1859.

J. N. Hall, Baptist Flags, May 26, 1898, says: "The whole thing (Board System) as now constructed is in direct contradiction of genuine Baptist policy, and the wonder is how the fathers ever consented to the organization of such a convention."

J. B. Jeter, on Campbellites, p. 56, says: "There were no mission and Bible societies in the days of the Apostles."

Francis Wayland says: "Jesus Christ left His church without any general organization (assembly, conference, convention, council, committee, or board), to direct either its government or its work. Throughout the New Testament we can discover not a trace of an organization beyond the establishment of individual churches."

J. B. Cranfil, Editor Texas Baptist Standard, July 30, 1896, says: "The only Christian organizations spoken of in the Bible are churches of Christ. They are the only religious bodies that have any ecclesiastical authority.

"Associations are mere expediences, devised by human wisdom, and are not like Scriptural Churches Divine institutions. Many true Churches of Christ existed and still exist without belonging to any of these voluntary fraternities."

Dr. J. B. Gambrell says: "These bodies (conventions) occupy a sphere of their own, entirely outside the limits of the churches."

S. A. Hayden, Baptist and Herald says: "The conventions are of men."

R. C. Burleson, Texas, says: "The Church is the body of Christ and must be supreme in all things."
B. H. Carroll, Texas, says: "The church is a Divine institution. It is the only visible religious organization that is of specific Divine appointment."

D. B. Ray says: "There are no Scriptures pointing out such an organization as the Southern Baptist Convention."

S. L. Morris, Texas Baptist Herald, says: "Churches are the only Christian organizations which existed in New Testament times. Boards and Conventions are without Scriptural authority.

Dr. N. M. Crawford, Mercer University, Ga., said: "Our mission machinery is unknown in the Gospel. In its construction we borrowed something from the world and something from the Redo-Baptists and in borrow ing we departed from the spirit of the Gospel and from Baptist simplicity."

Dr. J. B. Hawthorne, D. D., in Southern Baptist Convention, 1894, Dallas, Texas, says: "The Southern Baptist Convention is organized on a money basis. I know of no organization more unbaptistic than a body like this, based solely on money."

H. C. Holcomb, D. D., Tenn. Baptist, Feb. 4, 1860, said: "This convention is so organized that it cannot represent the will of the churches. According to the constitution all representation is upon a money basis; and men may represent themselves and have no constituency, the very objection filed against our Episcopacy. By paying $250 any man may become a member, even though he be a Jew, Catholic, Mormon or of no religion at all. And yet this is the organization which is to be employed in propping church independence, and in settling Baptist policy

"But the advocates of conventions are fruitful in rhetoric, as they ask, with great fullness and complacency: would you pull down the old house before you give us a new and better one? I would certainly pull down our present imposing building (the Board) and invite my brethren to move back to the old house built by Christ and His Apostles. It I know to be safe and efficient, as I have confidence in the skill and benevolence of the Architect. Let us then come back!

Dr. W. A. Jarrell, Baptist Hist. pp. 406-7 pages: "Associations and many other things to which Baptists hold are not mentioned in the Bible, and have been unknown to ages of Baptist history . . . Missionary Boards, Associations, etc., are of comparatively modern origin."

Orchard's Hist., p. 52, says: "The genuine spirit of religion has been and will be preserved by those only, who dissent from all establishments devised by human policy. An evident mark of Apostolic Spirit possessed this people as must be admitted by all; without any funds or public societies to countenance or support the arduous undertaking, otherwise than their respective churches, the Paulicans fearlessly penetrated the most barbarous parts of Europe, and went single-handed and single-eyed, to the conflict with every grade of character. In several instances they suffered death or martyrdom, not counting their lives dear, so that they could promote the cause of the Redeemer."—Orchard, page 139.

Dr. Taylor, missionary, Christian Index, Nov. 12, 1896: "Boards, agents, clerks and Sunday Schools were all impossible at the foundation of the Church."

Pendleton, pp., 205-6, says: "The power of a Church cannot be transferred or alienated. From this fact results the finality of church action. The church at Corinth could not transfer authority to the church at Phillippi, nor could the church at Antioch convey her power to the church at Ephesus; nor could all the Apostolic churches delegate their power to an Association, a Synod, a Conference, or a Convention. The power of a Church is manifestly inalienable.

"There were in Apostolic times no tribunals analogus to modern Synods, Conferences, Conventions. Let those who affirm that there were such 'Court of Appeal' adduce the evidence. On them rests the burden of proof. Baptists deny that there is such proof.--Ibid, p. 208.

We have copied the preceding evidence against the modern mission enterprise from Mr. J. A. Scarboro's Bible Baptists and Board System, showing that the ablest missionaries on earth condemn the board and convention—It is of man and not of God. His book is wonderful, indeed, in turning on the light and showing that the modern mission system is a failure. Mr. Scarboro shows that representation in the convention is upon a money-basis—Churches ignored. The poor country preacher not recognized. Leaders seeking paying positions. Each striving for the mastery which results in almost serious trouble among the preachers, He says: "It seems that the question of fellowship is wholly disregarded if the cash is not forthcoming. The strife began in 1894 and has continued to the present time. The whole vocabulary of epithlets and adjectives have been used up and several new ones coined as occasion demanded. There have been charges and counter charges of such choice expletives as 'embezzlement,' perjury, falsehood, fraud, hypocrisy, lying, conspiracy, successors of Judas Iscariot, devil's agents, serpents, etc. Personal violence threatened. A 'Board Party' man carried a pistol to the Convention to use on a Church Party' man; ex-corresponding secretary said, and confessed it under oath, that he would give a thousand dollars to lick Hayden, and so and so on. The situation could not be worse without actual blood-letting. Associations have been made battlefields for warring champions. . . . The charges have been proven in open court to the everlasting disgrace of the system." —J. A. Scarboro, p. 200.

Mr. Scarboro, page 279, says: "It (the Convention) puts men before God, money before men and churches; puts a price ($250) upon a seat in its Councils, measures the energies of God's Churches in dollars and cents and enthrones money in the room of God; its constitution would exclude Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit from its Councils unless they paid $250.00 each for a seat." These are the people that are posing as Saviors and are wanting to save poor perishing heathens! They want seventy-five million dollars to save the lost!

"Canon Taylor gives some figures which apply to India alone. In that country the Roman Catholics convert to Christianity each year about 21,272, and the Protestants about 1,311. At this rate it would require sixty-four years to make as many converts to Christianity to one year's increase in the non-Christian population.

"In China the missionaries make very little progress. The Church Missionary Society baptized last year 167. How small is this number out of a population of 382,000,000, having an annual increase of over 4,580,000! At this rate, even if the population remained stationary, the Society would not be able to convert China to Christianity in less than 1,680,000 years.

"It is costly business making converts in China. The cost of making the 167 converts last year was $75,000."—G. W. Stewart, in Two-Witnesses, pp. 96, 7.

"Mr. R. B. Cook, a missionary Baptist Historian says: "Instead of falling behind we ought henceforth to lead all other denominations in our contributions for saving perishing souls."

"Salaries of Missionary Board: Secretary, $5,000; assistant secretary, $2,500; bookkeeper, $1,500; stenographer, $1,000; negro janitor, $500; treasurer, $500, and so on."—Two-Witnesses, p. 105.

Mr. Bainbridge reckons the actual pecuniary cost of each home convert at $550, and each foreign convert at $320, or less. Others calculate that each foreign conversion costs $1,000, but that each home conversion costs more."—Two-Witnesses, page 104.

"Forasmuch as ye know that ye are not redeemed with such corruptible things as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition of your fathers; but with the precious blood of Christ, as a lamb without blemish and without spot."-1Pe 1:18-19.

"It is worse than folly to suppose that the Savior left His work so incomplete that uninspired men a latter years must take it up and bring it to perfection."—C. on Baptist Hist., p. 1.

General association of Kentucky Baptists:

Article 1. This body shall be called the General Association of Kentucky Baptists.

Article 2. The payment of thirty dollars constitutes a life membership.—Hardy-Wallace Debate, page 244.

The Southern Baptist biennial convention:

By paying two dollars any man may become a member, even though he be a Jew, Catholic, Mormon, or of no religion at all.—Tennessee Baptist, February 4, 1860.

Basis of representation of the Baptist general convention of Texas:

Section 2. Each church shall be entitled to two messengers, and one additional messenger for each twenty-five dollars contributed to the funds of the convention; and in no case shall any church be entitled to more than eight messengers.

Section 3. Each association shall be allowed two messengers, and one additional for each one hundred dollars expended in the missionary work done without its bounds; and one additional for each one hundred dollars contributed to the funds of the convention.

Section 4. Any Baptist missionary society shall be allowed one messenger for every twenty-five dollars contributed to the funds of the body; and in no case shall any society be entitled to more than four messengers.—Gospel Standard, September 22, 1894.

Any organization which has for its foundation a money basis is unscriptural.—Tennessee Baptist, by J. R. Graves, 1860.

There will be no other opportunity for us to save lost souls by giving our money for missions, after the present opportunity is past. It is a dreadful thing to misuse the Lord's funds, and to know in eternity that souls are in perdition which might have been in heaven had we done what we could and faithfully used what was in our hands.—A. J. Gordon in Texas Baptist and Herald, August 23, 1894.

And now what is the average cost of each convert in the mission fields? All things brought into estimate, it may reach ninety cents, while the average of each convert in Christian lands exceeds six dollars and thirty cents—seven times as much.—Rev. Thomas H. Pritchard.

The heathens are dying at the rate of one hundred thousand a day, and sinking down to hell, because of the neglect of the church in her duty.—Throgmorton-Potter debate, page 218-219.

"The subject of missions was proposed to the Kehukee Asociation by Martin Ross in 1803; it was never proposed before that time. The Association was constituted in 1765, and was therefore thirty-seven years old before the subject was ever brought to her notice. The subject was new to her then, and those originating it must of course be called a 'new order,' or New School Baptists. The age of the mission enterprise is much less than a century (then 1886) in North Carolina.

Whatsoever, has sprung from this impure source of course must be impure also; and their baptisms as well as their false doctrines, must be rejected and disowned by the true church of Jesus Christ." —Hassell's Hist., p. 750.

The so-called Landmark Baptists came from the Board Baptists and cannot be the Church of God. The fountain head was corrupt and so is the stream. The Primitive Baptists never had Boards, Conventions, Sunday Schools, etc., in the Apostolic age and have never had them since. When the Mission Baptists departed from the original principles of the Primitive Baptists in England, 1792, and in America, 1814, they forfeited all claims to Baptist succession. The Primitive Baptists who now stand as they did in the Apostolic age and did prior to the mission departures, are the true organic church of God. Mission Baptists cannot trace a succession prior to Fuller, Carey, Judson and Rice. There they left us and follow Rome, which we have shown by their own witnesses.

The Apostolic Church never had Boards or Conventions, neither do the Primitive Baptists have them today. God sent His preachers then and He sends them today. He never delegated that authority to any man or organization to send His preachers anywhere to preach. Some claim that the command was given to the church, and quote Ac 13:2-4 to prove it. See the following:

"In Ac 13:2 we are told that the Holy Ghost said (to the Church at Antioch, Ac 13:1): "Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them." And in the fourth verse it is said that "They, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia, and from thence they sailed to Cypress." The Greek word here rendered "sent forth" is ekempo, meaning, as given in Liddell and Scott's Greek English Lexicon, to send out, or forth, to bring out by calling, call or fetch out, to dispatch. But in the third verse, which says:. "When they (the ministers of the Church at Antioch) had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, the sent them away." The Greek word rendered "sent away" is apoln meaning, according to Liddell and Scott, "to loose, set free, to release or relieve, or let go." The Holy Scirit having called Barnabas and Saul to go forth to other countries to preach the Gospel, the church of their membership (Ac 15:2), loosed, freed, released, relieve or let them go for this purpose."
                                                                   ELDER S. HASSELL.

It is agreed that when Jesus commanded His disciples: "Go ye, therefore, to teach all nations." "Preach the Gospel to every creature,” that command was not given to the Church, but the command was given to the Apostles and to them only. They were not commanded to go and establish boards, conventions, Theological schools, all manner of societies of men, beg money and tell them that Jesus had failed to save them and He had turned the job over to the preacher. No Gospel in such teaching. That command was given directly to the Apostles to preach the Gospel to every creature (Gentile as well as Jew), and they obeyed it. Read Col 1:23: "If ye continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the Gospel which ye have heard, and which was preached to every creature which is under heaven; whereof I, Paul, am made a minister." All nationalities heard the Gospel preached by the Apostles. Elder G. Beebe's Editorials, vol. 1, p. 703: "This commission was restricted to the Apostles. Nor is there one particle of authority in that commission for any but the Apostles to whom it was given. But as all power in both worlds was and still is retained in the hands of Jesus as the Head over all things to His Church, and as He has instructed His children to pray the Lord of the harvest to send forth laborers into His harvest, we are persuaded that from time to time He has, does and will continue to call whom He pleases, and give them thesame imperative order, Go ye, or, Go thou. The commission to the Apostles directed them to the field of their labor: "Teach all nations.” Not as formerly, were their labors limited to cities of Judea, or the men of Israel; but they were to preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ. And in an extraordinary manner were they to preach to all nations so that their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the end of the world, (Ro 10:18). We are not to suppose, because the sound and the words of the Apostles went into all the earth, that every minister of Jesus is required to go to all nations, very few, if any, of them have the liberty in providence, to go to any other nation than that in which they are raised up."

The preachers that claim they are under the Apostolic command (Mr 16:15-18), if we could see the signs following their labors of handling serpents, drinking deadly poison and not hurt them, etc., we might have more confidence in them. The Apostles filled the command given them, and delivered the ordinances to the churches, and we, now, administer the ordinances by church authority (1Co 11:1). Preachers belong to the church. They are not amenable to another body. The command of the Lord is "Go," not send, and our preachers go as they feel the Lord directs, trusting in the Lord for all things temporal and spiritual.

Our enemies criticize the old Baptists for not having theological schools in which to train preachers. The Apostolic Church had no such schools. The blessed Savior never authorized such schools. When the Lord wants an educated man He calls him as He did Moses and Paul. The enemies of truth educated them; but God made them willing to forsake the pride, wealth and honors of this world, and suffer afflictions with His poor despised people whom they had been made to love for Christ's sake. "Not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called: but God bath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty."--1Co 1:25-26. Preachers should study the Scriptures and to know the literal meaning of words and to pronounce correctly. Observation will inform one who is an apt student. Some of our greatest gifts have had poor opportunities, but we love and appreciate them. All of us need the Spirit to enable us to preach. It is the preacher that preaches the Gospel by enabling grace. The Lord does not do all the preaching through the preacher, if so, there would never be any discord or heresy preached. If error is preached, the preacher does it and he is accountable for it.




Brethren:—It constitutes it a new era in the history of the Baptists, when those who would follow the Lord fully, and who therefore manifest a solicitude to be, in all things pertaining to religion, conformed to the Pattern showed in the Mount, are by Baptists charged with antinomianism, inertness, stupidity, etc., for refusing to go beyond the Word of God. But such is the case with us.

Brethren, we would not shun reproach, nor seek an exemption from persecution, but we would affectionately entreat those Baptists who revile us themselves, or who side with such as do, to pause and consider how far they have departed from the principles of the ancient Baptists, and how that in reproaching us, they stigmatise the memory of those whom they have been used to honor as eminent and useful servants of Christ; and of those who have borne the brunt of the persecutions levelled against the Baptists in former ages. For it is a well known fact, that it was in ages past, a uniform and distinguishing trait in the character of the Baptists, that they required a Thus saith the Lord, that is, direct authority from the Word of God, for the order and practices, as well as the doctrine they received in religion.

It is true, that many things to which we object as departures from the order established by the Great Head of the church, through the ministry of the Apostles, are by others considered to be connected with the very essence of religion, and absolutely necessary to the, prosperity of Christ's kingdom. They attach great value to them, because human wisdom suggests their importance. We allow the Head of the church alone to judge for us; we therefore esteem those things to be of no use to the cause of Christ which He has not Himself instituted.

We will notice severally, the claims of the principal of these modern inventions, and state some of our objections to them for your candid consideration.

1. We commence with Tract Societies. These claim to be extensively useful. Tracts claim their thousands converted. They claim the prerogative of carrying the news of salvation into holes and corners, where the gospel would otherwise never come; of going as on the wings of the winds, carrying salvation in their train; and they claim each to contain gospel enough, should it go where the gospel has never come, to lead a soul to the knowledge of Christ. The nature and extent of these, and the like claims, made in favor of tracts by their advocates, constitute a good reason why we should reject them. These claims represent tracts as possessing in these respects, a superiority over the Bible, and over the institution of the gospel ministry, which is charging the great I AM with a deficiency of wisdom. Yea, they charge God with folly; for why has He given us the extensive revelation contained in the Bible, and given the Holy Spirit to take of the things of Christ and show them to us, if a little tract of four pages can lead a soul to the knowledge of Christ? But let us consider the more rational claims presented by others, in favor of tracts; as they constitute a convenient way of disseminating religious instruction among the more indigent and thoughtless classes of society. Admitting the propriety of this claim, could it be kept separated from the other pretensions, still can we submit to the distribution of tracts becoming an order of our churches, or our Associations, without countenancing the prevalent idea that tracts have become an instituted means approved of God, for the conversion of sinners; and hence that the distribution of them, is a religious act, and on a footing with supporting the gospel ministry?

If we were to admit that tracts may have occasionally been made instrumental by the Holy Ghost for imparting instruction and comfort to inquiring minds, it would by no means imply that tracts are an instituted means of salvation, to speak after the manner of the popular religionists, or that they should be placed on a footing with the Bible, and the preached gospel, in respect to imparting the knowledge of salvation.

Again, we readily admit the propriety of an individual's publishing and distributing, or of several individuals uniting to publish and distribute what they wish circulated, whether in the form of tracts or otherwise; but still we can not admit the propriety of uniting with, or upon the plans of the existing Tract Societies, even laying aside the idea of their being attempted to be palmed upon us as religious institutions; because that upon the plan of these societies, those who unite with them pay their money for publishing and distributing, they know not what, under the name of religious truth; and what is worse, they submit to have sent into their families, weekly or monthly, and to circulate among their neighbors, any thing and every thing for religious reading, which the agent or publishing committee may see fit to publish.—They thus become accustomed to receive every thing as good, which comes under the name of religion, whether it be according to the Word of God or not; and are trained to the habit of letting others judge for them in matters of religion, and are therefore fast preparing to become the dupes of priestcraft. Can any conscientious followers of the Lamb submit to such plans? If others can, we can not.

2. Sunday Schools Come Next Under Consideration. These assume the same high stand as do Tract Societies. They claim the honor of converting their tens of thousands; of leading the tender minds of children to the knowledge of Jesus; of being as properly the instituted means of bringing children to the knowledge of salvation as is the preaching of the gospel, that of bringing adults to the same knowledge, etc. Such arrogant pretentions we feel bound to oppose. First, because these as well as the pretentions of the Tract Society are grounded upon the notion that conversion or regeneration is produced by impressions made upon the natural mind, by means of religious sentiments instilled into it; and if the Holy Ghost is allowed to be at all concerned in the thing, it is in a way which implies His being somehow blended with the instruction, or necessarily attendant upon it; all of which We know to be wrong.

Secondly: Because such schools never were established by the Apostles, nor commanded by Christ. There were children in the days of the Apostles. The Apostles possessed as great a desire for the salvation of souls, as much love to the cause of Christ, and knew as well what God would own for bringing persons to the knowledge of salvation, as any do at this day. We therefore, must believe that if these schools were of God, we should find some account of them in the New Testament.

Thirdly: We have exemplied, in the case of the Pharisees, the evil consequences of instructing children, in the letter of the Scripture, under the notion that this institution constitutes a saving acquaintance with the Word of God. We see in that instance it only made hypocrites of the Jews; and as the Scriptures declare that Christ's words are spirit and life, and that the natural man receives not the things of the Spirit of God, we can not believe it will have any better effect on the children of our day.

The Scriptures enjoin upon parents to bring up their children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, but this, instead of countenancing, forbids the idea of parents entrusting the religious education of their children to giddy, unregenerated young persons, who know no better than to build up in the belief that they are learning the religion of Christ, and to confirm them in their natural notions of their own goodness.

But while we thus stand opposed to the plan and use of these Sunday Schools and the Sunday School Union, in every point, we wish it to be distinctly understood, that we consider Sunday Schools, for the purpose of teaching poor children to read, whereby they may be enabled to read the Scriptures for themselves, .in neighborhoods where there is occasion for them, and when properly conducted, without that ostentation so commonly connected with them, to be useful, and benevolent institutions worthy of the patronage of all the friends of civil liberty.

3. We Pass to the Consideration of the Bible Society. We are aware, brethren, that this institution presents itself to the mind of the Christian as supported by the most plausible pretext. The idea of giving the Bible without note or comment, to those who are unable to procure it for themselves, is, in itself considered, calculated to meet the approbation of all who know the importance of the sacred Scriptures. But under this auspicious- guise, we see reared in the case of the American Bible Society, an institution as foreign from anything which the gospel of Christ calls for, as are the kingdoms of this world from the kingdom of Christ. We see a combination formed, in which are united the man of the world, the vaunting professor, and the humble follower of Jesus; the leading characters in politics, the dignitaries in church, and from them some of every grade, down to the poor servant girl, who can snatch from her hard-earned wages, fifty cents a year for the privilege of being a member. We see united in this combination, all parties in politics, and all sects in religion; and the distinctive difference of the one, and the sectarian barriers of the other, in part thrown aside to form the union. At the head of this vast body we see placed a few leading characters, who have in their hands the management of its enormous printing establishment, and its immense funds; and the control of its powerful influence, extended by means of agents and auxiliaries to every part of the United States. We behold its anniversary meetings converted into a great religious parade, and forming a theatre for the orator who is ambitious for preferment, either in the pulpit, in the legislative hall, or at the bar, to display his eloquence, and elicit the cheers of the great assemblage. Now, brethren, to justify our opposition to the Bible Society, it is not necessary for us to say that any of its members have manifested a disposition to employ its power for the subversion of our liberties. It is enough for us to say:

First, That such a monstrous combination, concentrating so much power in the hands of a few individuals, could never be necessary for supplying the destitute with Bibles. Individual printing establishments would readily be extended so as to supply Bibles to any amount, and in any language that might be called for, and at as cheap a rate, as they have ever been sold by, the Bible Society.

Secondly, That the humble followers of Jesus could accomplish their benevolent wishes, for supplying the needy with Bibles, with more effect and more to their satisfaction, by managing the purchase and distribution of them for themselves. And such will never seek popular applause by having their liberality trumpeted abroad through the medium of the Bible Society.

Thirdly, That the Bible Society, whether we consider it in its money foundation for membership, and directorship, its hoarding up of funds, in its blending together all distinctions between the church and the world, or in its concentration of power in an institution never contemplated by the Lord Jesus as connected with His kingdom; therefore, not a command concerning it is given in the decree published, nor a sketch of it drawn in the pattern shewed.

Fourthly, That its vast combination of worldly power and influence lodged in the hands of a few, renders it a dangerous engine against the liberties, both civil and religious, of our country, should it come under the control of those disposed so to employ it. The above remarks apply with equal force to the other great national institutions, as the American Tract Society, Sunday School Union, etc., etc.

4. We Will Now Call Your Attention to the Subject of Missions. Previously to stating our objections to the mission plans, we will meet some of the false charges brought against us relative to this subject, by a simple and unequivocal declaration, that we do regard, as of the first importance, the command given of Christ, primarily to His Apostles, and through them to the ministers of every age, to "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature," and do feel an earnest desire to be found acting in obedience thereunto, as the providence of God directs our way, and opens a door of utterance for us. We also believe it to be the duty of individuals and churches, to contribute according to their abilities, for the support, not only of their pastors, but also of those who go preaching the gospel among the destitute; but we at the same time contend, that we have no right to depart from the order which the Master Himself has seen fit to lay down, relative to the ministration of the word. We therefore can not fellowship the plans for spreading the gospel, generally adopted at this day under the name of Missions, because we consider these plans throughout a subversion of the order marked out in the New Testament.

1st. In reference to the medium by which the gospel minister is to be sent forth to labor in the field.—Agreeably to the prophecy going before, that "out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem," the Lord has manifestly established the order, that the ministers should be sent forth; but the mission plan is to send them out by a mission society. The gospel society or church, is composed of baptized believers; the poor are placed on an equal footing with the rich, and money is of no consideration, with regard to membership or church privileges. Not so with mission societies. They are so organized that the unregenerate, the enemies of the cross of Christ, have equal privileges as to membership, etc., with the people of God, and money is the principal consideration; a certain sum entitles to membership, a larger sum to life membership, a still larger to directorship, etc., so that their constitutions, contrary to the direction of James, are partial, saying to the rich man Sit thou here, and to the poor, Stand thou there. In Christ's kingdom, all His subjects are sons, and have equal rights, and an equal voice, as well in calling persons into the ministry as other things.—But the mission administration is all lodged in the hands of a few, who are distinguished from the rest by great swelling titles, as Presidents, Vice-Presidents, etc. Again, each gospel church acts as the independent kingdom of Christ in calling and sending forth its members into the ministry. Very different from this is the mission order.—The mission community being so arranged that from the little Mite Society, on to the State Conventions, and from them on to the Triennial Convention, and General Board, there is formed a general amalgamation, and a concentration of power in the hands of a dozen dignitaries, who with some exceptions have the control of all the funds designed for supporting ministers among the destitute, at home and abroad, and the sovereign authority to designate who from among the professed ministers of Christ, shall be supported from these funds, and also to assign them the field of their labors; yea, the authority to appoint females, and schoolmasters, and printers, and farmers, as such, to be solemnly set apart by prayer and the imposition of hands, as missionaries of the cross, and to be supported from these funds.

2d. In reference to ministerial support.—The gospel order is to extend support to them that preach the gospel. But the mission plan is to hire persons to preach. The gospel order is not to prefer one before another, and to do nothing by partiality. See 1Ti 5:17-21. But the mission boards exclude all from a participation in the benefits of their funds, who do not come under their direction and own their authority, however, regularly to the work of the ministry, and however, zealously they may be laboring to preach the gospel among the destitute. And what is more, these boards, by their auxiliaries and agents, so scour every hole and corner, to scrape up money for their funds, that the people think they have nothing left to give a preacher who may come among them alone upon the authority of Christ, and the fellowship of the church.

Formerly not only did preachers generally feel themselves bound to devote a part of their time to traveling and preaching among the destitute, but the people also, among whom they came dispensing the word of life, felt themselves bound to contribute something to meet their expenses. These were the days when Christian affection flowed freely. Then the hearts of the preachers flowed out towards the people, and the affections of the people were manifested towards the preachers who visited them. There was then more preaching of the gospel among the people at large, according to the number of Baptists, than has ever been since the rage of missions commenced. How different are things now from what they were in those bygone days! Now, generally speaking, persons who are novices in the gospel, however, learned they may profess to be in the sciences, have taken the field in the place of those who having been taught in the school of Christ, were capacitated to administer consolation to God's afflicted people. The missionary, instead of going into such neighborhoods as Christ's ministers used to visit, where they would be most likely to have an opportunity of administering food to the poor of the flock, seeks the most populous villages and towns, where he can attract the most attention, and do the most to promote the cause of missions and other popular institutions. His leading motive, judging from his movements, is not love to souls, but love of fame; hence his anxiety to have something to publish of what he has done; and hence his anxiety to constitute churches, even taking disaffected, disorderly, and, as has been the case, excluded persons, to form a church, in the absence of better materials; and the people ,instead of glowing with affection for the preacher, as such, feel burdened with the whole system of mendicancy, but have not resolution to shake off their oppression, because it is represented so deistical to withhold, and so popular to give.

Brethren, we cheerfully acknowledge that there have been some honorable exceptions to the character we have here drawn of the modern missionary, and some societies have existed under the name of mission societies, which were in some important points exceptions from the above drawn sketch. But on a general scale, we believe we have given a correct view of the mission plans and operations, and of the effects which have resulted from them, and our hearts really sicken at the state of things. How can we therefore forbear to express our disapprobation of the system that has produced it?

5. Colleges and Theological Schools Next Claim Our Attention. In speaking of colleges, we wish to be distinctly understood, that it is not to colleges, or collegiate education, as such, that we have any objection. We would cheerfully afford our children such an education, did circumstances warrant the measure. But we object, in the first place, to sectarian colleges, as such. The idea of a Baptist college and of a Presbyterian college, etc., necessarily implies that our distinct views of church government, of gospel doctrine, and gospel ordinances, are connected with human sciences, a principle which we can not admit; for we believe the kingdom of Christ to be altogether a kingdom not of this world. In the second place, we object to the notion of attaching professorships of divinity to colleges, because this evidently implies that the revelation which God has made of Himself is a human science, on a footing with mathematics, philosophy, law, etc., which is contrary to the gospel tenor of revelation, and indeed from the very idea itself of a revelation.—We perhaps need not add, that we have for the same reasons, strong objections to colleges conferring the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and to preachers receiving it. Thirdly, we decidedly object to persons, after professing to have been called of the Lord to preach His gospel, going to a college or academy to fit themselves for that service. 1st. Because we believe that Christ possessed perfect knowledge of His own purposes, and of the proper instruments by which to accomplish them. If He has occasion for a man of science, He, having power over all flesh, will so order it that the individual shall obtain the requisite learning before He calls him to His service, as was the case with Saul of Tarsus, and others since; and thus avoid subjecting Himself to the imputation of weakness. For should Christ call a person to labor in the gospel field, who was unqualified for the work assigned him, it would manifest Him to be deficient in knowledge, relative to the proper instruments to employ, or defective in power to provide them. 2. Because we believe that the Lord calls no man to preach His gospel, till He has made him experimentally acquainted with that gospel, and endowed him with the proper measure of gifts suiting the gifts He designs him to occupy; and the person giving himself up in obedience to the voice of Christ, will find himself learning in Christ's own school. But when a person professedly called of Christ to the gospel ministry, concludes that, in order to be useful, he must first go and obtain an academical education, he must judge that human science is of more importance in the ministry than that knowledge or those gifts which God imparts to His servants.—To act consistently then with his own principles, he will place his chief dependence for usefulness on his scientific knowledge, and aim mostly to display this in his preaching. This person, therefore, will pursue a very different course in his preaching than that marked out by the great Apostle to the Gentiles, who determined to know nothing among the people, save Jesus Christ and Him crucified.

As to Theological schools, we shall at present content ourselves with saying that they are a reflection upon the faithfulness of the Holy Ghost, who is engaged, according to the promise of the Great Head of the church,to lead the disciples into all truth. (See Joh 16:13). Also that in every age, from the school of Alexandria down to this day they have been a real pest to the church of Christ. Of this we could produce abundant proof, did the limits of our address admit their insertion.

6. Now We Pass to the Last Item Which We Think it Necessary Particularly to Notice, viz.: Four Days, or Protracted Meetings. Before stating our objections to these, however, we would observe that we consider the example worthy to be imitated which the Apostle set, of embracing every opportunity, consistent with propriety, for preaching the gospel wherever they meet with an assembly, whether in a Jews' synagogue on the seventh day, or in a Christian assembly on the first day of the week. And the exhortation to be instant in season and out of season we would gladly accept. Therefore, whenever circumstances call a congregation together from day to day, as at an Association or the like, we would embrace the opportunity of preaching the gospel to them from time to time, so often as they shall come together. But to the principles and plans of protracted meetings, (distinguishingly so called,) we do decidedly object. The principle of these meetings we can not fellowship. Regeneration, we believe, is exclusively the work of the Holy Ghost, performed by His divine power, at His own sovereign pleasure, according to the provisions of the everlasting covenant. But these meetings are got up either for the purpose of inducing the Holy Spirit to regenerate multitudes, who would otherwise not be converted, or to convert them themselves by the machinery of these meetings, or rather to bring them into their churches by means of exciting their animal feelings, without any regard to their being born again. Whichever of these may be considered the true ground upon which these meetings are founded, we are at a loss to know how any person, who has known what it is to be born again, can countenance them.

The plans of these meetings are equally as objectionable. For, in the first place, all doctrinal preaching, or in other words, all illustration of God's plan of salvation is excluded professedly from these meetings. Hence they would make believers of their converts without presenting any fixed truths to their minds to believe. Whereas God has chosen His people to salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the TRUTH. 2Th 2:13.

Secondly, The leaders of these meetings fix standards by which to decide of persons' repentance and desire of salvation, which the Word of God nowhere warrants; such as rising off their seats, coming to anxious seats, or going to a certain place, etc. Whereas the New Testament has given us a standard from which we have no right to depart, viz., that of bringing forth fruits meet for repentance.

Thirdly, They lead the people to depend on mediators other than the Lord Jesus Christ, to obtain peace for them, by offering themselves as intercessors, whereas the Scriptures acknowledge but the one God and one Mediator.

Some may be ready to enquire whether protracted meetings, as such, may not with propriety be held, provided they be held without excluding doctrinal preaching or introducing any of these new plans. However others may judge and act, we can not approve of such meetings for the following reasons:

1. Because by appointing and holding a protracted meeting, as such, although we may not carry it to the same excess to which others do, yet as most people will make no distinction between it and those meetings, where all the borrowed machinery from Methodist camp-meetings is introduced, we shall generally be considered as countenancing those meetings.

2. Because the motives we could have for conforming to the custom of holding these newly invented meetings, are such as we think can not bear the test. For we must be induced thus to conform to the reigning custom, either in order to shun the reproach generally attached to those who will not conform to what is popular, or to try the experiment whether our holding a four days' meeting will not induce the Holy Ghost to produce a revival among us, commensurate with the strange fire kindled by others; or else we must be led to this plan, from having inbibed the notion that the Holy Ghost is, somehow, so the creature of human feelings, that He is led to regenerate persons; by our getting their animal feelings excited; and therefore, that in the same proportion, as we can by any measure, get the feelings of the people aroused, there will be a revival of religion. This latter motive can scarcely be supposed to have place with any who would not go the whole length of every popular measure. But first. We do not believe it becoming a follower of Jesus, to seek an exemption from reproach by conforming to the schemes of men. 2d. We believe the Holy Ghost to be too sacred a Being to be trifled with, by trying experiments upon Him. And, 3d. We believe the Holy Ghost to be God. We would as soon expect that the Father would be induced to predestinate persons to the adoption of children, by their feelings being excited, and the Son be induced to redeem them, as that the Holy Ghost would be thus induced to quicken them. These Three are One. The purpose of the Father, the redemption of the Son, and the regenerating power of the Holy Ghost, must run in perfect accordance, and commensurate, one with the other.

Brethren, we have thus laid before you some of our objections to the popular schemes in religion, and the reasons why we can not fellowship them. Ponder these things well. Weigh them in the balances of the sanctuary; and then say whether they are not such as justify us in standing aloof from those plans of men, and those would-be religious societies, which are bound together, not by the fellowship of the gospel, but by certain moneyed stipulations. If you can not withdraw yourselves from those things which the Word of God does not warrant, still allow us the privilege to obey God rather than man.

There is, brethren, one more radical difference between us and those who advocate these various institutions which we have noticed, to which we wish to call your attention. It is this: They declare the gospel to be a system of means; these means it appears they believe to be of human contrivance, and they act accordingly. But we believe the gospel dispensation to embrace a system of faith and obedience, and we would act according to our belief. We believe; for instance, that the seasons of declension, of darkness, of persecutions, etc., to which the church of Christ is at times subject, are designed by the wise Disposer of all events—not for calling forth the inventive geniuses of men to remove the difficulties, but for trying the faith of God's people in His wisdom, power and faithfulness to sustain His church. On Him, therefore, would we repose our trust, and wait for His hour of deliverance, rather than rely upon an arm of flesh. Are we called to the ministry, although we may feel our own insufficiency for the work, as sensibly as do others, yet we would go forward in the path of duty marked out, believing that God is able to accomplish His purposes by such instruments as He choose; that He "hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise, and the weak things of the world to confound the mighty; and base things, etc., hath God chosen that no flesh should glory in His presence." Though we may not enjoy the satisfaction of seeing multitudes flocking to Jesus under our ministry; yet instead of going into Hagar, to accomplish the promises of God, or of resorting to any of the contrivances of men to make up the deficiency, we would still be content to preach the word, and would be instant in season and out of season; knowing it has pleased God not by the wisdom of men, but by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.—And that His word will not return unto Him void, but it shall accomplish that which He pleases, and prosper in the thing whereunto He sent it. Faith in God, instead of leading us to contrive ways to accomplish His purposes, leads us to inquire what He hath required at our hands, and to be satisfied with doing that as we find it pointed out in His Word; for we know that His purpose shall stand, and He will do all His pleasure. Jesus says, Ye believe in God, believe also in Me. We believe in the power of God to accomplish His purposes, however contrary things may appear to work to your expectations. So believe in My power to accomplish the great work of saving My people. In a word, as the dispensation of God by the hand of Moses, in bringing Israel out of Egypt and leading them through the wilderness, was from first to last calculated to try Israel's faith in God—so is the dispensation of God by His Son, in bringing His spiritual Israel to be a people to Himself.

There being, then, this radical difference between us and the patrons of these modern institutions, the question which has long since been put forth, presents itself afresh for our consideration, in all its force, "Can two walk together except they be agreed?" We believe that many who love our Lord Jesus Christ, are engaged in promoting those institutions which they acknowledge to be of modern origin; and they are promoting them, too, as religious institutions; whereas, if they would reflect a little on the origin and nature of the Christian religion, they must be, like us, convinced that this religion must remain unchangeably the same at this day as we find it delivered in the New Testament. Hence that anything, however highly it may be esteemed among men, which is not found in the New Testament, has no just claim to be acknowledged as belonging to the religion or religious institutions of Christ.

With all who love our Lord Jesus Christ, in truth, and walk according to apostolic traditions, and gospel order, we would gladly meet in church relation, and unite in the worship and service of God, as He Himself has ordered them. But if they will persist in bringing those institutions for which they can show us no example in the New Testament, into the churches or Associations, and in making them the order thereof, we shall for conscience sake, be compelled to withdraw from the disorderly walk of such church, Association or individuals, that we may not suffer our names to pass as sanctioning those things for which we have no fellowship. And if persons who would pass for preachers, will come to us, bringing the messages of men, etc., a gospel which they have learned in the schools instead of that gospel which Christ Himself commits unto His servants, and which is not learned of men; they must not be surprised that we can not acknowledge them as ministers of Christ.

Now, brethren, addressing ourselves to you who profess to be, in principle, Particular Baptists, of the "Old School," but who are practicing such things as you have learned only from a New School, it is for you to say, not us, whether we can longer walk in union with you. We regret, and so do you, to see brethren professing the same faith, severing apart. But if you will compel us either to sanction the traditions and inventions of men, as of religious obligation, or to separate from you, the sin lieth at your door. If you meet us in churches to attend only to the order of Christ's house as laid down by Himself, and in Associations upon the ancient principles of Baptist Associations, i. e., as an Association of churches for keeping up a brotherly correspondence one with the other, that they may strengthen each other in the good ways of the Lord, instead of turning the Association into a kind of legislative body, formed for the purpose of contriving plans to help along the work of Christ, and for imposing those contrivances as burdens upon the churches, by resolutions, etc., as the manner of some, we can still go on with you in peace and fellowship.

Thus, brethren, our appeal is before you. Treat it with contempt if you can despise the cause for which we contend, i. e., conformity to the Word of God. But indulge us, we beseech you, so far at least, as at our request to sit down and carefully count the cost on both sides, and see whether this shunning reproach by conforming to men's notions, will not in the end be a much more expensive course, than to meet reproach at once, by honoring Jesus as your only King, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin, for a season. And rebellion, you know, is as the sin of witchcraft.

May the Lord lead you to judge and act upon this subject as you will wish you had done, when you come to see the whole mass of human's inventions in connection with the Man of Sin, driven away like the chaff of the summer threshing floor, and that stone which was cut out without hands alone filling the earth. We subscribe ourselves your servants for Jesus' sake.




(By Elder T. S. Dalton).

Q. Why do you preach the Gospel at all?

Elder T. S. Dalton answers: Because, sir, God has ordained to save the believer through the Gospel and not the unbeliever; and it is a means in God's hands to the salvation of His people from the errors and delusions that are now set before us to destroy the Church of God.”

Q. You think then that these means, while not wicked or harmful are useless?

Ans.: "They are entirely useless so far as the eternal salvation of the sinner is concerned. I stated that God will save His people, every one of them, from one corner of the earth to the other, Sunday Schools or no Sunday School; that has been the faith of the Baptists always. I have never seen the necessity, or known the necessity, of introducing a means (preaching, Sunday Schools, Missions, etc.,) to accomplish an end that God had already accomplished; and my Bible teaches me (Heb 10:14) that Jesus Christ perfected them forever that are sanctified whereof the Holy Ghost is witness unto us, and it says, Jesus Christ suffered on the Cross and put away our sins before He sat down (Heb 1:3) on the right hand of God, and He having done this put away our sins, I do not think—our people do not think that Sunday Schools and Missionism is necessary in order that their sins be put away, because the Bible says it was done before Jesus went to glory. Then you understand that it is upon this ground, I hold that we do not preach in order to save people eternally, but we declare to them that they are saved through the merits of Jesus Christ and it is good news to those who receive it."

Q. "You preach don't you, for the sake of eternal salvation, not for the advancement of the world's conditions, don't you?"

Elder Dalton: "I preach, sir, in order that God's people may be preserved from error, from delusion, and saved from a guilty conscience in disobedience to God; that they may walk in humble obedience to the Lord and His requirements and obey Him in all of His mandates, as their King, and not in order to their eternal salvation."

Q. "You teach also, do you not, what people ought to do?"

Elder Dalton: "I certainly do; but not the dead, you understand, but what the living ought to do. Paul says we preach Christ unto the Greeks foolishness, but unto them that believe both Jews and Greeks, Christ, the power of God and wisdom of God. Paul says again, the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness, but unto us that are saved, it is the power of God; and Paul says in Hebrews that the word preached did not profit them not being mixed with faith in them that heard. From these texts we understand that faith in the hearer is necessary to a profitable hearing of the Gospel."

Q. "Can you save them any more than they are saved by preaching to them?"

Elder Dalton: "I can save them, sir, from disobedience and from error and from delusion and false signs and lying wonders that lie in wait to deceive God's people, and the Apostle says that is the object of the Gospel."

Q. "The missionaries could preach this gospel and do this teaching to the heathen if you and others would send them to do it, couldn't they?"

Elder Dalton: "I object to that expression, 'we send them' because the Lord sends. 'I send you.' He did not say for the Church' to send or a Missionary Board to send, but He said to them, 'Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel.' He did not say wait to be sent by the Church or by a Missionary Board, but he told His ministers whom He called to preach, to go."

Q. "What do you mean by records-depositions?"

Elder Dalton: "I mean records that I have read here before this court, or in my testimony, that in 1845 the Association declared positively against the use of human agency or human means in quickening the dead sinner into Divine life or in regeneration.

"That was in 1845. They (Ebenezer Association of Virginia), stood by that doctrine and maintained that doctrine, as I should by reading from Mr. Keyser, up until 1849. Now in these depositions that have been taken by parties on the other (Burman) side, some of them have declared that the preaching of the Gospel was a means in, quickening the dead sinner into Divine life or in regeneration. If so, that is a departure from that record. No Church has a right to so deviate from the doctrine held by their people in general or by their Association—have no right to so depart from it as to destroy the general union and peace and fellowship of the entire churches.

"I have traveled and preached in 27 states of this Union and five territories before they became states. I have visited hundreds and hundreds of old Baptist Churches, and until the present date, I have never seen or known of a Sunday School or Missionism introduced in an Old Baptist Church, outside of the state of Virginia, and the church of Mount Carmel, Luray, and I would add to that, if you will allow me, that I have been endorsed by the Baptists in all those states, not only as a sound preacher, but as a representative man of their faith, during which time I have engaged in 28 discussions in defense of their doctrine.

"He would state this, sir, that the Scriptures positively say to parents, train up your children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord and 'children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right.' This is the teaching of the Bible. But if God has ever, in any part of His word authorized His people to turn over the training of their children to any institution, the Bible is as silent on it as the grave. Jesus Christ never introduced any Sunday Schools, the Apostles had none, and such a thing was never known on earth until introduced by Robert Raikes in England (1781), and he then introduced it simply to teach poor children, poor urchins of the street, common literature, just such as was taught by him in his every day schools, and such a thing as religion was not known at that time as connected with Sunday Schools.

"About sixty or seventy years ago the Baptist Church, some of them, picked up that thing and undertook to bring it into the old Baptist Church as a religious institution. Our people backed back and said, 'No; we won't have that; and we have stood opposed to it all the time. We claim that if such a thing was necessary in any way for the advancement of the cause of God,or for the good of the souls of men, or to lead the children's minds aright, Jesus Christ, who was above all in wisdom, never would have overlooked such a grand thing as that to teach children to know the Lord; and such a thing never was known until the beginning of the Eighteenth Century."

Q. "Did not Saint Paul preach the Gospel to the Gentiles?"

Elder Dalton: "Yes sir; he says, 'Seeing that you put the word of God from you—speaking of the Jews—count yourselves unworthy of eternal life. Lo, we turn to the Gentiles. And when the Gentiles heard this they were glad and glorified the word of God; and as many as were ordained to eternal life, believed.' But they did not preach in order that they might be ordained to eternal life.

"God chose His people in purpose only, in design, not in actuality or actual existence. In the fullness of that purpose they are born into this world, and in fullness of that purpose God sent His Son into the world to die for them and save them from sin, and He did it. Therefore, He says, 'If the Son makes you free you shall be free, indeed.' Jesus did that, and He died for His people. The Apostle says, 'Husbands love your wives even as Christ also loved the Church and gave Himself for it, that He might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word, that He might present it unto Himself a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing.' Now the Apostle says, 'Who hath saved us and called us, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began." And David said, 'Blessed is the man whom Thou Choosest and causeth to approach unto Thee. We shall be satisfied with the goodness of Thy house, even of Thy holy temple, God says: `This people have I formed for Myself. They shall show forth My praise.' In this I assert that God's purpose in election in eternity is not the actual existence of the eternal salvation of the sinner, but the sinner is saved in keeping with that purpose, and delivered from death from sin, and shall at last triumph in God's presence through His grace as a consequence of the eternal purposes of God, which He purposed in Himself before the world began. . . .

"God called them (Apostles); God sent them; God put it in the hearts of His people to take care of them, and they did take care of them, and gave them the things that were necessary.

"It (repentance) is not an act of man, it is the product of the Divine Spirit of God that produces that sorrow in the sinner's heart that turns him away from sin, and hence it is repentance unto salvation not to be repented of."

Q. "You believe that God given faith is essential to the salvation of God's people, do you not?"

Elder Dalton: "I will say this, that there is a belief produced through the preaching of the Gospel and there is a belief of the sacred truth of God; but that belief which is produced through the preaching of the Gospel is not a necessary adjunct in the eternal salvation of the sinner. But there is a faith that is implanted by the Spirit of God in the soul of every man that will ever enter Heaven, and no man will ever go to Heaven without that Divine eternal faith implanted by the Spirit of God."

(By Elder C. H. Waters).

Q. "When was the first division in the Baptist Church?"

Dr. C. H. Waters: "About 1832 was the beginning in this country of a division in the Baptist Church."

Q. "Upon what grounds did that division take place?"

Dr. Waters: "Upon the ground of practicing conditionalism where they pretend to hold unconditional salvation; and that practice being represented by Sunday Schools and missions and all human machinery, to increase the number of the people that God had chosen and saved in the covenant."

Q. "What were the two 'branches of the Baptist Church then called, after that I mean?"

Dr. Waters: "Those who departed from the faith held by the Baptists called themselves Missionary Baptists and Progressives, and called their opponents Old School and Hardshells and Non-Progressives and Ignoramuses.

"When I joined the church, some of the very preachers who have since advocated Sunday Schools, preached against them, called them 'nurseries of the church,' insisted that their object was to increase the number of saved ones: and every honest man who now believe in Sunday Schools, and advocates them, when he answers in his own heart the question, 'what are you doing it for?" will say, 'I am doing it to try to save somebody that might not be saved without it."

Q. "Do you mean to say that Mr. Burman brought about the division in Mount Carmel Church?"

Dr. Waters: "I do, sir. He began advocating these doctrines through a paper that he was then publishing, and developed, what we then knew as New Schoolism, so rapidly that at an Association held over here at Zion, I was compelled to call attention to the departure. That was the beginning, so far my immediate connection with the division was concerned."

"Their circular letters during all that period will show that they considered missionism, Sunday Schools and all of these inventions of man, as directly opposed to Bible teaching.

"The Ketocton (Constituted 1766) Association maintains, and always has maintained that God gave Christ a people in covenant before the foundation of the world, and that all the powers of men and even angels and of devils combined, will never increase that number one.

"The opponents of that doctrine springing up from time to time, not being satisfied with that, have introduced practices to help in the salvation of sinners, that God through means and instrumentalities might increase that number of the bride, the Lamb's wife, and that if they will work hard enough and use money enough, somebody will go to Heaven that might possibly have gone to hell.

"That division arose out of the practices of Sunday Schools and Missionism which practice those Who were advocating them claimed to be a means in regeneration, the life giving from the dead to the sinner.

Q. "Do you know of an Old School Baptist Church anywhere which believes in the practice of missions, missionary societies, and Sunday Schools?"

Dr. Waters: "Impossible. The minute that a church as a body believes in that, they would no longer be Old School Baptists."

(By Elder R. H. Pittman).

Q. "Do you know of any Old Baptists, or Old School Baptist Churches that make use of instrumental music as a part of worship?"

Elder R. H. Pittman: "I will state that I know of no Old School Baptist Church, personally, that advocates instrumental music in churches.. .

"I don't believe that you can change the nature of a tree naturally, and this natural illustration being used by the Master to teach some truth, and that truth a spiritual truth, the meaning of it, according to my understanding is, we have not the power to change the natural heart of man, but that is a work of the Lord, which He does for all of His people; and when those hearts are changed and made spiritual, they bear goad fruit.

"I think an individual or a church as maintained by the Old School Baptists, in their sovereign rights, have the privileges of changing their beliefs and their doctrines and practice; but that in doing so, they cease to be what they were before, and as a matter of fact they could not be the same church. An Old School Baptist Church has a right to introduce new doctrines, but it cannot be an Old School Baptist Church, in the fellowship of that body, when the other sister churches have not received those practices and will not do so."




In addition to the Jesuit Catholic atrocities of this century already enumerated with some particulars, they massacred 400 Protestants at Grossoto, in Lombardy, July 19th, 1620; are said to have destroyed 400,000 Protestants in Ireland in 1641 by outright murder, and cold and hunger and drowning; cruelly exiled 500 families of Waldenses in Piedmont in 1601; most diabolically tortured, outraged and massacred 6,000 of the same poor people in 1655; and partly butchered and partly imprisoned most foully and banished most inhumanly 12,000 of these inoffensive people of God in 1686, thousands of them being led like sheep to the slaughter because they would not bow down to the corrupting idolatries of Rome."

"It is estimated that the Roman Catholic Church has murdered fifty million of the human family, and that their martyrs' blood would fill a channel ten feet deep, ten feet wide and twenty-five miles long."—Hassell's History.

Cardinal Bellarmine testifies: "Wicked men, infidels and reprobates remaining in the public profession of the Romish Church are true members of the Body of Christ. (De Eccl., lib. 3, c. 7.)

Statistics show that Roman Catholics are, generally speaking, a grossly immoral people.

The Universe, a Roman Catholic paper, under the heading "Catholic Morality in Liverpool," says: "The vice and immorality existing among the (Roman) Catholic body in Liverpool arc fearful. The sooner we admit that fact the better, and deny it we cannot, in the face of statistics compiled by the Rev. Father Nugent. This plain statement of figures, set down in black and white, reveals a horrible, a hideous blot on the (Roman) Catholic character in the great northern seaport. Their substance is this—that in Liverpool, the strongest phalanx in the Devil's Army, is recruited from the ranks of (Roman) Catholicism. Of the three great divisions in that gloomy host—thieving, harlotry and intemperance—the majority are members of our community. . . . And, worse still, the heavy proportion of this wickedness is assignable to our own countrymen, the Irish Catholics."

The Pastoral Letter of the Council of Baltimore, 1860, admitted: It is a melancholy fact, and a very humiliating avowal for us to make, that a very large proportion of the idle and vicious youths of our principal cities are the children of Catholic parents. "By the command of God it is lawful to murder the innocent, to rob, and commit lewdness, and thus to fulfill His mandate is our duty."—Selected by G. W. Stewart, Two Witnesses, page 305.

"Pope Urban II, Decree, 1088, says: Those who are not to be accounted murderers or homicides who, when burning with love and zeal for their Catholic mother against excommunicated Protestants, shall happen to kill a few of them."

"The St. Louis Republic, June 20, 1887, prints a letter from Bishop Hogan, of St. Joseph, Mo. That letter was written to defend himself against the slanders of the twenty-two priests whom he had dismissed for immoralities. The bishop says: 'The constant, shameful, public and sacrelegious drunkenness of the last three mentioned priests who were by my side at the cathedral, determined me to wipe them and their kind out of my jurisdiction. Herbert, after repeated drunkenness, went into a spree for a week in my house; was in the house, broke out at night, got into a house of disreputable women in his drunkenness, and was thrown out into the street, picked up ( drunk, recognized and taken into a house and made sober, and put into a carriage and taken to my house. That evening Galvin and Kiley were told by me to prepare for the celebration of Easter Sunday. On Saturday they staid up all night, drinking, carousing and shouting. Kiley fell down, blackened and almost broke his face in falling. Of course, the two sacrilegious priests said Mass the next day; Kiley went into the pulpit and preached with his blackened and bruised face, to the people of the cathedral. It was time for me to begin a reformation.'

"Bishop Vandeveld, Chicago, about the middle of this century, said: 'The conduct of the priests is such that, should I follow the regulations of the canon, I would be forced to interdict all priests with the exception of two or three. They are all either notorious drunkards or given to public or secret consubinage. I do not think ten of them believe in God. Religion is nothing to them but a well paying comedy. . . . Would not the general interdiction of these priests be the death-blow to our church in Illinois? Besides, how can I punish them, when I know that many of them are ready to poison me the moment I raise a finger against them?"—Two Witnesses. G. W. S.

"LaFayette, who is a Romanist, says: 'If the liberties of the America are ever destroyed, they will fall by the hands of the Romanish clergy.'

"Brownson says: 'It is the intention of the Pope to possess this country undoubtedly. In this intention he is aided by the Jesuits and all the Catholic priests and prelates undoubtedly, if they are faithful to their religion.'

"The St. Louis Globe says: 'It is the duty of every Catholic to vote for the Catholic candidate. Catholics must use the ballot to promote the cause of the church.'

"The Catholic World says: 'The Catholic church numbers one-third of the population, and if its membership shall increase for the next thirty as it has in thirty years past, in 1900 Rome will have a majority and possess this country and keep it. There is, ere long, to be a State religion in this country and that religion is to be Roman Catholic. The Roman Catholic is to wield his vote for the purpose of securing Catholic ascendency in this country.'

"In reply to McGee, editor of Freeman's Journal, the bishop and priests said: 'We are determined, like you, to take possession of the United States and rule them. Let us multiply our votes; let us call our poor but faithful Irish Catholics from every corner of the world and gather them into the very hearts of those proud citadels which the Yankees are so rapidly building.'

"The oath which every Catholic priest must take: I,  now in the presence of Almighty God, the blessed Virgin Mary, the blessed Michael the Archangel, the blessed St. John the Baptist, the Holy Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul, and the Saints and Sacred Host of Heaven, and to you, my Lord, I do declare from my heart, without mental reservation, that the Pope is Christ's Vicar General, and is the true and ' only head of the Universal Church throughout earth, and that by virtue of the keys of binding and loosing given to His Holiness by Jesus Christ, he has power to depose heretical Kings, Princes, States, Commonwealths and Governments, all being illegal without his sacred confirmation, and that they may be safely destroyed. Therefore; to the utmost of my power, I will defend this doctrine against all usurpers of the Protestant authority whatsoever, especially against the now pretended authority and church in England, and all adherents, in regard that they be usurped and heretical, opposing the Sacred Mother, the Church of Rome.

"I do denounce and disown allegiance as due to any Protestant king, prince, or state, or obedience to any of their inferior officers. I do further declare the doctrine of the Church of England, of the Calvanists, Huguenots and other Protestants, to be damnable, and those to be damned who will not forsake the same.

"I do further declare that I will help, assist and advise all or any of His Holiness' agents in any place wherever I shall be, and to do my utmost to extirpate the Protestant doctrine and to destroy all their pretended power, regal or otherwise. I do further promise that notwithstanding I may be permitted by dispensation to assume any heretical religious (Protestant denominations) for the propagation of the Mother Church's interests, to keep secret and private all her agents counsels as they entrust me, and not to divulge, directly or indirectly, by word, writing or circumstance whatsoever, but to execute all which shall be proposed, given in charge or discovered unto me by you, my most Reverend Lord and Bishop.

"All of which I, …………. , swear by the blessed Trinity and blessed Sacrament which I am about to perform on my part to keep inviolably, and do call on all the Heavenly and Glorious Hosts of Heaven to witness my real intentions to keep this, my oath.

"In testimony whereof, I take this most holy and blessed Sacrament of the Eucharist, and witness the same further with my consecrated hand, and in the presence of my holy bishop and all the priests who assist him in my ordination to the priesthood."

Extract from the Jesuitical oath, and reader, remember that the Jesuits are here.

"I do furthermore promise and declare that I will, when opportunity presents, make and wage relentless war, secretly or openly, against all heretics, Protestants and Liberals, as I am directed to do, to extirpate them from the face of the whole earth; and that I will spare neither age, sex nor condition, and that I will hang, burn, waste, boil, flay, strangle and bury alive these infamous heretics; rip up the stomachs and wombs of their women, and crush their infants' heads against the walls, in order to annihilate their execreable race. That when the same can not be done openly, I will secretly use the poisonous cup, the strangulating cord, the steel of the poinard, or the leaden bullets, regardless of the honor, rank or dignity or authority of the person or persons, whatever may be their condition in life, either public or private, as I, at any time may be directed so to do, by any agent of the Pope, or superior of the brotherhood of the Holy Father of the Society of Jesus.

"In confirmation of which, I hereby dedicate my life, my soul and all corporeal powers, and with this dagger which I now receive, I will subscribe my name, written in my blood, in testimony thereof; and should I prove false or weaken my determination may my brethren and fellow soldiers of the militia of the Pope cut off my hands and my feet, and my throat from ear to ear, my belly opened and sulphur burn therein, with all the punishment that can be inflicted upon me on earth, and my soul to be tortured by demons in an eternal hell forever.

"All of which I,  ................... do swear by the blessed Trinity, and blessed Sacrament which I am now about to receive, to perform, and on my part to keep inviolable; and do call all the Heavenly and Glorious Host of Heaven to witness my real intention to keep this, my oath.

"In testimony hereof, I take this most holy and blessed Sacrament of the Eucharist, and witness the same further, with my name written with the point of this dagger, dipped in my own bloods, and seal in the face of this holy covenant."

["He receives the wafer from the superior, and writes his name with the point of the dagger, dipped in his own blood, taken from over the heart."]—Elder G. W. Stewart's Two Witnesses, pp. 307-9.

Our fathers fought for the rights we so much enjoy of worshipping God according to the dictates of our conscience, which "This the Constitution of the United States guarantees. The amendment to the Constitution says: 'Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion or the prohibiting the free exercise thereof.' Catholics seek to take away from us this constitutional right." Yes, and Protestants have legislated against our constitutional rights of making wine for sacramental purposes.

"The Rambler, a Catholic paper, says: 'Religious liberty, in the sense of a liberty possessed by every man to choose his own religion, is one of the most wicked delusions ever imposed upon this age by the father of all deceit.'"

"Bishop O'Connor, of Pittsburg, said: 'Religious liberty is merely endured until the opposite can be carried into effect without peril t. the Catholic world.'

"Father Heckler said: 'The day will come when Roman Catholics will take this country and build their institutions over the grave of Protestantism, and then religious liberty is at an end.'

"Piux IX says: 'The church has the right to avail itself of force, and to use the temporal power for that purpose.'—(Pius IX Encyc. 24.)

"Cardinal Manning says: 'The church has the right, in virtue of her divine commission, to require of every one to accept her doctrine.' "

There is no doubt but what the Federation of Nations and Protestant Churches is the beast mentioned in Revelations.

John in his day saw things as they are transpiring today. "And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon." Re 13:2. The
two horns of the beast John saw, were as much a part of the beast before they became visible as they were afterwards.

You will please notice that John saw this beast coming up out of the earth. This beast as he emerged out of the earth had two horns like a lamb, "and he spake like a dragon." "And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast (Romanism) whose deadly wound was healed." This second beast is at this very time causing the earth or government and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast.

We do not have to leave the United States to find the "two horned beast" that will shortly exercise all the power of the first beast. The first beast that John saw came up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns and upon his horns ten crowns, and on all seven of his heads "the name of blasphemy." The first beast was like a leopard with feet like a bear, and a mouth like a lion. The first beast was a trinity, leopard, bear, lion, and the dragon gave this triune beast three things, power, seat and authority.

                                      J. S. NEWMAN.


New York, March 25.—The official Catholic directory for 1920, made public today, announces an increase of 186,224 in the member-ship of the church last year, bringing the total membership in the United States and its possessions up to 27,650,204.

The number of archbishops was increased from 14 to 116 according to the directory, but the number of bishops was decreased by deaths. There was an increase of 1,079 seminaries. New parishes totalled 148 and two orphan asylums were established.

The secular clergy now numbers 15,389, an increase of 337, while priests of religious orders number 21,019, an increase of 94.

"In reply to McGee, editor of Freeman's Journals„ the bishops and priests said: 'We are determined, like you, to take the possession of the United States and rule them. Let us, then, multiply our votes. Let us call our poor but faithful Irish Catholics from every corner of the world and gather them into the very hearts of these proud citadels which the Yankees are so rapidly building up."—Two Witnesses, by Eld. G. W. Stewart.

The St. Louis Globe says: "It is the duty of every Catholic to vote for the Catholic candidate—Catholics must use the ballot to promote the cause of the church."—Two Witnesses, by Eld. G. W. Stewart.

The Roman Catholic church has murdered sixty-eight millions of God's suffering saints, taught every false and corrupt theory on earth, and is now fast plotting for authority over civil affairs. J. H. F.—Two Witnesses, by Eld. G. W. S.

Elder H. Bussey, giving an account of certain proceedings of a Missionary Baptist Association, said: On the first day the choir and organ led the music, and on the second these appendages were suppressed, and the pastor led the singing, which, though scientifically executed, lacked spirit, and sounded very much as if the singers were environed with bad catacoustics, resulting, I suppose, from the absence of the organ."—Gospel Messenger, November, 1891.

Again, in February, 1893, the same writer, Bussey, said: "The life of Christ is not made manifest by fiddles, horns, organs, great titles, distinctive manner of dress, greetings in the markets and a great flourish of learning, the friendship of the world and the praise of men; but, on the contrary, by afflictions and trials, poverty, persecutions, being spoken against, by having men to separate you from their company."

True spiritual prayer and praise must be with the Spirit and with the understanding also, but the poor, dumb organ is as dead and helpless as the dumb idol's ear till the operator comes and makes it groan, grunt and squeal out its unconscious melody with neither spirit nor understanding. These dumb idols are objects of worship, and held in high esteem and draw larger congregations than the preaching of the Gospel of Christ will,"—H. Bussey.

This daily family worship of God is of far greater importance than all the humanly invented and idolized Sunday Schools, Church organs, and protracted meetings, and money drives in the world.—S. Hassell.

I am more than willing to give you an expression of our position respecting the innovations brought in among Primitive Baptists during the last few years. Under no consideration would I or any church in my association consent to allow any new things, such as organs, etc., to come in to mar their joy and peace. We will not accept any compromise, no matter how beautiful it may appear.—Elder H. B. Wilkinson. -
Elder R. H. Pittman of Luray, Va., writes: "The churches of the Ketocton and Ebenezer associations and, so far as I know, all churches of Primitive Baptist order in Virginia, oppose instrumental music in churches and previously appointed protracted meetings.

Primitive Baptists of this country (Choctawhatchee Association) are a unit in opposing any kind of musical instrument being used in our worship, and we are likewise opposed to these stated or set protracted meetings.—Elder M. E. Petty.

Our people do not use organs or other instrumental music in their worship in our meeting houses, do not have protracted meetings, do not receive members from any other denomination on alien baptism. We are, a separate people from the world—dwelling alonethinking if the spirit blesses us to make melody in our hearts to the Lord and we are enabled to speak with new tongues, that is good enough for us.—P. D. Gold.

The use of musical instruments formed a part of the service of the Old Testament ceremonial law. When we said there is no warrant in the word of God for the use of such in spiritual worship, we judged every one would fully understand us to mean the worship of the New Testament; the other being done away (Heb 7:18; 8:13). Why plead for the use of instruments of music, and leave out the dance? There is the same exhortation for the dance as for music; "Praise Him with the timbrel and dance! praise Him with stringed instruments and organs" (Ps 150:4); and the dance was practiced by Miriam and the women with her. The temple had its ritual. The priest recited the Ten Commandments, offered up the daily sacrifice morning and evening, and chanted the Psalms to be sung during the service, accompanied by "trumpets and cymbals and instruments of music." (1Ch 16:42; 2Ch 5:12). But instrumental music' has no place whatever in the spiritual worship of God.

By what authority does any one assume the right to pick out one or more of those typical rites and introduce them into the heart service and worship of God? Spiritual religion is a contrast to this Popish mockery, and opposed to the farrago of superstition, called "ritual." All the Levitical rites are swallowed up in Christ; and He who attempts to rake them up and add them to Christ, carnalizes the worship of the Savior. Alas! Antichrist rules with a high hand; the church of England is going post haste after Rome; and the general Dissenters are trying to outrun her. And are lovers of truth starting on the road after them? Suffer us to remind them that the church is planted by the Savior, and is renewed by His grace to worship Him in spirit and in truth; and hence must wage war with all opposition to His spiritual kingdom. We, therefore, repeat that there is no warrant for the carnal service of musical instruments in the house of God, any more than there is for carnal professors to form part with the righteous.—J. Gadsby, London, England. Selected by J. M. Norman.

Secret Societies—We have a host of good friends who belong to secret societies, but it is no place for a Christian or Primitive Baptist. It is offensive to the great body of our people and they know it, and if one disregards the feelings of his brethren enough to forsake the church and join a secret order he should be excluded. The Kehukee, our old mother association, has ever refused to fellowship secret societies. Elders Mitchell and Respess uncompromisingly opposed them and would not tolerate them. They advised the Old Baptists to exclude all who joined them. Elder J. E. W. Henderson and S. F. Cayce rigidly opposed our people belonging to them. Elder S. Hassell righteously condemns them and will not fellowship them. Our ablest preachers, such as Elders W. J. Heard, Henry Swain, H. B. Wilkinson, P. H. Byrd, J. B. Wilson, J. A. Monsees, J. M. Murray, Rees Prather, G. W. Stewart, H. H. Goodman,. M. Shaddix, B. G. Parker, J. W. Jones, J. J. Turnipseed, M. E. Petty, A. J. McLeod, A. J. Banks, W. C. Edwards, J. R. Wilson, J. D. Vass, J. S. Newman, J. H. Fisher, J. C. Morgan, W. P. Merrell, C. H. Cayce, A. B. Ross, J. C. Ross, J. R. Scott, R. O. Raulston, C. B. Kilby, J. N. Wallace, J. D. Shain, E. B. Bartlett, C. E. Lowe, P. Hunt, I. J. Fuller and all the associations south believe that members who join such societies should be promptly excluded and they see that it is done. It is a false religion that the Church of God should not fellowship or tolerate. Eld. Harvey Wright of Indiana opposed fellowshipping them. He said secret societies had always been regarded as disorder.

Elder J. R. Daily, in his Book on Secret Societies, page 39, said: "Christian brother, how can you endure the religion of an order, a secret order, an oath-bound order, which ties you up with such company as that, which fellowships the Jew, the Mohammedan, the heathen, Chinaman and Hindoo, and black-balls your dear Savior? This institution ignores Jesus Christ in order to have the fellowship of His enemies. What is proved to be the religion of Freemasonry can be proved to be the religion of Odd-Fellowship. Christ is omitted in Odd-Fellow prayers, in order that Christians, Jews, Mahommedans, and all other religions, may unite in those prayers. This question was submitted to the Sovereign Grand Lodge at a session in 1888: "Is it lawful for a chaplain to commence and finish his prayer in the name of Christ?" The Grand Sire said in answer: "In this sense Christianity is a sect, hence it is inexpedient, and, I think, unlawful to make mention of it (the name of Christ) in lodge work."—Official Report No. 58, page 11.

"Thus it is stated as a doctrinal principle of Odd-Fellowship that Judaism and Mohammedanism recognize the only true God, while they are the avowed enemies of Christ.

Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is anti-Christ, that denieth the Father and the Son. Whosoever denieth the Son, the same hast not the Father.-1Jo 2:22-23.

As the Odd-Fellow lodge denies Christ, it is anti-Christ, and as a religious teacher, it is a liar. Let God be true, but every man a liar.—Ro 3:4.

My Christian brother, in the unholy alliance of Odd-Fellowship, you are bound up by an oath with those who are the enemies of your blessed Savior, in a religion that denies Him. Oh, can you, will you stay there?

It is folly for you to say you can stay in the Free Mason or Odd-Fellow lodge, and affiliate with them, and not subscribe to their religion and to their god. You know that what we here give is the truth concerning those orders. You cannot accept the doctrine of these secret orders at the same time and be consistent. They are antagonistic and so utterly unreconcilable."—Elder J. R. Daily.

Where churches have allowed their members to join such societies they have declined in membership and many of them are almost dead spiritually. .."If ye live after the flesh, ye shall die." Many good Baptists in the North want to get rid of those societies. We love them and need them and they should rid themselves of them. Judge Whitney said: "A Masonic lodge is the strangest medley of priests and murderers, deacons and whoremasters, church members and gamblers, decent men and loafers, drunkards and rowdies that the All-Seeing Eye looks down upon."

"I preside over no lodge, nor have I been in one more than once or twice during the last thirty years."—George Washington.

"I do not see how any Christian, most of all a Christian minister, can go into these secret lodges with unbelievers. . . . Do no evil that good may come. You cannot reform anything by unequally yoking yourself with ungodly men."—Dwight L. Moody.

"In my opinion, the imposition of such obligations as Freemasonry requires should be prohibited by law."—Daniel Webster.

"Secret societies are not needed for any good purpose, and may be used for any bad purpose whatsoever. In my opinion, such societies should be prohibited by law."—Wendell Phillips.

Masonic oaths are a conspiracy against God and man. They are not repented of as long as .they are adhered to. Refusing to renounce them is adhering. Adherence makes them partakers of other men's sins. To laugh about the abduction of Morgan is to laugh about murder."—Charles G. Finney.

"A more perfect agent for devising conspiracies' against Church and State could scarcely have been conceived."--Charles Francis Adams.

"We will not tolerate members uniting with the Masonic or other infidel societies."—Augustine Lutheran Synod.

"I do not see how an intelligent, consecrated Christian can belong to a secret order. It is express disobedience to God's plain command (2Co 6:14). I do not believe it possible for a man to be an intelligent Christian and an intelligent Mason at the same time."—Rev. R. A. Torrey.

"I have no sympathy with secret, oath bound societies. The Scripture teaches that Christians should not enter into an alliance with ungodly men.. Shouldst thou help the ungodly, and love them that hate the Lord?" (2Co 6:14.—W. G. Morehead, D. D.

"We have never known a good lodgeman who was a good churchman."—A. J. Gordon, D. D.

"Freemasonry was organized in London in 1717.

Masonic Oaths and Penalties—"All this I most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, with a firm and steadfast resolution to perform the same, without any hesitation, mental reservation or secret evasion of mind whatever; binding myself under no less penalty than that of having my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by the roots, and buried in the rough sands of the sea, at low water mark, where the tide ebbs and flows twice in twenty-four hours."—Masonic Entered Apprentice.

"Binding myself under no less a penalty than that of having my breast torn open, my heart plucked out and placed on the highest pinnacle of the pinnacle, to be devoured by the vultures of the air."—Masonic Fellow Craft Penalty.

"All this I most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, . . binding myself under no less a penalty than that of having my body severed in twain, my bowels taken from thence and burned to ashes, the ashes scattered to the four winds of heaven, that no more remembrance might be had of so vile a wretch as I should be, should I ever knowingly violate this my Master Mason's obligation."—Master Mason's Penalty.

Royal Arch Mason's Oath: "I furthermore promise and swear that I will assist a Royal Arch Mason, when engaged in any difficulty, and will espouse his cause so far as to extricate from the same, whether right or wrong."—Jesus says: "Swear not at all."

How can a Primitive Baptist patronize such a society as above?

Blanchard, on Secret Societies, page 91, says: "As Masonry is the mother order. In this we shall not be disappointed. Men are insulted and outrage heaped upon the bodies of men in the children as the mother order. In this we shall not be (disappointed. Men are made members of other secret societies as they are made Masons, by stripping, hookwinking and scaring in one way or another. It is in these fool initiations that so many men are being injured or killed."


A man said to me: "I belong to three secret orders, my dues are paid, and I am in full fellowship, but it is no place for a Christian; if a man is going to do a dirty deed I would advise him to join them, for they will protect him." A young man in Bainbridge, Ga., murdered his partner in business. He was acquitted. He belonged to secret orders. I heard him say afterwards, he was going to join every secret order he could. What for? to be protected in his criminal acts. Does a Christian need such an order? No. A man who lived in sight of a schoolhouse where I was teaching in Alabama, went to his field, and his neighbor cut a tree, and it fell across his fence; he deliberately went to his home, got his gun, and shot him like a brute. Did they hang the murderer? No. He belonged to a secret order. He was acquitted. We have so many times heard people say that they could not get the law enforced; so many criminals belong to secret orders. This does not suit a Christian. Some say, "It is a good thing." If it is why keep it concealed? Some love darkness rather than light, because their deeds are evil, says the Savior.

Blanchard says: "Free masonry, next oldest of modern lodges, was organized in London in 1717. * * * "It has had a peculiar history in our country. In 1826 members of the order murdered a man (Wm. Morgan) who was publishing its secrets to the world. * * * Ministers of religion, officers of the law and men in all walks of life united in successful endeavors to prevent any adequate punishment of Freemasons for the crimes of abduction and murder. * * *"Many ministers of the Gospel had belonged to Masonic lodges and left in horror when they learned that the order called for murder as a means of protecting its ceremonies, obligations and penalties from public scrutiny. Others who had been so corrupted by the order as to justify all crimes committed in its defense, were compelled to leave the lodges in order to save the pulpits where they secured their bread. * * Lodgism was cast out of the church of Jesus Christ." Blanchard, p. 22 and 23. It seemed that the best old men severed their connection with the Masonic order, about 45,000 in all left, and the ones whom they taught, were decidedly opposed to all secret societies, and a widespread feeling exists that honest men have nothing to gain by membership in them."—Page 24. You can become thoroughly informed as to lodgism without entering the lodge by the public exercises of the orders; their literature; the testimony of the seceders and the word of God."

"A judge in Iowa recently stated that a very large proportion of testimony given in courts of justice was perjury. Why should it not be so when hundreds of thousands of men are sworn in secret lodges to conceal the crimes of their brethren and to fly to their relief in case they give a signal of distress?"—Page 98.

"In the seventh degree, for example, the candidate is sworn to keep a companion's secrets, murder and treason not excepted, or to keep all his secrets without exception."—Page 101. Blanchard, page 146, says: "One who believes the teachings of the first three degrees would never be a Christian, but in the thirtieth degree of the Scottish Rite men are directly instructed to keep out of the Church of Christ. It seems incredible that bodies of men should dare such high handed treason to earth and heaven as is found in Free Masonry. Masons and Odd Fellows profess that their members dying go to Heaven because of their lodge relations. They are both in the list of Pagan religions none can deny. They both exclude the only Savior of the world. They (both) have altars but they are Christless altars. * * If he (a member) "obey" and "pay" though he may be in every particular a child of the devil. Yet when he dies they declare that he has gone to heaven and thus encourage others to live and die denying Jesus Christ."—Page 166. "A world constructed on the basis of Masonry and Oddfellowship would not have the name of Jesus in it any where."—Page 167.

Grand Master Sayre, of Alabama, 1855, says:. "Your committee believes the (Ohio Res.) all wrong. The Jews, the Chinese, the Turks, each reject either the New Testament or the Old, or both, and yet we see no good reason why they should not be made Masons. "In fact, Blue Lodge Masonry has nothing whatever to do with the Bible. It is not founded on the Bible! if it was it would not be Masonry; it would be something else."—Chase's Digest of Masonic Law, page 207.

MYSTIC TIE—By Albert G. Mackey.

"When then we are asked, 'What is Freemasonry?' we answer in the first place that it is a science which engages us in the search after divine truth. . . . .  Freemasonry is then also a religious institution; the very science which it inculcates is in itself the science of religion."—p. 30.

"Freemasonry is emphatically a religious institution. It teaches the existence of God. It points to the Celestial canopy above where is the Eternal Lodge and where He presides. It instructs us in the way to reach the portals of that distant temple."—p. 32.

"By the exercise of the duties of Masonry: . (1) the wise may increase their knowledge of God, in all his best perfections, and thereby (2) grow still more wise unto eternal salvation. All invocations in a Masonic Lodge must be addressed to God, and to God only. Anything that conflicts with the universality of Masonry, is wrong." —ps 9, 10, 11.

"A BELIEF IN GOD. This constitutes the sole creed of a Mason—at least the only one he is required to profess. But such a profession is essentially and absolutely necessary."—p. 40.

"The Lodge is, then, at the time of the reception of an Entered apprentice, a symbol of the world, and the initiation is a type of the new life upon which the candidate is about to enter."

"Masonry does not deal with the perversion of things, but is only illustrative of the regenerate man. "A lodge in general signifies heaven, or the dwelling place of the Lord, and includes all on earth who are being truly prepared for Heaven." "Each man who is about to be regenerated is led by his guardian angel to the door of the Lodge, of which it is said, 'Seek and ye shall find, knock and it shall be opened. '" "Regeneration, or Masonry, proceeds in progressive order, states or degrees." "Man cannot work or correct the irregularities of life until he is clothed with innocence, or the badge of a Mason." "He then becomes a divine spiritual man or Mason."—"Masonic Trowel," by L. F. REYNOLDS, P. M. and P. H.

"RELIGION. Freemasonry does not profess to interfere with the religious opinions of its members. It asks only for a declaration of that simple and universal faith, in which men of all nations and all sects agree,—the belief in a God and in his superintending providence. Beyond this, it does not venture, but leaves the mind of its disciples, on other and sectarian points, perfectly untrammelled. This is the only religious qualification required of a candidate, but this is most strictly demanded. The religion, then of Masonry, is pure theism, on which its different members engraft their own peculiar opinions."

"CHRISTIANITY. Masonry is the excellency of Christianity, and every Mason is, if he is in reality a Mason, a true Christian; or at least he is in reality truly religious according to his profession, whether he be Jew or Christian."--p. 462.

"IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. The third or Master's degree leads to that great truth which the sublimest part of the heathen mysteries was intended to teach; and the faithful believer was assured of a future life and immortality beyond the grave."-- p. 541.

"MASONRY. And it is my firm persuasion, that they who practice the duties which Freemasonry teaches, in conjunction with the faith propounded in their religion, will inherit that eternal city of God, where they will be associated with a holy and happy fraternity of saints and angels, and enjoy the sweet communings of brotherly love forever and ever."—p. 580.

Mr. Finney says: "As soon as I was converted I loathed the lodge."

"Members of insurance lodges repeat Christless prayers, sing Christless odes and express the confident expectation that they are in the way to Heaven and this under the title of an Insurance Society."—Page 222. "Why they should be made secret, Christless churches." It is easy to understand why "Knights of the Golden Circle" or members of the Ku Klux Klan should wish to work in the dark, but why our neighbors whom we respect, should hide behind tiled doors, passwords and sentries is not so easy."—Page 223.

Blanchard and Elder Daily show that Freemasonry being the oldest is the parent of all lodges and others are copied after the mother. Mr. Blanchard, page 64, says: "Freemasonry is Mother, model and ruler of Modern Secret Societies. * * "The rituals of other secret societies are copied in important particulars from the Masonic." Blanchard, page 50, says: "If secret societies wish to act as insurance companies why do they not pull down their blinds, open offices instead of lodge rooms, print statements instead of rituals, prayers and burial services, and go into the business like honest men? If they wish to pose as benevolent bodies why do they not receive the needy and raise money from those who are well to do for the benefit of those who are suffering? If they wish to act as churches why do they not say what their religion is and not attempt to deceive men into a Christless church by claiming to be a charitable organization?—Page 50.

If secret societies are charitable why do they not receive the poor, maimed, halt, blind, deaf and dumb who need charity? If there is any light in it why conceal it behind closed doors and windows and fearful oaths? If it were a Christian religion that governs them why ignore and black ball our blessed Savior? "The just shall live by faith," but where is there any faith in God in those Christless societies for temporal blessings, or for salvation in Heaven? God and Christ are left out and trust in man and human effort for a home in Heaven. When a man does right he is not ashamed for people to know it; if he does wrong he will conceal it.

Mr. Blanchard says: "Our God has never offered financial inducements to men to become His followers. On the contrary He assured them of hatred, persecution and death by violence. * * "It is the height of impertinence for members of secret societies to criticize the Bride of Christ. Imperfect she undoubtedly is, but she has no lessons to learn from lodgism. 'She is still the light of the world, the salt of the earth.' "—Pages 57 and 58.

"The most notable, learned, upright and pious men have never been, as a class, found in lodge rooms." * * * "An open, frank, self-respecting, God-fearing man cannot enjoy the ceremonies, oaths and obligations of lodges. Men who unite with and enjoy lodgism are corrupted by it and are injured as members of home circles, civil societies and Christian organizations. Men who delight in the heathen ceremonies of secret societies are of no value to churches, even when they are members of them." Jesus says: "Ye can not serve God and Mammon."—Page 66.

"Freemasonry has an altar and a creed." "They have a religious ritual. It prints prayers for use in meetings. It prepares religious lectures for use in conferring degrees. Business houses do not do such acts. Social organizations do not. Why should Freemasonry (and other secret societies.—L. H.) have an altar, a creed and a ritual unless it is a religious institution?"--Page 74. Mackey says, p. 16: "A Mason who by living in strict accord with his obligations, is free from sin." Is not this conditionalism-salvation by works. Christ is rejected. Robert Morris said: "So broad is the religion of Masonry and so carefully are all sectarian tenets excluded, that the Christian, the Jew, the Mohammedan, may and do harmoniously unite in its moral and intellectual work with the Budhist, the Parsee, and the worshipper of diety under every form." Blanchard, page 77, shows that their creed is deistic, the name of Jesus Christ is excluded from their prayers and ceremonies. They omit the name of Jesus in reading the Bible—too offensive to them. How can a Christian join and love such a Christless society? Blanchard, page 80, says: "Its (Masonry) creed is deism; its prayers are Christless; its morals satanic; yet it professes to teach men how to live well and die in peace."

Elder J. R. Daily in his book on secret orders shows that Masons, Odd-fellows, K. P.'s, Woodmen and others are religious secret orders, but Christless. On page 13, he shows that Odd-fellows would not dare associate the name of Jesus with the Father. That would be contrary to their doctrine. So Odd-fellowship is a worshipping or religious institution, but save us from its doctrine."

They teach loyalty to their secret order. Christless religion assures them to be blessed in life, death and eternity. Conditional of course. Elder Daily, on page 17, says: "Just think of it! This secret order (Odd-fellows), which says, 'Jew or Gentile, Catholic or Protestant, is, as such, welcome to our doors." (Page 2333, Odd Fellows Test Book), which in all its sacred rituals will not allow Christ's name to be mentioned," yet observance of this anti-Christian law will save him without any Christ. Elder Daily asks, "Can you, Christian Church member, subscribe to this oath-bound order of pagan religion, with its Christless ceremonies, prayers, and lectures." * * * Their claim in their song: "The chain that unites them in oath-bound brotherhood as Odd-fellows, binds Heaven to earth, earth to Heaven, and man to God." Elder Daily, pages 22 and 23, shows that Masons and Odd-fellows claim a transit at death from their lodges below to the "lodge above," so the K. of P.—these oath-bound Knights—claim a passage from their 'castle here to the joys of the castle in the New Jerusalem,' as a recompense for service under their tri-colored banner." He shows this people take the Holy Bible purposely leaving out the name of God to keep from offending those of their number who do not believe in the God of the Bible and then say that membership and service in their K. of P. lodge is a passport into the presence of the One in whom many of them do not really believe! What consistency!" Here is their prayer: "Supreme Ruler of the Universe, we humbly beseech thy blessing upon the officers and members of this Lodge. Aid us to avoid anger and dissention, help us to work together in the spirit of fraternity, and inspire us to exemplify the friendship of Damon and Pythias. Hear and answer us, we beseech thee. Amen." All. "Amen."-- Page 23.

No Christ, nor prayer to imitate Christ. "This order is like all other secret orders in this respect. Whom does the petition pray to imitate? Damon and Pythias! Who were they? They are two Pythagorean philosophers, heathen philosophers. It is upon the friendship of these heathen philosophers that this oath-bound, secret order has been constructed. It is a Christless, heathenish religion that is practiced by the order." The Ancient Order of United Workmen is a secret order, founded by John Jordan Upchurch, October 27th, 1868. * * * This is also a religious order. Their prayer is Christless like all other secret order prayers. Notice also that this prayer asks Almighty God to receive them at last as a lodge of Ancient Order of Workmen! There is a silly order known as the `Improved Order of Redmen.' If this is 'improved,' what must the unimproved thing be? We say silly, and we mean what we say. We have printed the Constitution and By-laws for some of their lodges, being in the printing business, and we have their complete Revised Ritual, adopted by the Great Council of the United States. We have Robinsons' 'One Hundred Reasons Why I am a Red Man.' This is a religious order. Prayer is offered by the Sachem. Oh, thou great Spirit! We acknowledge thy wisdom and goodness toward the Red Men of our Tribe. We ask thee to watch over us during the slumbers of the night, and while following the hunt. Guard us from all harm, succor the distressed, feed the hungry, clothe the poor. Do Thou, Great Spirit, impress upon each Red Man's heart to bear patiently the lot assigned him on earth, so that, when he is called from the hunting grounds of his fathers, he may meet the shaft of death with unwavering courage, and feel assured that Thou wilt sustain him through the dark valley of the shadow of death. Hear us, O Great Spirit!' Response by the Brothers—'Hear us, oh Great Spirit!' " How can a Christian unite in this, another Christ-less prayer, to the Great Spirit! with the wicked, saying, "Hear us, O Great Spirit?' What mockery this is!" Pages 25-27. Is not this• an idolatrous heathenish prayer? Could you have fellowship with an Old Baptist that will join and participate in such an idolatrous Christless religion? We come next to the Modern Woodmen of America. It is very modern indeed, and scarcely less silly than the order of Redmen! Joseph Cullen Root, of Lyons, Iowa, wrote its first ritual in 1882. * * * "With much pomp and silly ceremonies and threatenings of murder, the candidate for admission to the degrees of the 'Beneficiary' and 'Fraternal' pass as members of these degrees. The candidate for admission to the Fraternal degree must ride the 'Camp Goat,' while the neighbors all sing, to the tune of Marching through Georgia: 'Keep the logs a-rolling boys, and pile them high and dry, etc.' He is then put to the task of sawing a tough stick of wood two minutes. Later on his hoodwink is removed and he is tied to a moving rack that draws him slowly to a revolving saw, by a band of supposed enemies of the order, when, just as he is nearing the saw and ready to give it all up his life, he is rescued by supposed friends and is congratulated for his fidelity to his oath, showing himself willing to die rather than give the secrets of the order away. The odes and hymns and funeral rites of this oath-bound order show it to be a kind of religious institution, as well as a mystic playhouse for the sporting class. But some say it is 'only a Mutual Insurance Society!' But why should a Mutual Insurance Company have all this connected with it?"--Page 28.

If one wants insurance why join such idolatrous society? HOW could any Primitive Baptists prefer such to the fellowship of his brethren? 'Few, who are well informed on the subject, will deny that the Masonic Fraternity is directly or indirectly the parent organization of all secret societies, good, bad, and indifferent.'—Cyclopaedia of Fraternities.

"The Modern Woodmen of. America has its female auxiliary, known as 'The Royal Neighbors of America.' Prayers are offered, hymns are sung, and there is considerable Scripture reading, in the lodge meetings. The lodge has also a funeral rite that is quite elaborate, giving every one dying as a member the hope of a happy immortality in Heaven."—Page 32.

"Having shown that secret societies are religious orders, we now propose to show that the principles of their religion are absolutely false, and that it is not only out of harmony with the Christian religion, but that it is antagonistic to it. Lodge religion is Deism,. Any religion that leaves Christ out of its system is Deism. The Christ of the Bible is ignored by the orders and left out of their prayers and ceremonies. Readings are chosen in the Masonic ritual that do not contain the name of Jesus. Whoever enters a Masonic lodge must leave the Savior at the door, as well as his wife and children. Page 35-37. Christian brother, how can you endure the religion of an order, a secret order, an oath-bound order, which ties you up with such company as that, which fellowships the Jew, the Mohammedan, the heathen, Christian and Hindoo, and black balls your dear Savior? This institution ignores Jesus Christ in order to have the fellowship of His enemies. What is proved to be the religion of Freemasonry can be proved to be the religion of Odd-fellowship. —Page 39. See Donaldson's Odd-Fellows Test Book, p. 155. Christ is omitted in the Odd-Fellow's prayers, in order that Christians, Jews, Mohammedans, and all other religions, may unite in those prayers."

The Red Men believe in the Great Spirit of the American Indians, but Christ is not known or needed in their ritual. Knights of Pythias, like other secret orders, the Christ of the Bible is wholly ignored. The Modern Woodmen of America, with its working tools of Beetle, Axe and Wedge, has its Christless ceremonies and prayers. The candidate never hears the name of Jesus pronounced in his initiation, etc., into the Arcana. In the Rebecca Lodge Christ is ignored in their religious prayers and ceremonies. Elder Daily says: "When once initiated under the oath-bound fetters of a secret Lodge a man throws away his liberty and becomes the tied servant of a heretical, human order, heretical in all of its religious principles and purely human in its origin, organism and design.—"A corrupt tree cannot bring forth good fruit."—Page 80,

Elder Daily asks: "Why should organizations for the pretended purpose of benefiting mankind be secret orders and bind all their members to perpetual secrecy? Counterfeiters work in secret, and everybody knows why. Thieves form their plans and carry out their operations in secret, and the reason is plain. Men who plot treason against governments do their work in the dark, and all understand. But why should societies claiming to be benevolent, so carefully guard their 'secrets?' Let no one misunderstand us here. We are not classing (secret orders) with counterfeiters, etc. Not at all are we."—Page 82.

We have taken pains here to make many quotations for the benefit of our readers. If you wish to inform yourself on secret orders, order from Mrs. J. R. Daily, Indianapolis, Ind., or National Christian Association of Chicago.

We love the dear old church and all of God's precious children and since God's church is separate from the world and her only hope is in the Lord Jesus Christ we beg all children of God everywhere to come out of those anti-Christian societies and unite with the dear old church and let us dwell together in peace and love. See 2Co 6:14-16; Ac 4:12; Ga 1:8; 5:1,19,18,20-21; Eph 5:11-13; Col 2:21-22; 2Th 3:7; 2Ti 3:5; Tit 3:10; 1Jo 1:6-7; 2:15; 4:3; 5:19; Re 22:14-15; Jas 1:27.

20. Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.—Joh 18:20.

Eph 5:8-10. For ye were sometime darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord; walk as children of light;
9. (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;)
10. Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.
And have no fellowship for the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them.

Eph 5:12-14. For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret.
13. But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light; for whatsoever 'doth make manifest is light.
14. Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.

During all my life I have never had membership in any secret society. I have been solicited to join them, but I thought God had never made it my duty to do so.

God has instituted and ordained three kinds of government on earth: First, family government; second, State government and third Church government. If I belong to these three and do my duty, I do all He requires. The true Church of God has the Bible for her statute book. It thoroughly furnishes the man of God unto all good works; so if I am in God's Church legally, and live up to her Bible, I must be doing my whole duty to God and man. Then I have as great liberty to do good as any man on earth. Who has any advantage over me to be useful and serve God? I have persuaded some members of secret societies to quit them, the Church is enough.
—Elder J. T. Oliphant.





Adventists or Millerites, originated about the year 1833, by William Miller (1781-1849).

Baptists—Primitive or Old School—Mosheim, the noted church historian, says that the origin of the Baptists is hidden in remote depths of antiquity. (John the Baptist was the first original or Primitive Baptist; he baptized Jesus Christ, who was a Primitive Baptist; the Church was founded by Jesus (Da 2:44), a Primitive Baptist, out of His disciples or followers. The first Church, then, was a Primitive Baptist Church. "Historians agree that, mainly, the (Primitive Baptist) Church continued as a chaste virgin for more than 200 years after the apostles. In the Third Century there was a marked division, in which Novation (a strict Old Baptist contending for the apostolic faith and practice) and Cornelius, were acknowledged leaders. The editor of the Religious Encyclopedia remarks: `Novations, a numerous body of Protestant dissenters from the Church of Rome in the Third Century, who, notwithstanding the misrepresentations of their adversaries, have some just claims to be regarded the pure, uncorrupted and Apostolic Church of Christ.' 1. Historians agree that congregations subsisted as do the Baptists of today. 2. They were called baptized (Baptist) churches. 3. They have continued in regular unbroken succession from the apostles' day to the present century. 4. They have preserved the truth of Christ in its purity. 5. That Novation was not the founder of the Novation churches. 6. The apostates at Rome abandoned the true principles of the church and separated from those who persistently adhered to those pure principles. 7. The numerous churches maintaining the principles of the apostolic churches stood with the strict party (Primitive Baptists) at Rome in opposition to the heretical society led by Cyprian and Cornelius, founders of the Roman Catholic Church. 8. They remained in separate, independent bodies. 9. That those who held the truth were called Baptists, Novations, Waldenses, etc."—Two Witnesses. The apostolic or Primitive Baptist Church did not have boards, missionary societies, theological schools, Sunday schools, secret societies or any other human invention. They were Bible Baptists, just like Old Baptists today.—L.H.)

Baptists—Modern Missionary—Originated by Andrew Fuller and others at Kettering, England, October, 1792.

Baptist—Free-Will—Originated by Benjamin Randall, in 1780.

Baptists—Seventh Day Baptists—Said to have been in existence as early as 1633.

Baptists—The Church of God—By John Winebrenner, about 1825.

Baptists—Six Principle Baptists—Claim Roger Williams as their founder in this country, in 1639.



They are essentially at one with the United Baptists and believe in General Atonement, Instrumental Regeneration. Some believe in Sunday Schools, instrumental music in worship, and missions. Others do not tolerate Sunday Schools, secret orders, or Missions, but have departed from the faith upon which their churches were constituted. In Kentucky they deny the imputation of Adam's transgression to all the race, deny the doctrine of eternal and particular election, believe in General Atonement and instrumental regeneration. Number of organizations in United States, 401, with a membership of 21,521; number of church edifices, 192; 50 Sunday Schools, with 2,587 scholars.

The United Baptists are essentially the same in doctrine as the means Regulars. They base salvation upon conditions to be performed by the creature. Both denominations practice feet-washing. The number of organizations in the United States, 254; number of members, 22,097; number of Sunday Schools, 17; 92 teachers, 701 scholars. Schedules received from 411 ministers in United States, only 15 receive salaries, the average salary, $113. These churches are in the mountainous regions of Kentucky, West Virginia, and adjoining states."—Government Report.

There are many good children of God among the above denominations.

Baptists (known as the McCann Faction) have been in existence since 1899. The main body of them love the same doctrine and practice that the Old School. Primitive Baptists do. The cause of the separation was the recognition of expelled members, bars of non-fellowship against churches not belonging to Associations, against churches not corresponding by letter at communion meetings, against church sovereignty (churches having the Gospel right to discipline their own members), against singing sound hymns in other books besides Loyd's, and against Churches supporting their poor struggling' ministry as the Scriptures direct (1Co 9:1-15), some advocating the predestination of sin and wickedness. It is ruinous to the peace of the church to draw dead lines over local forms or customs when all are agreed on the essentials. Forbearance should, be exercised in different communities where no faith is denied and Scripture violated. We feel sure they love the same faith and practice of the great body of Primitive Baptists. They have five Associations in Georgia. At the time of this division there was not an organ, protracted meeting or any preacher that we knew that demanded of the church an entire support for himself and family and he do nothing. If the hearts of all were full of love, each would confess his own wrongs and correct his own mistakes and God's children would soon be cemented everywhere in love. We should all pray to that end.

Brethren—River Brethren—About 1770, by Jacob Engle. Brethren—Plymouth Brethren—Originated about 1827-1830.

Catholicism—Roman Catholicism—By Cyprian, born in Africa, about A. D. 200, styled Bishop of Carthage, from A. D. 248 to 258, beheaded by the Roman Emperor, Valerian, Sept. 14, 258, was the father or founder of Roman Catholicism, representing the bishops as the successors of the apostles, the chair of Peter as the center of episcopal unity and the church at Rome the root of all, and yet Cyprian conceded only an ideal precedence to the Bishop of Rome, for he accused the Roman Bishop Stephen of error and abuse of power. The first pope, in the real sense of the word, was Leo I (A. D. 444-461), who ambitiously and energetically sought to transform the `church' into an ecclesiastical monarchy, with himself at the head, and yet the 28th canon of the Council of Chalcedon (A. D. 451), acknowledged by Rome to be ecuminical, elevated the Bishop of Constantinople to official equality with the pope. The Scriptures nowhere say that Peter ever went to Rome, or that he was to be head of the other apostles (Christ is the only head of His Church), much less that Peter was to have a successor who was to be the head of the Church on earth."—Eld. S Hassell, Two Witnesses, pages 336, 337.

It is said that Cornelius, under the influence of Cyprian of Carthage, by his slackness in discipline, really caused division in the church at Rome about 251, and thus Roman Catholicism was founded of the grossest disorder and apostates caused from idolatrous and heretical seed sown by the Alexdrian School 170. Novation, a loyal Baptist, stood at the peril of his life against the idolatrous system of Roman Catholicism.

Christians—Christian Connection—Founded by James O'Kelley, Abner Jones and. Barton W. Stone, about 1806.

Christian Scientists—By Mrs. Mary Eddy, 1866-67.

Church of the New Jerusalem—By Emmanuel Swedenborg, first congregation in 1783.

Congregationalists—By John Robinson, 1602.

Campbellites—Disciples, Christians—Originated in 1827 by Alexander Campbell.

Dunkards—Originated in 1708 by Alexander Mack.

Escopalians—Protestant Episcopalians—Formally organized in the United States about 1785-89, and is merely a modification of the Church of England to suit the political characteristics of his country. The Church of England originated with King Henry VIII, who was declared on Nov. 3, 1534, to be the supreme head of the Church of England, which came out of the Roman Catholic Church. The Episcopal Church of the United States is a granddaughter and the Methodist Church is a great-granddaughter of the Catholic Church. The daughter and granddaughter favor the old mother.

Friends or Quakers—Originated in 1747, by George Fox.

The Lutheran Church—Originated about 1520 by Martin Luther, the great reformer. He was formerly a Catholic.

Methodists—Originated about 1729 by John Wesley.

The Protestant Methodists-1830, in Baltimore, Maryland. Mormons—Originated in 1830, by Joseph Smith.

Presbyterians—Generally understood to have originated with John Calvin, about 1560.

Cumberland Presbyterians—In 1810.

Spiritualists-1848, in the Fox family of New York.

Unitarians—In 1774, by Theophilus Lindsey and Thomas Belsham.-G. W. Stewart, Two Witnesses, page 316.

All founded by men except the Primitive Baptists. Christ founded only one church. "My dove (church my undefiled, is but one."

Universalism—This anti-Christian doctrine seems to have had its origin in England, about 1770, says Belcher; "Rev. John Kelly collected a congregation in the city of London." "The doctrines of Universalism were preached in this country (U. S.) quite as soon as they became prevalent in England. The chief agent in its extension was the Rev. John Murray, who emigrated from England in 1770. He was a follower of Kelly, already mentioned, and on his arrival in this country zealously preached these views in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. As he collected his followers together and organized them into societies, he may be regarded as the founder of the body.

H. R. Nye, a noted Universalist, says: "There was a distinct, separate body of Christian believers called the Universalist church. It was organized a little more than a hundred years ago. Page 10. "No such organization as the Universalist church was known 150 years ago (then 1909) or prior to that time."—J. R. Daily.

"If Christ and His apostles had taught the doctrine of Universalism, then the church He founded would have been a Universalist church; and as He declares the gates of hell should not prevail against His church, it would have existed through the ages to the present. But no such organization or church was known to the writers of history prior to the time of Murray. If the doctrine of Universalism be true, not one of the true followers of Christ ever understood its teachings until modern Universalists arose to expound it.

"Now being made free from sin." If all men are children of God, born of God, they partake of the nature of God and bear fruits unto holiness. They would be made free here and bear fruits here, and since all men (all the race) do not bear fruits and are not made free from sin Universalism is false. They bear no fruits of a moral change. By their fruits ye shall know them. Being born again (from above) constitutes one a child of God (Joh 3:3).

Universalism says: All sinners are punished as much as they deserve for the sins they commit."—Daily and Hughes Debate, page 54.

"That destroys forgiveness. Does God forgive sins if sinners are punished as much as they deserve ? They claim the body suffers for the sins of the spirit—eliminates Christ—a Christless doctrine. You owe me ten dollars and pay every cent of it; do I forgive the debt?

Universalism destroys the doctrine of mercy. They have to suffer and become their own savior."—J. R. Daily. Their suffering the punishment will never render them innocent, never justify them, no heaven without justification. If Universalism be true, Christ did not save any from sinning, from punishment, from death, from hell or anything else. If all are punished as much as they deserve, what is accomplished by the suffering of Christ? Nothing." It destroys justification, atonement and redemption by Christ. They claim the word world to apply to all the race. J. R. Daily says: "World is used in a representative sense. God so loved the world teaches that God not only loved His people among the Jews but His people among the Gentiles, and all other nations—Gentile as well as Jew. Our Savior said (Joh 17:9;): "I pray for them, I pray not for the world, but for them which Thou hast given me."' "All the world wandered after the beast. Did all the race wander after the beast? Did a part or none ? Somebody did not wander after the beast. Who was it? Those whose names were in the book of life"—infants and adults. Universalism (their doctrine) is not a thing of the spirit (1Co 2:14). The carnal mind, the most wicked can receive it—it is not the truth.

They claim all are children of God or sons of God, which is false. "As many as are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God" (Ro 8:14); those who are not led by the spirit of God are not sons of God. "As many as are without chastisement whereof all (God's children) are partakers, are bastards and not sons." Heb 12:8. "The children of the flesh, these are not the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted for the seed"—false again.

Jesus, speaking of the wicked, says: "Ye are of your father, the devil, and his lusts ye will do." Here is somebody not children of God. They are children of the devil.

They are not given to Christ and He did not pray for them: "I pray not for the world, but for them Thou has given me."

They are the world that lie in wickedness or in the wicked one. They believe not because they are not of His sheep—they are the goats that go away into everlasting (Aionion) fire or punishment Jesus Christ did not atone for any but His sheep (Joh 10:11), or the invisible church (Eph 5:22-28).

The Universalists deny the vicarious atonement of Christ, deny His suffering was a perfect satisfaction for sin, as we must suffer for all the sins due us. Christ suffered for all the sins due to His people. (If Universalism be true every man would be his own savior, but his own suffering will not justify him, or remove the guilt, and none can reach heaven with their guilt resting upon them, hence universal damnation would be the result, if Universalism be true. —L. H.).

2. It makes every man make his atonement.—Christless, indeed.

3. It has unjustified guilty sinners in heaven.—Impossible

4. It makes no distinction between the wicked and righteous.

5. It makes all, every and world apply to all the race.--False. (They are generic terms and mean all of a class under consideration.—L, H.).

6. It denies endless punishment for the wicked.—Deepest heresy.

7. It denies the resurrection of the just and unjust.—Infidelity.

Universalism says: "I most certainly believe that all men will repent as one of the necessary steps to the finality of all." This makes salvation conditioned upon repentance, which leaves the infant out, since it can not repent, the idiot and heathen do not know how to repent or turn, so it leaves them out.--L. H.)

If no endless hell, no endless death, no endless consequences, and all go to heaven, why have Christ, repentence or anything else ?

"There will be opportunity to repent in a future state, as all do not have a fair chance here," says Universalism. (This makes salvation conditional, Christless and based upon chance, and since chance has always been a failure, there is no salvation for any, according to that theory. Their doctrine, if true, would be universal damnation instead of salvation.—L. H.)

"Universalists believe in no atonement at all. In the atonement, as typified by the Jewish offerings, the sins of the people were ceremonially put upon the head of the scapegoat (Le 16:21). There is nothing in Universalist doctrine that corresponds with this. In the anti-type, the Lord laid on Jesus the iniquity of us all (Isa 53:6); for the transgression of my people was He stricken (Isa 53:8,12); He shall bear their iniquities (the iniquities of the sheep and no more), this is the blood of the New Testament which was shed for many (not the race) for the remission of sins (Mt 26:28); He hath made Him to be sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in Him (2Co 5:21). "Who gave Himself for us (the sheep—not the goats), that He might redeem us from all iniquity (Tit 2:14), who His own self bare our sins in His own body on the tree (1Pe 2:24). There is not one word said about His bearing the sins of any but His sheep (Joh 10:11); His church (all His elect, Eph 5:22-28). He did not bear the sins of the goats or the wicked that shall go away into everlasting (aionion) punishment). He did not bear the sins of those who sin against the Holy Ghost (the sins of the elect, His people, His sheep, His inorganic church, are all against the son of man, as their Husband, Head and Surety, and they shall all be atoned for or forgiven (Mt 1; 21; Ro 5:19), but the sins of the wicked, being against the Holy Ghost, shall not be forgiven in this world, nor the world to come—they are in danger of eternal (aionion) damnation (Mr 3:29), and will suffer the vengeance of eternal (aionion) fire (Jude 7), they are vessels of wrath fitted to destruction (Ro 9:22).

Paul says: "Be not deceived (by Universalists, Russellites, Spiritualists, those who profess new revelations, by grievous wolves speaking such perverse doctrines to draw away disciples after them, claiming there is no devil, no endless hell), neither fornicators, nor idolators, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God" (1Co 6:9-10). Endless hell will be the doom of all such who die in that condition. They are not,born again; "except a man be born again (from above) he cannot see the kingdom of God." Hence, the unborn again cannot reach heaven—impossible. Jesus Christ says he cannot see it, and cannot enter it. To say those wicked characters can reach heaven in that condition, unborn again, would fill heaven with drunkards, whoremongers, liars, gamblers, profane swearers, still in their sins and loving sin with all their guilt resting upon them. No man can believe that such enter heaven and believe Jesus Christ at the same time. Jesus says they cannot see it and cannot enter it. The Bible tells us where such characters go: "But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominal, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolators, and all liars; shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone; which is the second death" (Re 21:8). This is where God says they shall go. Russellites and Universalists and wicked men to justify their wicked course, may dispute this plain declaration of truth; but God has said, with Heaven's seal upon it, that they shall have their part in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone. God's eternal truth will stand in spite of men and devils. How long will this punishment last? Re 20:10 tells us: "And the Devil (there is a devil and there is a hell, that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night (without cessation) forever and ever." Means endless, for eternity. Just as interminable as the happiness of the righteousness. Paul says: "For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal (aionion) in the heavens" (2Co 5:1).

"Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them, in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal (aionion) fire" (Jude 4,13). This proves that the joys of the righteous and punishment of the wicked will be alike interminable—endless.

If everybody be God's children there would be no unjust and all would alike sleep in Jesus. But Paul teaches us there will be a resurrection of the just and unjust (Ac 24:15). Jesus teaches that all that are in their graves shall hear His voice, and come forth (out of their graves); they that have done good unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation (Joh 5:29). The joys of the righteous and damnation (punishment) of the wicked will be experienced by them after the resurrection of their mortal bodies. Da 12:2, says: "And many of them that sleep in the 'dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life; and some to shame and everlasting contempt." This proves that the joys of the righteous and punishment of the wicked will be everlasting, eternal, perpetual, which none but an infidel can pussibly deny. If everlasting punishment has an end, everlasting life will have an end, as God moved Daniel to declare.

Jesus declares that the wicked shall go away into everlasting (aionion) punishment; but the righteous into life eternal (aionion). Mt 25:46. If Universalism were true, all the race would be children of God, and all the race would be wicked and none righteous, and all would go into a state of punishment to suffer as much as they deserved, and if so, all the race deserving eternal punishment would be punished eternally in hell. The Jews believed in an eternal hell. The rich man, after death of his body, remained in soul or spirit in a conscious existence, lifting up his eyes in hell, being in torment, and felt the justice of God in his everlasting doom. If that was not an eternal hell he was in, why did not Jesus Christ tell him so? Jesus Christ knew there was an endless hell after death of the body, and taught it in this parable. Jesus teaches to fear him that had the. power to destroy both soul and body in hell. The wicked shall be turned into hell with all the nations that forget God. Hell here means a place of endless punishment, says our greatest God-loving scholars. It cannot mean anything else. No one can afford to believe that none but the wicked go into the grave. The bodies of the just and unjust go into the graves and will be resurrected. Soul and spirit are often used interchangeably. When the body dies the soul leaves the body and goes to Heaven or hell. 1Ki 17:22, teaches that the soul of the dead child had left the body. The child in being made alive, it is said: "And the soul of the child came into him again, and he revived." This proves the soul left the body at death. Solomon says: "Then shall the dust (of the mortal body) return to the earth as it was; and the spirit shall return to God, who gave it," Ec 12:7. Lu 8:55 teaches that the soul or spirit departed from the body at death. The departed spirit came again. Jesus said: "Today shalt thou be with me in Paradise." It was the soul or spirit that was with Him in Paradise. The third heaven, which Paul calls Paradise, is the heaven of heavens. When Jesus Christ shall come to resurrect our bodies, they that sleep in Jesus will God bring with Him. The wicked do not sleep in Jesus. The dead in Christ shall rise first—soul and body, reuniting. The wicked, who are not in Christ, but are the world that lie in wickedness (in the wicked one), will rise afterwards to eternal damnation. Elder J. R. Daily, in debate with Mr. Hughes, a Universalist, says: "He says he does not believe in a limited, vicarious atonement. He has failed to show how Christ's death benefits us in the least. He denies that the death of Christ releases us from punishment, from death, from sinning, from hell or any thing else! If that is true, His death is no atonement at all. What application to his doctrine could he make of the type of the scape goat? None whatever. We would suffer (according to Universalism) as much if Christ had not died; we would have been as certainly saved if He had not died, so we receive no benefit whatever from His death. As His death is absolutely useless, it does not commend the love of God to us! . . . What comfort could there be in our being informed that we must suffer for all the sins we commit, even to the double extent of their deserts? . . . Neither punishment nor forgiveness renders the sinner innocent. If heaven should be peopled by sinners punished for their sins, and merely forgiven, it would be peopled by guilty people and there would not be an innocent person there. . . . "Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin." What is the covering for sin? My opponent (Universalist) says it is punishment inflicted upon the sinner. But the text declares that the Lord will not impute sin to the sinner whose sins are covered. To show what the covering is, I quote Isa 53:6: "All we, like sheep, have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on Him (Christ) the iniquity of us all (all the sheep—goats not included). There is the covering for sin. . . . The covering for sins is the blood of Christ by which our sins are washed away. (1Jo 1:7). The blood of Jesus Christ, His Son, cleanseth us from all sin. He Is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse from all unrighteousness. The blood of Christ finds no place in Universalism. In that system Christ is no more than a mere figurehead. There is no covering for sin in it, no washing away guilt." Universalism denies the work of the Father in choosing us in Christ, giving us grace in Christ, predestinating us unto the adoption of children; denies the redemption of Christ, the atonement of Christ, the justification by His blood and righteousness, or being made righteous by His obedience (Ro 5:19), since, according to their doctrine we become righteous by our own suffering; it has a poor finite creature satisfying, by his suffering, an infinite law—utterly impossible. It does not need the Holy Spirit to regenerate or born us into the family, for all men, by natural birth, are children of God, according to their doctrine. Hence they eliminate the Father, Son and Holy Ghost from man's salvation. They plead the sinner's own righteousness procured by his own suffering instead of the suffering of Christ. It is Christless and fruitless. They make Cain, the Sodomites, Judas, who was a devil, the Pharisees, hypocrites, scribes, Saducees, the goats who go into everlasting punishment, and all liars, drunkards, whoremongers, idolators, gamblers and the worst demons as much God's children as Abel, Noah, the prophets and apostles—all classed together. It is indeed a God dishonoring doctrine.

This was not the doctrine of the prophets or apostles or Christ, the Head of the Church. It has never been the doctrine of the Church of God.

Siloam Association, State of Washington, says: "We believe in the resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust, the righteous to the resurrection of life and the wicked to the resurrection of damnation; that God has appointed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness by Jesus Christ, and that the joys of the righteous and punishment of the wicked will be eternal."

The Union Association of Kentucky, A. D. 1907, item 12, says: "We, as an advisory council, say to the churches composing our body, as it has been reported that some of our ministers are preaching a doctrine denying the resurrection of our bodies and the everlasting punishment in the lake after death, we admonish and advise the churches of our union to put all such from among you and receive it not into your house, for it is heresy." -

The Union Association says in this article of faith: "We believe in the resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust, and a general judgment, and the joys of the righteous and the punishment of the wicked will be eternal." The Sand Lick Association of Kentucky, Mate's Creek Association of Kentucky, the Washington Association (1907) of Virginia, the Elkhorn of W. Virginia, the Red River of Kentucky, the Rock Springs of Kentucky all have the above article of faith. Stony Creek, Powell's Valley, Three Forks and some other associations declare they believe in the resurrection of the dead and a general judgment and the punishment of the wicked will be everlasting (aionion), and the joys of the righteous eternal" (aionion).

Everlasting means perpetual, eternity, never ceasing. These associations and all orderly orthodox Primitive Baptist churches and associations believed in their organization that the bodies of the just and unjust will be resurrected out of their graves, and that the joys of the righteous and punishment of the wicked, after their bodies are resurrected, will be eternal, everlasting, perpetual, never ceasing.

We have shown that where the word everlasting or eternal is used in the New Testament it is from the Greek word aionion. Elder J. R. Daily said: Aion and aionios always designate an indefinite, unlimited time when employed merely for the purpose of expressing future time. It is never used in the New Testament to express a definite, limited period when reference is had to futurity. The Greek noun aion is to be found in the New Testament 104 times, 65 of which expresses endless duration. The Greek word aionios, an adjective, occurs 71 times, 46 of which refers to God, Christ and the Holy Ghost, 65 of which refers to eternal life and blessedness, and 21 times to eternal death and punishment."

Elder Daily again says: "An important distinction is made in this text (Re 20:13-15) between death, the state of the body and hell, the state of the soul. Death delivers up its dead, that is, the bodies are brought from a state of death by the resurrection, and hell (hades) delivers up its dead, the place of separate spirits in which the souls of the wicked have been held, delivers up those souls to be reunited with their bodies and receive their final doom. Then death and hell, that is, the bodies that have been held by death and the souls that have been kept in hades, shall be cast into the lake of fire, which is the second death. This proves there is a place of punishment known by the term of hades after death.

Here (Lu 12:4-5; Mt 10:28) we have the destruction of the soul distinguished from the death of the body, and the place of punishment distinguished from the grave. Both soul and body are spoken of as being cast into hell. This casting into hell is after death. The hell entered is after death. This cannot mean the grave, for those who kill the body have power to bury it. . . . The only conclusion is that the hell mentioned is a place of punishment after death. The unjust will be raised as well as the just, and will be cast into hell. The fate of those whose names are not written in the Lamb's book of life."—Daily-Hughes Debate, pages 285-6.

Elder Daily says: "We must either admit the endless misery in hell, or give up the endless happiness in Heaven."

Elder John Gill (1748) said: "Judgment having passed, the execution (Mt 25:46) immediately follows: these goats, formal professors, shall be obliged (the sentence is irrevocable), whether they will or not, to depart from the presence of Christ; the angels will be ordered to cast them into everlasting burnings; they will be driven by them into hell, the place appointed for them; where they shall endure everlasting punishment in soul and body as the just deserts of sin, which being committed against an infinite God, cannot be satisfied for by a finite creature; who must ever bear the punishment of it, because its pollution and guilt will always remain. . . . The wicked will forever endure the torments of hell—eternal fire or everlasting burnings for the devil and his angels."

The Philadelphia confession of faith, Art. 23, adopted by them 1742, says: "The bodies of men after death return to dust and see corruption, but their souls, which neither die nor sleep, having an immortal subsistence, immediately return to God who gave them, the souls of the righteous being then made perfect in holiness, are received into paradise, where they are with Christ and behold the face of God in light and glory waiting for the redemption of their bodies; and the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torments and utter darkness reserved to the judgment of the great day.

Art. 24. God hath appointed a day wherein He will judge the world in righteousness, by Jesus Christ, to whom all power and judgment is given of the Father; then shall the righteous go into everlasting life, and receive that fullness of joy, with everlasting reward, in the presence of the Lord; but the wicked who knoweth not God and obey not the Gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast into eternal torments and punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power."—The above adopted in London, 1689, by ministers and messengers from over 100 congregations of Old Baptists.

Elder Gilbert Beebe (1840) said: "The destiny of all worlds hang on His sovereign decision. Every ransomed soul is effectually brought to occupy His place at the right hand of Jesus, and the goats are placed with the accursed on the left hand. After the resurrection of the saints the wicked shall also be raised to a resurrection of damnation. . . . If washed in the blood of Christ, arrayed in His righteousness, we are saved; if otherwise, we are lost, irretrievably lost! We believe the happiness of the saints and the punishment of the wicked will be alike interminable."--Endless.

How strange that any professing Christian who reads the Bible will deny the plain teachings of the Scriptures, and espouse the abominable doctrines of Russellism, annihilation of the wicked, all the hell and heaven will be here on earth, contending that the organic church is all the elect there is, that the soul sleeps with the body, that the mortal body will not be resurrected, that everlasting pertains to time only; that man has no soul, that man is the devil, that Christ made a universal atonement for all the race, that man has to suffer for all the sins due to him, making his own atonement, universalism. These black heresies should not be tolerated or allowed preached. I have been a member of the Primitive Baptist nearly forty-six years and have never heard the above heresies preached in our pulpits. If any should preach such among orthodox Primitive Baptists they would be excluded immediately, which is right.

We have shown that Primitive Baptists have ever believed in the election of a definite number of the human family to salvation, but that the wicked will suffer eternally in hell. We will give a few more witnesses: In Cause Defended (1898) Elder S. Hassell said: "The absolute certainty that of the second personal coming of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, the final judgment, the everlasting salvation of the children of God in Heaven and the everlasting damnation of His wicked enemies in hell. . . . The thorough conviction that, as it set forth in the Scriptures, the only man that ever lived a perfectly holy life on earth was the Messiah, the Christ, the Son of God, the Son of the Virgin Mary, Jesus of Nazareth, who was born, and lived, and taught, and suffered, and bled, and died, and rose again, and ascended to Heaven, in exact accordance with the three hundred and thirty-three Old Testament prophecies of Him for four thousand years; and that He is the only possible Savior of sinful men, and will save His people from their sins, having atoned for their sins by His death, and having justified His people by His resurrection; that He will give them eternal life, and will save them, both soul and body forever."

Elder Lemuel Potter said: "While man was in the Garden of Eden, he was good, innocent and harmless, and in a state he was not condemned for wrong doings, for he had done no wrong. Disease, pain, sorrow, disappointments, nor afflictions, mentally or physically, nor death could not invade his premises. . . . Man is sunken very low now, in comparison of what he once was. God made him but a little lower than the angels; but now we find him likened unto the beasts that perish. In his fallen and wicked state he is represented as being a compound of the evil qualities of the worst of creatures, in which is the fierceness of the lion, the cunning of the fox, the unteachableness of the wild ass, the filthiness of the dog and swine, the poison of the asp, and many other things. Inspiration itself calls them serpents, a generation of vipers; and even children of the devil." —Cause Defended, page 17.

Elder J. B. Stephens said: "What we mean by particular election is that God, the glorious sovereign of Heaven and earth, in boundless love, mercy, wisdom and goodness, according to the determination of His own will, from eternity, did purpose and determine to save a certain particular and definite number of Adam's race from eternal ruin; each individual known to Him, and particularly chosen with this view from the rest of mankind, and bring them, every one of them, through Christ, to eternal salvation. And that the elect, being fallen in Adam, are redeemed by Christ, and are effectually called to faith and trust in Christ, and by His Spirit working in due season are set apart and kept by His power through faith unto salvation. God did not only purpose in eternity to save sinners, but He also laid the whole plan on which they were to be saved, including everything contained in the covenant of grace, the glorious Surety, the complete atonement, every particular person to be saved, and everything to be done for them and to them. . . . No other plan, it seems to me, can manifest God's sovereignty, His boundless love and infinite riches of His grace. . . . (Mt 25:34,41,46; Eph 2:8; Tit 3:5; Mal 3:6; Jas 1:17; Ac 15:18; Eph 1:11).

"If you say all are saved you deny Mt 25:41,46, which shows some are lost. If you say none are saved, you contradict Mt 25:34, which shows some are blessed of the Father and inherit the kingdom. Therefore, you must believe that only a part are saved."—Cause Defended, pages 22-24.

Elder J. T. Oliphant said: "Our sins being imputed to Jesus, and His righteousness being imputed to us, we are, in virtue of these two acts, both acquitted from guilt and accepted as righteous before God (Ro 4:6-7; 5:18-19; 2Co 5:21).—Cause Defended, page 32.

Elder R. W. Thompson said: "We believe the punishment of the wicked will be eternal. . . . The holy scriptures teach in language not to be misunderstood, neither to be explained away, that all humankind are endued with an interminable existence. Perish eternally some may, and they will, terrible as it is, but for man to lose his identity—cease to have a real, conscious being, he cannot. He was not created for time only, but for eternity as well. It is the body that dies. The soul or spirit never dies. For their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched (Isa 66:24). The words eternal and everlasting are derived from the same Greek word (aionion), therefore if one means an interminable state of duration the other does also. Then it must follow that in order to show that the wicked will finally cease from conscious punishment that the righteous will fail of life eternal. Who is ready to undertake such a task ? It is left to skeptics and infidels. . . The afflictions that shall befall the wicked will be a proper punishment for their crime, and only what they have willingly earned to themselves. They are the willing servants of sin and must receive the wages of sin, the fruit of their labor. And hence their punishment can be no less than destruction, not of their identity, but of all comfort and enjoyment through consignment to everlasting darkness and death; always dying and yet can never cease to be—to exist. Their afflictions will run parallel with eternity."—Cause Defended.

Eld. J. G. Webb said: "We shall say in regard to the general judgment, that the same arguments that sustain the doctrine of the resurrection (of the same mortal body that dies) also prove the final separation of the just and unjust. . . And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the -lake of fire" (Re 20:12; Mt 25:32-40).

Elder L. H. Hardy said: "Our brethren have reasons to stand shoulder to shoulder and contend earnestly for the faith once delivered unto the saints. I heard a minister use for a text: 'All Thy works shall praise Thee, O Lord; and Thy saints shall bless Thee' Ps 141:10). In his exposition of the text he left the full impression that all evil deeds are works of the Lord, and that they were for His praise. If my evil deeds are works of God, where are the works of the devil ? What experience have I with him? Does no such being exist? My own experience tells me there is such a being. He is my tormentor. I often find that he has dictated to me and I have followed his evil ways and am brought very low in repentance from my evil ways. For this very cause I am made to hate myself and to pray to God to deliver me from myself and all my ways. Satan is a snare and a trap to the children of God, and, my brethren, I do not feel that I should put it to God's account. We should be careful to shun the very appearance of evil, not only the evil itself, but the very appearance of it. There can be no danger in not coming anywhere near a rattlesnake—shun evil and temptations. Do not put ourselves in places where we know that temptations are likely to rise."—Zion's Landmark, Nov. 15, 1916.

Progressive Primitive Baptists were separated from the Old School Primitive Baptists in Georgia in 1907 and 1908. The main cause of the division was the introduction of instrumental music in worship over the protests of the great body of Primitive Baptists. The first organ used in worship in the present dispensation was introduced by the Pope of Rome, 666. Also the introduction of protracted meetings, which was non-fellowshipped by the Primitive Baptists at Black Rock, Maryland, 1832, when they withdrew from the modern Mission Baptists. Later, ladies' aid societies, Sunday schools, etc. They allowed their members to belong to secret oath-bound societies, which Primitive Baptists do not fellowship. The most of them, we are told, preach sound doctrine. Some did deny election and special atonement advocating what was called the Grand Father Doctrine, which the majority opposed. Some of their ablest men preach salvation by grace and will exclude a member for joining secret societies, while others tolerate them. This is giving them much trouble. There are many good children of God among them who love the doctrine of grace. It was a sad mistake to exchange the fellowship of the great body of Primitive Baptists for those things which they knew were offensive to their brethren. There is nothing gained and much lost by the introduction of unscriptural measures, causing sad division, heartaches, bitter tears —churches, associations and families arrayed against each other. All true old Baptists should dwell together in love and peace. All should stand together and correct all mistakes and return to the Bible land marks. There is room in the old Baptist church for every scriptural practice without forming any man-made societies. The church is enough for any humble Christian. May God bless all erring children with repentance.

On the subject of organs Elder Hassell says: "The scriptural objections of Primitive Baptists to the use of unchristian choirs and of musical instruments in public worship are the total absence of any precept or example of their use in the apostolic churches; and the fact that the Apostle Paul requires us to sing praises to the Lord with grace and melody in our hearts. Unchristian choirs have no grace in their hearts, so that their pretended praises to God are but mockings; and dead musical instruments have neither grace nor hearts. There may be more, but I do not know of a half dozen Primitive Baptists churches in the United States that use organs in their public worship. I am truly sorry that there are any instruments used in any of our church houses, as such is an offense to nearly all our brethren, and as a practice, is a departure from the custom of the apostolic churches.--1906.


(By Elder S. Hassell). Man-Made Doctrines.

Atheism—That there is no God, a contradiction of all revelation, and of all reason, Ps 14:1; Ro 1:20.

Evolutionism—That matter is eternal, and that everything, nebulae, sun, planets, lands, rocks, seas, rivers, hills and mountains, and planets and animals, human beings with mind, conscience and will, sprang without a personal, intelligent and almighty creation, from uncreated matter, and that everything is getting better. This is one of the oldest, crudest and wildest dreams of heathen philosophy, a mere guess, unproved and unprovable, contrary to all experience and observation, and to all Scripture. Atoms have exact combining weights and volumes, all the qualities of manufactured articles. No species was ever known to be changed into another. No other human being was ever as perfect as Jesus Christ, who as a man, died nearly nineteen hundred years ago. The late horrible World War proved that mankind are getting worse instead of better. It is said that nearly half of our college and university graduates are atheists and that 60 per cent of our people never go to church. The world, with all its natural wisdom, knows not God (1Co 1:21; Mt 11:27)).

Miscalled Higher Criticism (the product of Evolutionism)—That postdates and cuts up all the books and chapters of the Bible, pretending to assign each part to later and unknown authors. This contradiction of Scripture and history has been proved to be ignorant and dishonest presumption.

Unitarianism—That denies the three-oneness of God, making Christ, the only Savior and the final Judge of man, only a man, and denying the personality of the Holy Spirit. The doctrine of the divine Trinity shines all through the Old Testament, and still more clearly in the New Testament, and in every believer's experience.

Universalism—That all human beings will finally be saved in heaven. This makes Daniel and Christ and Paul and John liars (Da 12:2; Mt 25:31-46; 2Th 1:7-10; Joh 5:28-29; Re 21:8).

Sacerdotalism—That the presbyter or elder is a priest, who, in the Lord's Supper, offers a sacrifice for the sins of the communicant. But the Blood of Christ, represented by the wine in the Lord's Supper, procures the forgiveness of the sins of His people (Mt 28:20; Eph 1:7; 1Jo 1:7).

Sacramentalism—That the sacrifice which the priest pretends to offer in the Lord's Supper effects the forgiveness of the sins of the communicant. But, according to the Scriptures last cited, this forgiveness of sins is effected by the blood of Christ.

Hierarchism—That the Christian ministry are in two classes, the priest or elder being the lower, and the bishop being the higher. But in the New Testament all believers are priests (1Pe 2:9; Re 1:5-6) and elders and bishops (or overseers) are the same (Ac 20:17,28; Php 1:1; 1Ti 3:1-7; Tit 1:5-9; 1Pe 5:1-4).

Papalism—That the so-called pope is the head of the church, and is God on earth. But Christ is the only head of the church (Eph 1:22), and there is only one God, the Creator, Preserver and Governor of the universe (Ge 1:1; De 6:4; 1Ti 2:5; 1:15-18; Heb 1:1-3), and the worship of any other being is idolatry (Ex 20:3; De 13; 1Co 3:4-6). Papal, like pope, means father, and Christ says "Call no man on earth your father" (that is, your spiritual father); for one is your Father who is in Heaven" Mt 23:9).

Priestly Confessionalism and Absolutionism—That men should confess all their sins to a priest, and then he can forgive them. But we are told to confess our faults to one another, and to pray for one another (Jas 5:16) and that none but God can forgive sins (Mt 8:1-8; Ex 34:6-7; Isa 55:7; 43:25; Da 9:9).

Purgatoryism—That departed penitent souls are fitted for Heaven by expiatory sufferings in an intermediate place or state. But the Blood of Christ cleanses from all sin (1Jo 1:7). The departed souls of the lost go at once to hell (Lu 16:23; Ac 1:25; Joh 17:12), and those of the saved at once to Heaven (Lu 16:22,31; 9:30-31; Php 1:23; 2Co 5:1-9).

Churchianity—That joining a church or a so-called church will save a person eternally. But the Lord Jesus Christ is the only Saviour of sinners (Mt 1:21; Lu 2:11,25-32; Ac 4:10-12; Tit 3:4-7).

Baptismal Regenerationalism—That baptism in water will save a person in heaven. But water-baptism is only a figure or emblem of salvation by Christ (1Pe 3:18-22; Ro 6; Col 2:9-17; 1Co 1:14-31).

Pelagianism—That human beings can save themselves eternally by their own works. But all men by nature are dead in sin (Ge 2:17; Eph 2:1); all are unclean, and all their righteousnesses are as filthy rags (Isa 64:6; Eph 2:2-3), and they are saved freely by the grace of God through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, through faith which is the gift of God (Ro 3:21-28; 4:16; Eph 1:19-20; 2:4-10; Php 1:29; Ga 5:22; 2:21; Heb 12:2).

Arminianism—That God loved and chose all human beings alike to salvation, and Christ died for all alike, but that only those who cooperate with the grace of the Holy Spirit as long as they live on earth will be saved in heaven. Though this doctrine is believed by nearly all the professedly Christian world, it is contrary to the teachings of the Scriptures, and to the Articles of Faith of the Protestant Reformers of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, and to all experience and observation. It makes Man, and not God, the real Saviour of sinners; denies the sovereignty and omnipotence of God, representing Him as trying but failing to save sinners—as loving, redeeming and regenerating them, but all in vain, because they will not let or help Him. Certainly the weak God of the Arminian is not the Almighty God of the universe nor of the Bible, who made all things out of nothing, and upholds all things, and governs all things according to His holy will and pleasure (Ge 1:1; Ps 104; Isa 40; Da 4:34-35; Col 1:16-17; Heb 1:1-3; Re 4:11). The Lord sovereignly and freely loved and chose the ancient Israelites (although unrighteous and stiff-necked) in their forefathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, to be His peculiar priestly nation to receive and bear His teachings to other nations (Gentiles), and by mighty miracles redeemed or delivered them from bondage in Egypt, and led and fed and clothed and watered them forty years in the wilderness, and gave them Canaan, the best country in the world, for everlasting possession (Ge 17:1-18; De 7:1-11; 9; 1-29; Ps 44:1-7; 105; 106). Even so God, from eternity, sovereignly and freely loved and chose in Christ unto everlasting salvation, His spiritual Israel of all nations, and in time redeemed them from bondage and penalty of sin by the blood of His Son, and regenerates them by the power of His Holy Spirit, and will bring them to the glory of heaven, although by nature they are no better than others, are dead in trespasses and sins, and justly subject to everlasting punishment (Ps 33:12; 65:4; Jer 31:3; Joh 6:37-45; 10:14-16,23-30; 17; Ac 13:48; Ro 8:28-39; 1Co 1:26-31; Eph 1; 2; Php 1:6; 2Th 2:12,14; 2Ti 1:9-10; Tit 3:3-7; 1Pe 1; 2; Re 1:5-6). Faith, repentance, love and obedience, instead of being the conditions and causes of salvation, are the effects and evidences of salvation, the gifts of God,. the fruits of His Spirit (Joh 6:29,47; 17:1-3; 10:26-30; Ac 14:28; Ro 4:25; Ga 5:22; Eph 1:19-20; Php 1:29; Heb 12:2; Ac 5:30-31; 11:17; 2Ti 2:25; Zec 12:10; Ro 5:5; 1Jo 4:19; Php 2:13). This salvation of God from sin and hell is perfectly free to every poor, humble, sin-burdened, sin-sick soul in the world (Isa 55; 60:1-3; Mt 5:3-6; 11:18-20; Joh 4:10; Ro 6:23; Re 21:6; 22:17).

Meanism-That Spiritual life has to come through the preacher or the Bible to reach the dead sinner. But God is omnipresent and omnipotent, and He does not have to come through any creature to reach the sinner, but Himself directly gives life to the dead (Joh 1:12-13; 3:3-8; 10:28; 17:2; Ro 6:23; 1Jo 5:11-12; Joh 5:25). He gave spiritual life to John the Baptist before he was naturally born (Lu 1:15,44).

Fatalism-That all the acts, both right and wrong, of all human beings are necessitated or compelled to be exactly what they are. But this makes man an involuntary and irresponsible machine; while all men are voluntary in the commission of sin, and are accountable to God for their sins (Ge 2:6; 7; 16-19; Joh 8:44; 2Co 5:10; Re 20:12-13). The Lord works holiness in His children, and graciously rewards it (Php 2:12-13; Isa 19:11; Jas 1:25). The most holy 2 and 3; Re 21:8), while He foreknows and suffers sin, but continually in His Word, and in man's conscience, He shows that He hates, forbids, threatens and punishes sin (Ge 2; Ro 1; 2; 3; Re 21:8). While He foreknows and suffers sin (Heb 4:13; Ps 81:12; Lu 4:41; 8:32; Ac 2:23; 7:42; 13:18; 14:16; Ro 1:24,26,28; 9:22). He is in no sense its author or approver, but He chastises it in His own loved and chosen people (Heb 12:5-13), and punishes it forever in His unredeemed, impenitent and rebellious enemies (2Th 1:7-9; Re 14:9-11; 21:8). Those are scriptural facts and believed by all Primitive Baptists. They are as true in the matter of God's predestination as in the matter of His providence. His attitude towards sin is that, not of instigation or compulsion, but of foreknowledge. Sin, which is enmity to God and ruin to man, comes only to form the creature, and salvation from sin, in both soul and body, comes only from the electing, redeeming and renewing Triune God, and for this salvation He alone will deserve and receive all the glory. If the children of God take all the teaching of the scriptures on this, as well as on other subjects, they will be united (2Ti 3:16-17; Joh 17:17,20-21). Fatalism is a doctrine of the heathen and Mohammedans.

Non-Resurrectionism-That the bodies of the dead will not be raised by Christ at His second personal coming to the world. But thisfundamental error denies the plain teachings of Da 12:1-3; Joh 5:28-29; 1Co 15; 1Th 4:13-18; Heb 9:27-28; Re 1:7; 8:12-13; 20:11-15. Non-resurrectionism is a doctrine of the Sadducees, the ferom (or Progressive) Jews, and the heathen.

The Whole Man Doctrine---That, when we are born again, both our souls and our bodies are regenerated. But regeneration is the work of the Spirit of God in our spirits (Eze 36:26-27; Joh 3:5; 6; Ro 2:28-29), and the Holy Spirit commands and influences us not to let sin reign in our bodies, but to yield our members, servant to righteousness unto holiness (Ro 6:12,12,19), and thus to glorify God in our bodies and spirits, which are His (1Co 6:20), yet ow bodies are not made spiritual, incorruptible and glorious, like the body of our risen Lord, until His second personal coming to the world (Ro 8:21-23; 1Co 15:23-50; Php 3:20-21).

Annihilationism-That the wicked are at or after death annihilated or turned into nothingness. But everlasting shame, contempt, punishment, fire and torment are not annihilation (Da 12:2; Mt 25:41,46; Re 14:11,20,15).

Spiritualism or Spiritism-That God is not a person; that Jesus Christ was only a man, a medium of a high order, and did not atone for sin; that the Holy Spirit is not a person; that men never fall; that there is no evil; that men are their own saviours, and are made better by communication with the spirits of the dead; that there is no hell or devil or resurrection or judgment. No believer in the Scriptures believes in these inventions of the devil.

Eddyism or Miscalled Christian Science-That Mrs. Mary Baker Glover Patterson Eddy (born in 1821 at Bow, N. C., and died in 1910 at Chestnut Hill, Mass.), understood the Bible better than any other person that ever lived, and that in her book called "Science and Health with Key to Scripture," first published in 1875, and since republished hundreds of times with numerous changes, she has first given thenc true meaning of the Scriptures; that God is not a person, but a principle; that Jesus Christ was not God, and did not die or atone for sin, that the Holy Spirit is divine science; that there is no reality in matter or pain or sin or sickness or death; that there are no evil spirits or final judgment or hell. Mrs. Eddy, pretending to explain the Bible, contradicts all its fundamental truths, as well as all the teachings of common sense. She is characterized in Mt 7:22-23; 23:11; 24; 2Co 11:13-15; 1Ti 4:1-2; 2Ti 4:3-4. Only those persons who are deceived by the devil and by themselves believe in Eddyism. Their minds are evidently unbalanced. Extravagant charges are made for the Eddy books, and for tuition in her "Metaphysical College," established by her in Boston, in 1881, and for services rendered by her practitioners to the sick, whom they treat without medicine or prayer, teaching them to say repeatedly, I am not sick; sickness is only an illusion of mortal mind." Satan, by 'divine permission can inflict diseases and death (Job 1; 2; Lu 13:16; Heb 2:14) and, by lying wonders, he may be permitted sometimes to heal diseases (2Th 2:8-12; Re 16:14). As in all false religions. the love of money, the root of all kinds of evil (1Ti 6:10), is the chief underlying motive of Eddyism.

Mormonism-That to Joseph Smith (born in Sharon, Vt., in 1795; and shot to death in jail at Carthage, Ill., in 1844( ?) was a revelation . given in 1827 at Cumoral in Western New York, and published by him in 1830 in what he called "The Book of Mormons," establishing a religious sect called "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints," maintaining that Adam was God, and that Jesus was the son of Adam and Mary, and was married to the Marys and Martha, and that Joseph Smith is his descendant, and that the Holy Spirit can be conferred only by the laying on of the hands of the Mormon priesthood; that it was necessary for Adam to partake of the forbidden fruit, and that Christ atoned only for the sins of Adam, and that men must get rid of their sins and work out their salvation by the teachings and forms of the Mormon Church; that the number of a man's wives and children increases his chances of honor in the next world; that the living may be baptized for the dead to save the dead, and that all persons who are not "Latter-Day Saints" will be damned. The statement of these abominable falsehoods is a sufficient refutation of them for all honest and intelligent people. The Mormons and the Mahommedans are the most zealous of missionaries.

Russellism—That Charles Taza Russell, who called himself "Pastor Russell" (born in Pittsburg, Pa., 1852, died on a train at Pampes, November, 1916), an ignorant, dishonest, and immoral man, from whom his wife obtained a divorce, was the greatest of preachers, traveling widely in the United States and the world, publishing his Sunday sermons at paid rates, in about 2,000 newspapers, receiving large contributions from his members and numerous followers, and teaching that God is not triune, and is unrevealed and unknown; that Jesus was the created angel Michael, who became a man and died, and never rose again; that the Holy Spirit is only the influence of God; that Christ gives all a chance of salvation either now or after death, and that if they do not accept these chances they will be annihilated; that there is no hell. He took from and added to the Scriptures to suit his false theories. It is perfectly natural that thousands of blind and wicked people believe this system of lies.

Seventh-Day Adventism—That believers in Christ must keep the seventh day (Saturday) holy, and obey all the law, and join this sect (which started in 1845 in Washington, N. H., and now numbers about 80,000 in the United States) or they will, with all unbelievers and with Satan, who caused them to sin, be annihilated. But all men are sinners, and unable to keep the law of God, which requires them to love Him with all their heart and soul and mind, and to love their neighbors as themselves (Ro 3:23; 8:6; Mt 22:37-39), and if righteousness come by the law, Christ is dead in vain (Ga 2:21); Christ is our sacrifice and Surety (1Co 5:7; Heb 7:22), and we are saved, not by our obedience to the law, but by the grace of God through faith, which is His gift (Ro 3:20-28; Eph 2:1-10), and neither science nor Scripture knows anything of annihilation.

Sinless Perfection in the Flesh During Our Present Stay on Earth—That we may be perfectly sinless during our present state of existence. But this is self-deception and makes God a liar, and proves that His truth is not in us (1Jo 1:8-10; Ec 7:20; Ps 14:1-3; Isa 1:2-6; 6:1-5; 53:6).

There are many other false doctrines in the world, but they are not prevalent in the United States.

This concludes my remarks on Man-Made Doctrines.





GRACE. Grace is unmerited favor-favor bestowed upon one that does not deserve it. It is the depraved sinner of Adam's race that is saved. All fell in Adam, their federal head and representative. All the race, then, were dead in trespasses and sins. They were all justly condemned, being under the law of sin and death. All were under sin just alike, whether Jew or Gentile, young or old, rich or poor, high or low, bond or free, black or white, all stood condemned under the law of sin and death. They were ten thousand talents in debt and nothing with which they could pay. Their inability to pay did not relieve them of the obligation. A man may be sentenced to hang for murder, but his inability to acquit himself, does not relieve him of the penalty, and if he could break jail and escape, that does not free him from the guilt. If the sentence of death could be commuted to imprisonment, suffering in prison, does not free him from the guilt. All of our sufferings here will not free us from the guilt of sin. We must be justified (freed from guilt) before we can reach Heaven. All the race of Adam are already condemned, already lost, all are guilty and justly so; Read Ro 3; Eph 2:1-5.

Our Sovereign God predestinated to conform all of these sinners to the image of Jesus whom He foreknew in the covenant of grace, predestinated to adopt them into the heavenly family, ordained them to eternal life, appointed them unto eternal salvation, and to be made new creatures in Christ Jesus.

Everything God did, He determined to do, predestinated to do. He made the sun, earth, moon, stars, the mineral kingdom, the vegetable kingdom and the animal kingdom. God Sovereignly made them all. He did not consult them what they should be made. They did not have to make the start, or become willing to be made before He made them. He spake this earth into existence out of nothing. He did not consult the nothing what it should be. All were made unconditionally upon their part. God made man without consulting the dust of which he was made. The dust performed no conditions in creation or formation. It was wholly passive in the hand of God. Life of every kind must come from God. The lifeless lump of clay performed no conditions to get life. God breathed into Adam's nostrils the breath of life and man became a living soul. God made him good. God did not make sin, cause it, co-erce it, or influence it, but sin is man's act. It is man that does the sinning. He does it willingly and it is his fault. Hence he is justly condemned. God does all the saving. Some of this sinful race, God saved. "Salvation is of the Lord."—Jonah. "Behold, God is my salvation." (Isa 12:2). God did not save them accidentally or conditionally, or because of any inate principle in them, or externally rendered by them, influencing Him to save them; if so, salvation would not be by grace. Did not God predestinate, determine or intend to save all whom He saved before He saved them? This is predestinating grace. All whom God saved, it was His will. or choice to save. Brother, do you not believe the Lord saved you? Yes. Did He , not predestinate to save you? Was it not His will and choice to save you, before He saved you? This is God's election. Did you not see the justice of God in your eternal condemnation, while under conviction for sin? Did you not feel that if you were eternally damned that God would be just? Certainly you did. Then if your condemnation was just, is not the condemnation of all the non-elect just? By nature you were a child of wrath, even as others (Eph 2:1-5).

If all are alike dead in sins, all guilty and justly condemned, and if right and just for one to be eternally damned (as you felt in your experience), is it not right and just for all the race to be eternally damned, so far as they are concerned? What is it that saved you? Predestinating and electing grace. Since there is salvation in none other, and there is no other name under Heaven given among men whereby sinners are saved, then must not poor heathens and all classes of sinners be saved by grace just like you were?

All whom the Lord saved, He chose to save, and He chose them in Christ before the foundation of the world that they should be holy and without blame before Him in love (Eph 1:4).

He loved Jacob and hated Esau before they were born, or had done good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand (Ro 9:11-13).

Electing grace does not damn or injure others. God choosing and saving Abel did not injure Cain, or make his case any worse; but left him right where he was before—justly condemned, loving darkness rather than light because his deeds were evil. God choosing and calling Abraham did not injure his kindred who were left in the land of their nativity—right where they wanted to be. Electing grace is what saved Abraham and made him willing to follow the Lord. God's people are made willing in the day of his power. God, calling poor Ruth, a Gentile heathen, did not injure Orpah; but left her in Moab (the flesh) where she wanted to be. God sending His prophet to a widow in Sareptah, did not injure the other widows. We see discriminating grace is here taught. God calling Peter from his fishing net, did not injure the other fishermen. God calling Saul (Paul), did not injure those who journeyed with him. Electing or discriminating grace made the difference in the above characters. What made the difference in the thieves on the cross? Electing grace did it. Everyone whom God chooses, He causes to approach unto Him (Ps 65:4). Their names were written in the book, before they had an existence (Ps 139:14-16); He formed them for Himself. (Isa 43:11-21); He chose them and ordained them that they should bring forth fruit (Joh 15:16); He saved them and called them (2Ti 1:9; Ro 8:29-30).

All whom He predestinated and chose, He gave to Christ, their covenant Head and Husband and Surety. All their sins that were due to them, was laid upon Jesus. He suffered for them all. He bore them all. He paid all their debts. They are justified freely by His grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. He regenerates them at His own good time without the aid of man. After regeneration, they pray, hunger, thirst, and feel their vileness as justly condemned sinners. They cry to God for mercy. All of this is an evidence of life—that they are God's children. He reveals Himself to them as their Savior and shows them that Jesus bore all their sins in His own body. By faith they can see Him as their wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and redemption. They now believe on Him which is an evidence of eternal life and that they are born again. They being made good, in soul, are prepared to perform good works, being made righteous, they are enabled by grace to do righteous acts in the spiritual realm (Eph 2:10; 1Jo 3:7). They feel so poor and needy, they beg God daily for enabling grace to serve Him with reverence and godly fear. They will be poor unworthy beggars all through life.


The greatest of all natural and temporal wars ended about a year and a half ago. The worst effect of war is the deep, widespread and last demoralization of the people engaged in it. Since the deluge in the days of Noah this effect was never more manifest than now. With all its education, civilization, science, art, discoveries, inventions, and religion, the world superabounds with materialism, mammonism, falsely called "higher criticism," evolutionism, infidelity, atheism, selfishness, pride, covetousness, insubordination, envy, jealousy, hatred, class war, strife between labor and capital, strikes, lockouts, riots, secret oath-bound societies, almost filling heathendom and Christendom, card-playing, gambling, robbery, profiteering, wrangling, lying, licentiousness, immodest dressing (Mothers, this immodest, partially naked dressing has a degenerative tendency. Beware!—L. H.), immoral dancing at late hours of the night, awfully vulgar and bloody theatrical exhibitions and moving picture shows corrupting twenty million people, mostly boys and girls, almost every night, in our own country, bolshevism, revolutions, murders and continued wars. And yet about one-third of the human race are called Christians; the profession, without the possession of godliness, is the blackest feature of the Apostle Paul's photograph of the last perilous times (2Ti 3:1-5). Of these so-called Christians, the Roman Catholics (a deceptive, political, money-making sect) are about half, and they are rapidly gaining power in the United States, in the public schools, and in many large cities, in Congress, and the supreme Court, in the army and navy, and in the appointments of the president, 70 per cent of which appointees are Catholics. while one-eighth of our people are Catholics; 65 per cent of the criminals in this country are Catholics. Roman Catholicism is the greatest single danger to our rights and liberties. Thirty Protestant denominations have united in a "Federation of Churches," and some are seeking a union with Rome. And nearly all of them make the work of God of no effect, and the work of man chiefly effective in the sinner's salvation. Among the growing delusions in our country are Eddyism (so-called "Christian Science"), Millenial Dawnism (Russellism), Spiritualism (or Spiritism), Seventh Day Adventism, and Theosophy (the Philosophy of God). And among our own people, as among other religionists, are the destructive errors of non-resurrectionism, and annihilationism. Surely the religious world is a Babylon of darkened minds and discordant voices. Like the irreligious world, it is on the down grade to temporal and eternal ruin. Man, left to himself, is an utter failure. He can not save himself—all his money and all his wisdom and efforts can not save him. No angel or 'host of angels can save him. Only the Three-One God can deliver him from present and everlasting ruin, according to the eternal purpose of the Father, by the redeeming work of the Son, and the renewing power of the Holy Spirit. Our constant supplication should be to the Father for the fulfillment of His promise in the outpouring of the spirit of His Son upon all flesh, and the creation of a new heaven and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness.


ATONEMENT.—Reconciliation, expiation, satisfaction, atonement, to make as one; "or by doing or suffering that which is received in satisfaction for an offense or injury." The atonement of Christ was vicarious—acting or performing instead of another. This Jesus Christ did. "He laid down His life for the sheep." "We were as sheep going astray, but the Lord had laid upon Him the iniquity of us all." Note He bore the iniquity of the sheep and not the goats. He suffered for sins (all of them past, present and future), the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God." His suffering made full at-one-ment or satisfaction for all the sins of all His people. Those who hold to universal atonement claim that He atoned for all the race by quoting such Scriptures, as: "He is the propitiation for the sins of the whole world." "He tasted death for every man;" "By the obedience of one shall many be made righteous," etc. The words "world," "all," "many," and "every" are generic terms and mean all of a class, or the world, all, many and the every under consideration.

Jesus says: "I pray for them, I pray not for the world." (He did not pray for all the race, then), but for them which Thou hast given me." If He had atoned for all the race, He evidently would have prayed for all the race. Those who contend for universal atonement, do not believe that Christ made any atonement at all. Every one must make his own atonement, by his own suffering, and be his own Savior. All for whom He atoned, all their guilt was expiated—perfect satisfaction for all their sins were made, and He bore them all in His own body.

No sins left for the sinner to atone for; if so, hell would be the doom of all the race. In bearing their sins, He blotted out as a thick cloud their sins. If their sins are blotted out, the sheet is clean, and nothing stands against them to condemn them. Jesus Christ was the Surety of His people. He as the Surety assumed the entire debt and paid it all. All the suffering due to His people, He suffered it for them in His own body. He redeemed His people from under the curse of the law, being made a curse for them. Redemption denotes prior ownership—to buy back. There can be no redemption, if there is the millioneth part of a penny against them unpaid. Perfect, full, ample and complete payment must be made before there is redemption. He gave Himself for us (His elect-sheep), that He might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto Himself a peculiar people zealous of good works. Hence every one that He redeemed, He redeemed from all iniquity; and all the redeemed vessels of mercy, He purifies unto Himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. The sinner is wholly passive in redemption and sanctification or purification in heart. Justice does not demand the payment of a debt but once. Hence, the suffering of Jesus for His people (Mt 1:21) was a perfect atonement for all their sins. "Surely He hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows; yet we did esteem Him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon Him; and with His stripes we are healed." .. "Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise Him; He hath put Him to grief; when Thou shalt make His soul an offering for sin, He shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in His hand. He shall see the travail of His soul, and shall be satisfied; by His knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for He shall bear their iniquities."—"He bear the sins of many." (Isa 53:4-12)—not all the race. If Jesus bore our griefs, carried our sorrows, wounded for our (His sheep-elect) transgressions—He suffered all our transgressions demanded. His sacrifice for sins was a perfect atonement for them; then it does not require corrupt sinful man, who is nothing, less than nothing, and vanity to assist Him, who is perfect, to make His atonement perfect and effectual. If the atonement of Christ was insufficient He failed to accomplish what He came to do—He would be a failure. We insist that if the work of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost was not sufficient to save a sinner, there is no salvation for any. There is none to whom we can go to seek, pray or ask, if the Holy Trinity has failed. We affirm with all possible emphasis, that He is the Rock, and His work is perfect, and His glory He will not give to another. Jesus Christ came here to save sinners, and He accomplished the work He came to do. He needs no help. "He shall not fail nor be discouraged." (Isa 42:3). Would you believe an angel from Heaven? The angel said, "Thou shalt call His name Jesus, for He shall save (how many?) His people from their sins." (Mt 1:21). "When He by Himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high." (Heb 1:3). "For by one offering He hath perfected forever them that are sanctified." (Heb 10:14).

The foregoing Scriptures prove that Jesus Christ unconditionally, and by Himself, saved His people from their sins, purged their sins, perfected forever, by one offering, a special people. Redeemed them from all iniquity (Tit 2:14); obtained eternal redemption for us (Heb 9:12)—a special people; His blood cleanses His elect from all sins (1Jo 1:7); He laid down His life for the sheep—and no more (Joh 10:11); He gave Himself for the Church only (Eph 5:22-28). Every atonement (offering), under the law, was for a special people. Abel's lamb was offered for Abel, and was not offered for Cain in any sense, and was typical of Christ. The ram, offered by Abraham for Isaac, was not in any sense offered for Ishmael. This ram was typical of the atonement of Christ for a special people. The sacrificial lamb in Egypt was for the Hebrews, and not for the Egyptians—typifies the atonement of Christ, which was special and vicarious. The atonement made by the high priest, under the law, was for Israel—a special people—and was not for the Gentiles. Typical of the atonement of Christ, representing all chosen in Him and given to Him in the covenant of grace. He ever being the Head, Husband and Surety of His people—all their sins were charged to Him, and He was able to pay the debt and did it on the cross. This chosen number is the "world," that He was the propitiation for their sins, and whose sins He bore, or put away by the sacrifice of Himself. This chosen number is the "many" that He made righteous by His obedience. The "church," "the sanctified," "the sons brought to glory," "the children given to Christ," are the every man, or every one, for whom He tasted death (Heb 2). See Joh 6:37-38. The sins of His sheep were charged to Him and He tasted death for every one of the sheep. He was not Surety for the goats. The goats were not given to Him and since redemption means to buy back, previous ownership, the right of redemption was not in Him for the goats. He did not lay down His life for the goats (non-elect), did not taste death for the goats, Judas, Cain, the rich man in hell and that number that shall go away into everlasting (aionion, eternal, endless) punishment prepared for the devil and his angels. Ye are of God, little children, and the whole world lieth in wickedness (the wicked one). This is the non-elect "world" for which He says, "I pray for them (the elect-sheep); I pray not for the world (non-elect—goats), but for them (the elect or sheep), which Thou hast given me." "All the Father giveth me, shall come to me." How many were given Him? The sheep and no more (Joh 10:27).

The Bible clearly teaches there is an eternal (aionion) hell, and eternal (aionion) heaven (Mt 25:41,46). You can prove the annihilation of the righteous as easily as you can prove the annihilation of the wicked. If everlasting punishment has an end, so does everlasting or eternal happiness.

The Baptists in the year 860 believed in unconditional election and special atonement."—Mosheim, p. 227.

The Baptists in 1120, in their Articles of Faith, said: "Art. 7. That Christ is our life, and truth, and peace, and righteousness; our Shepherd and Advocate, our sacrifice, and priest, who died for the salvation of all who should believe, and rose again for their justification."—Cox Hist., p. 160.

This shows that Baptists believed in special atonement then. "As many as were ordained to eternal life believe." (Ac 13:48). They believe, according to the working of the Mighty Power, which He wrought in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead." (Eph 1:19-20).

"All that believe are justified from all things." (Ac 13:39).

The believer was ordained to eternal life, justified from all things, and the working of the mighty power of God in the heart, enables him to believe. Hence, belief is an evidence of the salvation wrought out by Christ for the sinner. All God ordained to eternal life, believe and that number and no more Christ died for. The Baptists in 732, 860, 1120, believed in special atonement and election.

Baptists believed in special atonement 1689. See London "Confession of Faith."

Philadelphia Association 1795, believed in special atonement. Circular Letter said: "First, that according to the Gospel, the atonement of Christ did not extend to every individual of the human race; and, secondly, that the Gospel contains no conditional offers of salvation. In the first, if atonement was made for all, it was God's intention that it should; that intention must have its full effect; the effect must be that all must and will be saved. If Christ answered the demands of law and justice for all, and paid the price in full, then there must be guiltless persons in hell for want of being made meet for Heaven. Christ has done his part, but the Spirit declines doing His. Why God should appoint satisfaction to be made for all and afterward not renew and sanctify all, and bring them to Heaven, must be very strange, and utterly inconsistent with the glory and perfections of Him, who does nothing in vain, who never does a part without doing the whole, who always finishes what He begins. It is manifest from the Holy Scriptures that Christ made atonement for His people. Isa 53:8; Lu 1:68, His sheep Joh 10:15,26,29; 17:9; those that were given Him, Heb 2:13, who were redeemed from among others, Re 5:9—As to the second, to make salvation conditional would rob God of His sovereignty, and make His glory depend on man; while at the same time it would give room for boasting. It would also convert the Gospel of the Grace of God into a new law. Is the law of works to be preferred to the covenant of grace? If it be of grace, then is it no more of works, otherwise grace is no more grace. What! make our happiness depend on man? If we will do part, God will do the best. Alas! What can man do in the business of salvation first or last, to merit or promote it? Is He altogether dependent on God? Yea, verily, that at every step, in the beginning and progress of the glorious work he may cry, Grace, Grace; and whosoever glorieth, let him glory in the Lord." This is where Old Baptists stood in the United States before the Modern Missionary Baptist existed in America. This is the doctrine Primitive Baptists still love.


Sin must be committed under the jurisdiction of absolute law, if the acts and crimes called sin be absolutely predestinated at all. And then sin must be committed in obedience to absolute law and not in the way and manner to be the transgression of that law in that case, for the transgression of absolute law is impossible. And this is one certain proof the absolute predestination of sin is impossible.  For sin is not obedience to any law. But all sorts of "sin is the transgression of the law," says 1Jo 3:4.

I may say, in the physical world absolute law is in full force by absolute predestination in such a way that physical transactions and events are never transgressions, but are always obediences. For examples, look at the perfect obediences of day and night, the four seasons—spring, summer, autumn and winter; then at the motions and revolutions of the planets, clouds, winds, lightning, light, fire water, rains, snows, and the earth in its motions and revolutions or its own axis once in every 24 hours for ages; and once around the sun in an exact solar year of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 48 seconds. Look too at the manner of the government of the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. All are ordered and events occur there in exact obedience to absolute law in force there by the Creator. And they do not disobey Him. Our births of the flesh am Spirit are ordered and occur the same way. And our resurrection must be so regardless of our wills. God's positive will is done under absolute or physical law, by universal obedience to it, far as it exists in force.

But we read, "Sin is the transgression of the law" (Joh 3:4) Then it is not obedience to any law of any kind or code whatever. It is only transgression, sir. It is committed in disobedience to the law it transgresses. Hence that kind of law is not absolute law. Reader, notice that fact. Therefore, it must be a transgression o some sort of law that can be transgressed, and that we call moral law. But since absolute law can not be transgressed, sin does not exist 'under that kind of law, and therefore it can not be absolute predestination is in force. Sin must exist, if it exist at all, under only such codes of moral law as can be disobeyed, and under no other. Then it is under the wrong sort of law to be absolutely predestinated. For there is no absolute predestination in force in moral law and its government. For it is all conditional. Therefore, we know it is impossible for sin to have been absolutely predestinated.

And for the reason, absolute predestination of events and transactions can extend no farther than the bounds of absolute law, and no sin exists in those bounds, then it is impossible for sin to be absolutely predestinated.

But what are the facts under moral law?

It is only possible for sin to exist in the bounds and jurisdiction of moral law, which is conditional law. For only moral forms and codes of conditional law, can be sinfully transgressed. For "sin is the transgression of the law" in all its forms. Absolute is defined, "unconditional, arbitrary, despotic," etc. And moral law is not unconditional law. Hence no absolute predestination exists in the bounds of moral law or its dominion. And instead of sin being absolutely predestinated to be committed in God's holy, just and good moral law and government, He in moral law forbids all sin; He threatens sin; He condemns sin; He reveals His wrath from Heaven against all sin; He pronounces woes and curses on sin, and will finally punish with endless death and torment all sin not forgiven. And the moral law is His positive will about sin, published to the world. In it He forbids and dissuades every act of sin.

And His Gospel system, confirms and establishes the law in its just opposition to, and condemnation of all sin. Therefore to find sin absolutely predestinated in the moral law, or in the Gospel, is impossible. And there are no decrees in regard to sin above or before them revealed to us. It would be contrary to, and operate to make void all moral law, if all sin had been absolutely predestinated to be committed. For that sort of predestination is causative, and operates effectually to infallibly cause the events to come to pass unavoidably or without failure, where they are absolutely decreed. And it is equally contrary to the unchangeably holy nature, attributes and perfections of God, the Supreme Lawgiver, to have ever absolutely predestinated sin; and so to have His ways "unequal" by His fixed degrees causing His moral laws to be transgressed and powerless against decreed sin. Look how impossible this must be. For these reasons and facts, as it is "impossible for God to lie," to break His covenants, falsify His word, or to do any wrong, so it is impossible that He could have absolutely predestinated the acts and horrid crimes of sin in His creatures.

Observe a good tree cannot bring forth corrupt fruit; nor can a good man out of the good treasure of his heart bring forth corrupt things. How then shall the holy and pure Diety will or decree and by it cause sin to be done? Impossible. For only good can proceed from an infinitely good Being. So God only does and causes that which is good to be done. These are certainly true and safe positions and premises.

I say, absolute predestination is only in force in governments ruled by physical or absolute law.

Though we agree and freely grant no event good or bad occurs by pure chance or accident, and without Jehovah's supervision, direction and limitation in some manner and sense. Yet that fact does not necessitate sin to occur by force of His absolute law, as its cause. Since "total depravity" in fallen humanity and devils is the entire real and sufficient cause of all sin being committed as often as God does not restrain and hinder them from it. For instead of causing creatures to sin, He hinders, prevents and restrains them from sin, except that what sin it is His will to suffer the wicked to do. What he suffers of sin enacted is disagreeable, hateful, and offensive to Himself—hence must be disagreeable to His positive will, as His 'attribute. But by permissive will He decides to suffer (not hinder) sins committed. But to overrule them for good afterward, so it may later redound to His glory. Absolute means unconditional, fixed, settled, unalterably established, if united to decrees. Hence a decree of absolute predestination settled in full force on actors and their actions or events, is become at once an absolute law in force, that is unavoidable. As such law governs the animals, fowls, fishes and vegetable kingdom. It can not operate and govern as moral law does conditionally. It is absolute law, so soon as it begins to affect by its force irrational or rational things and creatures. Thus the ocean's bounds are decreed (Pr 8:29, and Job 38:8-11). When the Creator had "broken up for," and furnished the sea his "decreed place," "and set bars and doors" to it: He said, "Hither to shalt thou come, but no further, and here shall thy proud waves be staid," Job 38:11. This is, and then was a fixed absolute law to the sea. Is it not? Who dares deny it is so? Now if such decrees of predestination as these on the sea had been passed and settled on all good and sinful acts and transactions of men, would they not cause them to come to pass? Assuredly they would. And since men are subjects of moral law, then said decrees of sin (if they had existed in force) and moral law forbidding sin must be in conflict, must clash and antagonize each other. And the absolute predestination must make the law void, and of no force or profit to man. Then humanity must have been governed like the brute creation are, by absolute law. But without sin as they are. See here moral laws and absolute laws are opposites to each other. Each can exist and operate in its own sphere and set bounds. Each have a distinct realm to operate in.

Since nothing ever fails or can fail to come to pass decreed in the world by absolute law (be it remembered) therefore, if absolute predestination was universally and "unlimitedly" in force on all things in existence both good and bad, then no moral law could exist in force on the earth. For then no room is left for it here, sir, to operate in anywhere in this world. Or if it be here, it must be void, and not in force. And in that case, no sin can exist, if no moral law reigns. Then no grace would be needed.

I say, moral law can not exist in force in the same realm and over the same events with absolute law. Nor can sin exist there. So the theory of universal "unlimited predestination" existing in force can't be true; and means no sin being committed, for absence of the law it transgresses. And these facts and reasons prove plainly it is impossible for sin to be absolutely predestinated.

If sin exists anywhere moral law is in force there; everywhere sin is being committed, for it only can be transgressed. And under that kind of law we found before it is impossible for sin to be absolutely predestinated.

No rather our Maker permissively wills to suffer, and to not hinder sin being done; at the same time moral law that forbids all sin. As a Christian positively wills and wishes his children and others to do right all the time; but often wills to suffer them to do much wrong, even at times when he could hinder it, rather than to be severe in discipline. See—here are two wills about the same wrongs. Notice how both exist and operate in ourselves.

We have believed Our Maker's will relative to all good is positive, causative, directive, and limiting to the time, bounds and end of that good. And in relation to wickedness and sin His will is permissive, directive and it limits the time, bounds and end of it. Our old Baptists have approved this essay, and that proves they are not antinomians, as many accuse us.

The old tempter and mover to sin in mankind is the devil. See 1Jo 3:8. "He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning." Also Joh 8:44: "Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do; he was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speakest of his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it." He is not father to any man by generation. Teachers and rulers are often called "fathers," as George Washington is called "father of the country." Sinners serve "the lusts" of the devil, as being their father. He moved and tempted Eve and Adam to sin. And has since tempted to all sins.

"Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God; for God cannot be tempted of evil, neither tempteth He any man." Jas 1:13. So He is never the author of sin.


I am in hearty sympathy with Elders J. S. Newman, J. J. Edwards, J. A. Moore, W. L. Barrett, J. L. Collings and others in their scriptural efforts to get our scattered people together. We deny the authority or standard of any human councils or tests of fellowship to be set up over us except the Bible and God's Holy Spirit, yet we believe the Bible to teach the doctrine and practice as generally held by the Primitive Baptists. We have no use for the idea that God is the author or approver of sin. Yet we do certainly believe that God most perfectly knows and foreknows all things and each thing before it comes to pass. To deny this is to make God a liar.

But most of us now feel and believe that it is best to do as Elders P. G. Lester and S. Hassell and L. H. Hardy and J. T. Rowe of North Carolina have agreed to do: "To leave off those expressions, as far as is possible that are not found in the Bible that have caused confusion and division among our people."

And now to take down all extreme bars and each make acknowledgements for his personal wrongs.

I can not see how any reasonable Old Baptist can object to this. And we are to pray to be delivered from unreasonable and wicked men.

We have never had any divisions nor confusions in my home association. J. H. FISHER.

Remarks: We feel sure that every true Primitive Baptist on earth believes that God is omniscient and His foreknowledge embraces all thing and all events, that His attitude toward sin is overruling and His relation toward holiness is causative. God is not the author of sin, neither does He co-erce, influence, cause or approve of sin. Sin is man's act, for which he is accountable; it is his fault, he is to blame for all disobedience. In regeneration we are wholly passive. The exhortations to righteous living are to the living children of God, whom God gives enabling grace to do what He commands (Php 4:13; 1Co 9:27; 2Co 12:9; Eph 5:8-21; 2:10), Inasmuch as there has been a strife about words to no profit and believing the great body of our people are agreed on the fundamentals, if they understood each other, we therefore insist that on those controverted points that we leave off objectionable and unscriptural expressions in our preaching and writing as nearly as possible and labor to unify. LEE HANKS.

GOOD WORKS.—Primitive Baptists are noted for their loyalty to God, their Godly lives, and of their morality, honesty, truthfulness, sobriety, chastity, love and devotion to one another. Some will say, 'If I believed as you do, I would take my fill of sin, true old Baptists took their fill of sin, when they were in a state of nature, believing in human ability. If they had the power to keep God from saving, they could keep him from damning, so while in that belief they did as they pleased. Since God called them, they hate sin and desire to know God's will and try to pray for enabling grace to do it. The Lord has been so good to them, they feel like they desire to glorify Him in their bodies and spirits which are His; but at best, when they have done all they can, they feel to be poor, unprofitable servants. They do not obey the Lord as bond slaves to purchase eternal salvation, for Jesus has already wrought that out for them. Since He has revealed Himself to them as their dear Savior, their hearts are full of love to Him and He gives them grace and strength, as needed, to do what He commands, though they do it imperfectly. They were wholly passive in regeneration, but being born again, raised from the dead, and assured that as their day, so shall their strength be, they act in His service. They are under a parental law and hence are accountable to God. They do not obey as machines under a physical law, if so they would not be accountable. God dealeth with His people as with sons. The son is under a parental law and is active in obedience. We do not exhort the unborn to be born, or the dead to get life; but the Bible is full of exhortations to living children of God to obey the Lord. Paul says, "I keep under my body, and bring it in subjection; lest that by any means, when I have preached to others, I myself should be a castaway. (1Co 9:27). Every preacher should do the same. We have witnessed preachers following their fleshly lusts, and have to be excluded from the church. What a shame for a preacher, or any church member!

Paul says: "I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me." (Php 4:13).

Many times we feel so poor and weak that we do not feel that we can perform the task required of us, but we take the yoke, the dear Lord gives us strength to perform His services, and we find the yoke easy and the burden light. When God commanded Israel to cross Jordan, the waters were so deep and wide that unbelief would say, you cannot cross. They obeyed the command of God, realizing their dependence upon Him to open the way, for they could not. When they put their feet in Jordan, in humble obedience to His command, Jordan rolled back and they crossed over dry shod. Their crossing did not make them Israelites. The land of Canaan did not make them Israelites. God had made them Israelites and prepared them for Canaan, and prepared Canaan for them; but they had to cross to enjoy the blessings in it. Israel did not build the houses, cities, dig the wells, plant the olive yards and vineyards; they were already prepared for them before they entered the land. Hence grace prepares us for the church, and prepares the church with the Gospel and its ordinances for us; but we have to enter the church to enjoy them.

"If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land; but if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword; for the month of the Lord hath spoken it."

Israel did not praise themselves for the rest, milk, honey, luscious fruits, comfortable homes, they enjoyed in Canaan. They could praise the grace of God for furnishing these blessings. Doubtless, they felt unworthy of such blessings. They enjoyed them as an inheritance. The carcases of twenty-three thousand fell in the wilderness in one day on account of unbelief. They could not enter the land because of unbelief. How beautifully this represents the Church of God, and the blessings enjoyed in it by obedient children of God whom He has prepared for His service. They praise God for the blessing. The Apostle says, "Take heed brethren lest there be in any of you (under Gospel) an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God."

"Let us labor therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief." (Heb 4:11).

You see all these exhortations are addressed to living children of God. Life must precede action in the spiritual realm. We do not enjoy these blessings as so much pay for so much work; but enjoy them as an inheritance. Paul says: "Knowing of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance; for ye serve the Lord Christ. But he that doeth wrong shall receive for the wrong which he hath done; and there is no respect of persons." (Col 3:24-25).

The obedient son enjoys his parents' home, food, rainment, and protection—not as so much pay for so much work, but enjoys it as an inheritance; but when he leaves home, he robs himself of that good home and parental protection.

There is evidently something gained in the sweet service of God to His poor child. Paul says: "So run, that ye may obtain." (1Co 9:24).

James says: "Whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed." (Jas 1:26).

This applies to God's children in humbly obeying the Lord. The world wants it to appear that alien sinners gain Heaven by what is here taught; but this pertains to God's children in time. The blessing is in the doing.

David said: "In keeping them there is great reward." (Ps 19:11). This was not to an alien, but David himself enjoyed the reward of inheritance in keeping the statutes of the Lord.

Paul says the believer in God should be careful to maintain good works. James teaches there is a justification by works to the believer. The Lord's servants should study to show themselves approved unto God—rightly dividing the word of truth. The great trouble among some few good brethren, they do not dig on all the hills of truth. All should be preached in love and a proper application should be made. We should all use Scriptural expressions as nearly as possible on controverted points. We should strive for the things that make for peace, and live our profession daily. Some of the staunchest predestinarians are the strongest advocates for godly living. We can never have unity and fellowship with an unclean, unchaste, deceptive ministry and membership. The Scriptures perfect and thoroughly furnish the man of God unto all good works. All works not authorized in the Bible are evil works.

I have hundreds of times urged that there is sweet peace found in obedience, that we cannot have peace and rest of mind in sinful paths, hence we should eschew evil, seek peace, and ensue it. We should distinguish between that salvation in which we are quickened, and that which "we work out." God's word does not call on us to be quickened, or to be born again; but it does, hundreds and thousands of times, show it is our duty to obey. Now, if obedience is of grace in the same sense that being born again is of grace, how is it that we are called on to do the one and not the other? We can see many a command, exhortation, or encouragement to obey the Lord and do right. And we may read every line in the Old and New Testaments and not once find it our duty to be born again. Now, if both are of grace in the same sense, why are we, times without limit, exhorted to do one, and scores of motives laid before us to induce us thereto, and not once exhorted to do the other? The fact is we should make the distinction here.

We should either exhort every body to be born again, or nobody to obedience, or we should make a plain, clear distinction between obedience and eternal salvation. And as the Apostles of old, we should exhort one another to love and good works. We should use their arguments to induce the people of God to serve the Lord and do right. The motives found in the Bible are numerous. The Scriptures appeal to us from the love of God, and on account of mercies received to our love of life and good days, to our need and love of rest and countless motives mentioned. We need not despise a man if we find him serving God in order to enjoy His presence and approval or for fear of "falling," or becoming a "Castaway." All these motives and scores of others are put before him. God does not deal with his children as the boy does with his marbles, and say, "When I want you in the right place I will put you there." His government is parental and moral, and not physical. We are liable to extremes on both sides. If we urge that the work and presence of the Spirit is necessary to obedience, just as it is necessary to regeneration, we deny obedience being voluntary; for regeneration is not a virtue on our part. And if the Spirit's power and presence is exerted in our obedience, just as it is in our regeneration, then there is no duty in obedience, as we perform no duty in regeneration. And so on the other side we are liable to forget that reverence and Godly fear. We must worship "in spirit and truth," we must have grace whereby we may serve God acceptably with if we worship at all.

If we take one extreme, we take away all vice or virtue from the conduct of God's people, and if we take the other we substitute cold formality for the spiritual worship of God.

The word "Grace" is not always used in the same sense, "By grace are we saved." Here the doctrine of grace is referred to, the principle from which God acts in our salvation. But Paul says, "Let us have grace whereby we may serve God," etc. He refers to the gracious influences and presence of the Lord, and without grace in this last sense there can be no true obedience; there could be no peace in our midst. Sure enough, let us have grace. "We certainly need it and can never be happy or useful without it.

But Paul declares the gospel is the power of God to a believer. So the gospel belongs to the living child of God and not to the dead alien sinner and the living child of God has eternal life in his soul, already born of God and eternally saved from sin and hell. But it pleased God by the foolishness of the gospel to save the believers or the living child of God from false doctrines of men and devils, to feed his little soul on the heavenly food—the gospel that he may grow in grace and in knowledge of the truth, grow up as calves of the stall, as lambs in a green pasture. All this is to the praise and glory of God on the earth and to the comfort of His children on the earth. We won't need the gospel after death. Therefore, leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ let us go on to perfection. Heb 6; 7.

The apostle did not say to leave the practice and experience off and preach the doctrine to the exclusion of the practice and experience. But the lesson taught and the lesson to be learned by the Lord's little childern is the foundation of God stands sure. It needs no propping, need not spend all the time talking and preaching about the foundation, but preach about the building on the foundation and the fruits and evidences of God's people in the building and the beauties of the revelations of the building and the many comforts to be gained by the Lord's little children by walking about Zion, and in humble obedience to God, observe the sacred laws of that building. Not stand still but go on to perfection.


Disorders of Corinth, beside the errors I name they had Arminianism in the deepest dye. It seemed that three-fourths were trusting in man: Paul, Apollos and Cephas. Through their preaching (I think) they thought to go to heaven. About one-fourth were trusting in Christ.

But Paul did not tell them to go and be baptized again. That baptism is a remedy for a cure all for all their diseases. Nor declare against them and leave them. No, he did not tell them that it would be gross disorder for him to have affiliated or preached among them. No, but he was guided by the Holy Spirit, in love, set about to reclaim them, by pointing out their errors, and opening their eyes to the truth. I don't think rebaptizing cures any error. That was not the purpose for which it was instituted. I mean Bible, Church baptism. I have heard brethren (or one) say that the command of Christ to that erring church, "Repent and do thy first works, meant to go back to where they left the right way, meant undo all acts whether right or wrong. I think that is manism straight. I think the first works are the works that Christ and the apostles established them in. They had left their first love, go back there, but don't exclude all the little ones whom you have baptized. The innocent ones go back with the guilty, and as long as they "Stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made them free," they are as much a part of the Church as the ones that left. Repentance, and not baptism, is the Bible remedy. I have had to contend earnestly that a Church has no right or authority to receive members from another P. B. Church without the other Church's authority, knowledge or consent, on confession from real or supposed disorder, without Gospel labor. I told the brethren that if such practice was to become general it would set aside the Bible and all discipline.


I am not willing to condemn churches that have some little irregularities and say that they have lost their identity as churches of Christ. Drastic steps have been taken by brethren in many localities where resolutions and bars of non-fellowship declared, that I feel sure was all of the flesh. Brethren, we should maintain a forgiving spirit; we should manifest tenderness toward our brethren. We should never allow personal matters to interfere with church fellowship. If we will take heed unto ourselves and consider the great necessity of brethren dwelling together in unity and in bonds of peace, all personal feelings, jealously and prejudice would cease. There has never been a time among our people that continual prayer is so necessary. There must be an awakening. We must stay away from traditions, and practice that which was instituted by Christ and His Apostles. If we contend for Apostolic practice and for the faith that was once delivered to the saints, we will awake from the sleep and Christ will give us light. Z. C. HULL.

Clothed in the Spirit of the Lord the saints will be ready to confess their faults one to another, desiring that the Scriptures should be the man of their counsel, and not the "leaders." If such again assume to rule, put them in a dark room and let them know that the church holds the keys of the kingdom. It is both absurd and hypocritical to talk of peace with God when your heart is in bitter war with a sister church. Until those churches that have put up bars against sister churches are willing to sacrifice all human opinions, ordinances of men, and the "leaders" have caused them to err, in fact everything but the word of truth and a right conscience, they will never have peace and union in Zion. Brotherly love is the keystone that knits and keeps the body together. There is a contention that is to the praise of God's grace: For each to feel that he is the greatest sinner, and the least saint, and who owes most to the Saviour for all His mercies, and desires most to live to His praise. M. L. GILBERT.

A worldly court will not hang a murderer without trial. The Church of God is Heaven's court, and how particular should we be! Let us try to save our brethren, and not destroy them. We need them all. Confess your faults one to another. Little children, live in peace. There are too many lines drawn over matters of minor importance. LEE HANKS.

Can a wolf change himself to a sheep? Can a sheep change himself to a wolf? God's children when directed by the flesh act very wolfish. The hireling is a dog. He will leave the sheep in trouble and flee from them because he careth not for the sheep. Is it right for a preacher to leave his flock and forsake his flock when he sees the wolf (of trouble) coming? It is better for a shepherd to attend to his own flock rather than try to manage all the flocks in the country. It is the wolf that is constantly hunting new victims. The wolf is not a lover of peace. He is not a peace-maker but always and forever a peace-breaker. The beasts of the book of Revelations covered the earth in blood, strife, division and death. They were huge wolves. J. H. FISHER.

I, with all my heart, most sincerely endorse the effort now being put forth by you and other brethren for peace. I feel sure that God is our peace and that He will and has worked in the hearts of many of His ministers and made them willing to say to their God and to each other, "We have done wrong." Brethren, do let us meet in the name of Jesus, and leave self and selfish motives behind. We have all done wrong, and as a result the children of God are divided and many of our friends, and even our children, are being driven from us. Oh, how our hearts should yearn for peace to be restored in the borders of our beloved Zion. We should be willing and anxious to do all we can that the breach be healed. For this let us meet, labor and pray. J. S. NEWMAN.

We truly hope that the brethren who join in the above and who may attend the meeting may have the right object in view, and that the good Lord may direct the same to the good of His dear children. Our pleading in the whole time was for peace. We want no war and no trouble, and we do not want it, now. If those who have waged the war are tired of it and now want peace they have our hearty approval. Peace was restored.


The true church today bears the distinctive marks of the Apostolic Church, as shown so vividly in the New Testament Scriptures, which are now, and has been the only infallible rule of the Christian faith. Christ is head over all things to the church, and in this meeting, while the covenant makers in the constitution of Coosa River Church, one hundred years ago, have all been called up higher, it has pleased God to fix the hearts and minds of their children, and their children's children by the work of regenerating grace, so that the covenant principles were earnestly set forth, and contended for. The church has ever met stern opposition, and sore persecution yet she stands in all the beauty and splendor of the adorning graces and virtues which her head and husband has so graciously wrought and as the centuries have come and gone, for nearly two thousand years she has stood in the triumphs of a living faith. May we ever lean on His everlasting arm. J. J. TURNIPSEED.

How long would an Old Baptist Church hold in church fellowship a sister church who received alien baptism, allowing her pastor to baptize without church authority, holding members in fellowship who were continually getting drunk, and, maybe, making and selling whiskey, committing murder, fornication, theft, arson, bearing false witness, brother going to law with brother? All this in violation of the law of Christ. And, again, expelling members without a hearing, and without any labor at all, and, also, adopting resolutions of non-fellowship for members, in advance of any expression or act on their part? Should a church be guilty of such practice, then she becomes a transgressor against Christ; and, in transgressing against the Head, she transgresses against the body (the Church), and any one church has the right to go to her with a grievance and labor with her just the same as one brother should go to another, for the principle is the same. If no reconciliation is affected, then she is to go again, but next time taking with her other churches, just the same as an offended brother going the second time carrying with him two or more witnesses. If, after investigation and Gospel labor, there is still no reconciliation, the church, thus laboring, may proceed to depose her, that is, by withdrawing church fellowship from her, and just the same as withdrawing from a single member, and declaring her authority as a church null and void.



Likewise as to Churches, two or three in "advising the Constitution of another.

So two or three elders, as their servants and representatives, constitute or visibly organize it, acording to the laws of Christ. Thus organizing and empowering, they loose her on earth, to all the functions of a Gospel Church, and thus 'loosed on earth,' she is loosed in heaven, or spirit as already shown. As such, it is her sole prerogative, as of every other church, to regulate her own internal affairs, with the Scriptures as her only rule of faith and practice; to remit or retain sin concerning her. And if she remits the sin of an erring member in forgiving it and retaining him in fellowship, all the Kingdom of Heaven—all other churches—must abide the act. Or, if she retains the sin in his exclusion, all must likewise abide the act; or, if she likewise remits or retains the sin of a church, all others must abide the decision; "For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all the Churches of the Saints."

Should a church, as such depart from Bible faith and practice, and so persist in it as to cause offense, what then? The first church offended, as represented by two or three of her most Spiritual members (Ga 6:1) should go quietly and labor in love and all long-suffering to reclaim her; failing, she should take one or two more churches to the labor of love; all these failing, and then agreeing and advising, should proceed to "bind her on earth," as in the name of Jesus Christ declaring her deposed or divested of all Gospel sovereignty and authority once committed to her as a Church of Jesus Christ; and thus bound on earth, she is bound in heaven, as shown; and thus her candlestick is effectually removed, and all the churches may have the exact date when ceased her visible existence, and hence, Gospel validity of official works, and so act accordingly, without the shadow of inconsistency or confusion.

Whatever disciplinary law applies to an individual member, applies to a Church as comprised of the same. Suppose one or two members of this church were orthodox and orderly—had not partaken of the church's sin? They should have left when she was found irreclaimable; but failing, should be excepted and retained in fellowship; and upon this confession should be received into other church.

Suppose a member, guilty and included in the deposition, should afterward repent and apply for pardon and membership to a church? He, if pardoned, could be received on "Confession of Faith." No matter how disorderly the church before the binding or deposal, as to that matter, up to the date of, even hour, of binding, her official work is valid, and to be recognized by the churches, as that the gospel validity of official work rests with and springs from the authority vested in, and not the person or power, however good, or bad, in whom vested. So that this applicant, too, if repentant and pardoned, may be received on Confession of Faith.—R. Anna Phillips, May, 1894.

Elder J. R. Respess said: "(1) Churches in fellowship should not, by any means, withdraw fellowship without Gospel labor. It is contrary to the spirit of christianity to do it; it is un-christian, or anti-christian. Unregenerate societies of men would not break off from one another in such an unfeeling and harsh way, much less should Christians, united in a Heavenly spirit do so.

"(2) If a church has a minister in it, no other church has a right to stop him from preaching to that church. But if a church should deem him unsound or disorderly, she should make it known to the church of his membership, and in case she should persist in retaining him as a preacher above the heads of other churches in fellowship, then she should be withdrawn from until she gets right.

"(3) Has an Association a right to drop a church without complying with Mt 18? An Association has no disciplinary rights at all. For an Association to deal with a church would be for a servant to deal with her mistress; it would be as putting the servant on horseback and putting the master as servant upon the earth. An Association, as a disciplinary body, is an unscriptural one, and should never be countenanced. Properly speaking, an Association should be no more than a general meeting."—Gospel Messenger, October, 1894.

"Bigthan and Teresh had a fair trial in the King's court; as every member must have in the church, and the church only. To be tried and condemned by any other tribunal is a usurpation of law, and is punishable by the law. If a member has a standing in any church with which another church is in fellowship, he is to be recognized as orderly until church—not the Association—deals with him, and if his own church does not deal with him after having been notified that he is disorderly, and which charge has been sustained by Gospel proof, then fellowship for the church herself may be withdrawn (by official church act--they having labored according to Mt 18). This order maintains the dignity and supremacy of the church, and no other does or can."—J. R. Respess, May, 1887.

"He shows wherein forbearance is right and necessary to be exercised by churches and members of churches, and also wherein a church should promptly execute discipline by cutting off the offender without delay.

"He shows further, the erroneous and ruinous error in all ordinary cases of wrong, for churches or individuals to set up bars of fellowship against each other without first laboring kindly to remove the wrong and heal the breach that is likely to result from it.

"Do not fear to kindly and lovingly correct mistakes in theory and practice. Then your position is known to be opposed to the wrong so that you cannot be justly charged with the guilt of it while you bear with it. This rule is safe except in cases of public and grossly criminal offenses, as theft, fornication (and drunkenness, etc., 1Co 5:1-3).

"Now, it seems to me that this principle of Gospel order as set forth so clearly and briefly by Brother Oliphant, is good and Scriptural. There arc many cases of wrong among us and by us that a little kind labor and patient forbearance would remove. But this way of trampling the law of Christ under foot by declaring non-fellowship for this thing, that and the other, without any kind of labor to heal the breach or save the erring ones from their wrong, is ruinous to the peace and fellowship of churches and individual members of churches."—Wm. Mitchell, Feb., 1900.

"Should a minister of another order be invited to preach at an old Baptist meeting? Receiving him into your house clearly refers to the church, for elsewhere we are commanded to be hospitable and to entertain or lodge and feed strangers; therefore, to invite a minister to preach at our appointments; one who does not believe our doctrine, or the doctrine of salvation by grace, is to violate the command of God, and to receive him into our house (church) and bid him God speed--you would be partaker of his evil deeds."—J. R. R., December, 1893.

"Even heathen Romans would not condemn a man before hearing the accused and accuser concerning the sins laid against him, and shall a Gospel Church, which should be the light of the world, do worse than a heathen government?"—J. R. R., December, 1893.

"Associations have done so without church labor or investigation, merely on hearsay testimony—in some instances. This is a gross sin—It is disorderly. But some of our brethren have gotten into the error, as we think, of holding that if a church gets into disorder, that she is no longer a church, and can do nothing that God commends, but to get right.

"But if we will notice we will see that these disorderly churches of Asia were commended and approved in all things which they were right; that is, that God accepted their right works, whilst he reproved their wrong ones (Re 2). A church ceases to be a church when Jesus comes to her and removes the candlestick, and not before. A church is deposed or unchurched after the rebukes of Christ, and not before He rebukes. And how does Christ rebuke a church now? Only, we think, by Gospel labor.

"A disorderly member of a church is a legal member until he is cast out by Christ; that is, by the church, after due Gospel process. He must be tried or heard before he is condemned. The incestuous member of Corinth was not expelled by an Apostle even, but by the church gathered together in the name of Christ (1Co 5). Churches deposed, even by an Association, are not in our judgment, legally deposed, for Associations are not vested by Christ with any' such authority."--J. R. Respess, March, 1888.

"Then as Christ in His word will not tolerate the cutting off of an individual member without an endeavor to heal, what should we think of a church that would assume, without an effort to reclaim, and without the concurrent judgment of neighboring churches, to discard or cut off a whole church? From the less to the greater is a Scriptural way of arguing, and proves very strongly, and hence we may justly infer that our Lord's care for one in a hundred of His sheep clearly implies that He has a greater care for a greater number. Hence, as it would be rebellion against Christ to cut off one member Without an endeavor to heal, we may justly infer that it would be high handed rebellion to assume to cut off or discard a whole church without an endeavor to reclaim. Whole churches are liable to err, as has previously been considered, but simply the erring of churches does not destroy them. . . . Nor is there any Gospel ground to invalidate the official Gospel administrations of churches 'and ministers until they have been formally and Gospelly deposed. I know the Bible will not tolerate the confounding of the Gospel acts of churches and ministers with their disorders in advance of an exercise of Gospel discipline against them."—John Rowe, Oct., 1887.

"Doth our law in Church or State condemn any man without due process of law? or without giving the accused opportunity before a legal tribunal to confront his accuser face to face?"

"It is a well established principle in law that every man accused of crime is supposed to be innocent before the law 'till proof of his guilt is fully established before some tribunal having authority to investigate the charges and render a decision as to the guilt or innocence of the accused. This is not only a well established principle in human law, but it also holds good in Church government. Until this is done, each of the parties contending must be considered equal before the law, whether in Church or State. And neither can be properly suspended from fellowship or communion in the Church until the matter in dispute is properly brought before some tribunal having jurisdiction in the case. The simple declaration of non-fellowship by an editor, a preacher, deacon, or any other, is not sufficient cause for the denomination at large, or any part of it, to withdraw fellowship or refuse the right of hearing before the Church having jurisdiction in the case. If, pending the investigation by the Church, one of the parties in the dispute is suspended from communion or any other rights and privileges under the law of Christ, so should the other be. But, in my humble opinion, neither of them can be righteously suspended finally and forever from all church relations and privileges by the simple authority and declaration of any self-constituted council or authority, who have assumed to sit in judgment and render a decision in the case.

This assumption of the authority of a Sovereign Church that is assumed and, I may say, usurped by individual members in declaring non-fellowship and dividing Churches and Associations before there is one step taken in Gospel order to have the matter investigated before a legal tribunal is, itself, a great evil that now afflicts our denomination, specially in some parts of the South. Individual members (as I have been told), or an individual member or preacher declares publicly that he has no fellowship for this thing or that thing—for this brother or that--and he seems to expect that his simple, unjust, and illegal announcement and assumption of the rights of Churches will be regarded by brethren as though it was a regular and orderly act of an orderly church having jurisdiction in the case. These are evils that churches would, I think do well to look into.

No citizen even of our common country is justifiable to override the law of the land by taking its execution in his own hand. Neither has any citizen in Zion any right to override the authority of Christ or ignore the rightful authority of His church to receive or expel members from fellowship, according to authority given her in the New Testament.

Under this assumed authority many would-be-leaders will spring up, and factious parties will be formed under these factious leaders, thereby dividing whole churches and Associations; each faction will follow its favorite man, and yet, perhaps, there never has been nor never will be one step of orderly labor or Gospel discipline taken."—W. M. Mitchell, October, 1898.

Primitive Pathway by Elder G. W. Stewart, pages 82-89: "Though these precious men of God be dead they yet speak. The foregoing principles are safe, sound and Scriptural. The Church of God is not a slaughter house to destroy God's precious children. These men of God have shown that discipline belongs solely to the Church and from the righteous decisions of a Gospel Church there is no appeal. No Council, Association, or any other body of men can deal with a member and exclude him, but the church of his membership. To this church and this alone, he is amenable. Crime and immorality should not be tolerated by a Church. If a member is guilty of a public offense, such as drunkenness, fornication, adultery, theft, false-swearing, willful-lying, gambling, etc., these are public offenses- - sins against the body, and the guilty party should be excluded and let him repent on the outside. The church is not a reformatory to reform criminals. When such is reported on a member the matter should be investigated and if the church is convinced of his guilt he should be expelled. They should have facts first. Many times a church is convinced by good truthful evidence by persons who are not members. A member might be imprisoned for theft, no church member was an eye-witness but the proof is sufficient, and the member should be expelled. No church can prosper with a slack discipline. See 1Co 5. Private trespasses should be handled according to Mt 18.

All matters should be thoroughly investigated before action. If a member willfully falsifies to damage another he should be promptly excluded. All discipline should be done in love. Do not receive an accusation against an Elder, except before two or three witnesses. Illicit distilling should not be allowed. Members should observe the laws of our country.

Another evil. Expel a member at one church and he joins another on Confession of Faith.

Elder Stewart calls this "jail delivery." This is a new practice unknown among old Baptists when I joined 46 years ago. It is gross disorder and should not be tolerated. If a member is excluded from a church, he owes the debt to the church that excluded him and should go there and be restored before attempting to join another. If the church committed an error in excluding him, let sister churches officially investigate and bestow a labor of love to get the church to rectify her wrong, and if she will not, then the churches can withdraw from the erring church and the expelled member can be received on 'Confession of Faith.' If a member is expelled righteously or unrighteously, he is expelled. Churches are equals and one church has no right to withdraw fellowship from another until Gospel labor is bestowed, though the church be guilty of error, labor to save first according to Mt 18. Associations are gathering of the saints to cultivate acquaintance, for mutual edification and to worship God, merely as a general meeting of the churches, and we have long thought that associations should be conducted by the authority of the church where it convenes.

'Merely as a Church Conference. No disciplinary question ought ever to be allowed in an Association. An Association is not a legislative or executive body. It is gross disorder for one association to declare non-fellowship for another, or try to discipline another, or to declare non-fellowship for a member or church of another Association, cutting off Baptists by the wholesale without one particle of Gospel or Church labor.

"Christ nowhere in the New Testament gives the slightest authority for an organic union or consolidation of Gospel Churches.. Such a union would be a fruitful source of corruption and oppression. The New Testament contains not a single example or intimation of the subordination of a church to any ecclessiastical authority outside of itself, whether popes, or diocesan bishops, or synods, presbyteries, or general assemblies, or councils, or associations, or conventions.

The simple fact that the Apostles address their epistles, not to the church officers or church judicatures, but to the churches of the called and faithful saints of God, proves both the right and responsibility of each church in respect to the management of its own affairs."—Hassell's Hist., page 93.

"It would be disloyalty to Christ for any church to alienate itself and delegate to any person or set of persons the rights and functions which Christ has committed to her; a Gospel Church cannot have delegates, but may have messengers."—Hassell's Hist., page 294.

"The language of Christ in .Mt 18:15-18 demonstrates that the church is the highest and last ecclesiastical authority on earth; that there can be no appeal under the law of Christ, from the decision of the church to a presbytery, or synod, or general assembly, or conference, or convention, or priesthood, or prelacy, or association, or any other earthly authority."—Hassell's Hist., page 292.

"That churches have the right to send their messengers on lawful messages, is fully warranted by the Primitive Churches, but that she has the right to delegate her authority to messengers, committees, or to councils, is to us absurd as that a married wife should have the right to transfer her relationship or privileges to another woman." —Editorials, Gilbert Beebe, Vol. 1, page 426.

"God forbid that any of our associations be made a cats-paw to handle church troubles."—Elder Silas H. Durand.

"Associations are for the worship of God, and that only."—Elder Wm. L. Beebe.

"Associations are not executive bodies to decide church matters." —Elder E. Rittenhouse.

"Associations when orderly conducted are a blessing. Contrary to this, they are a curse."—Elder P. D. Gold.

"The Canada matter should not be taken up by any association, and I hope all will unite in a stand against it being brought in."—Elder H. H. Lefferts.

"Any church insisting upon bringing church troubles or disorders in any association, should be asked to withdraw from the association or be dropped from it, so as not to bring the whole body into confusion and distress."---Elder J. H. Hubbell.

"Associations or any other body of believers usurping authority over church or churches is anti-Christ."—Elder J. M. Fenton.

Whenever associations are used as disciplinary bodies to non-fellowship and destroy whole churches and associations of poor innocent Baptists and that without one step of Gospel or church labor (Mt 18), simply to gratify some ambitious jealous preacher, seeking leadership, then they should be abolished. The church of one's membership is the only court that can deal with and expel a member. We love associations as love feasts to worship God. We should have them for that purpose only.

The Church alone is the Bible disciplinary body. She should recognize no power on earth but Christ above, the power that He delegated to her. I don't find where He delegated power or authority to send two or more of her members to another body to prescribe for her faith and walk. I would love Association of God's children when the sole object is to worship God, and bind the saints closer to God and one another. I did want so much to organize our little body on Bible ground alone. I wanted no constitution, or formal corres-' pondence. All the Churches simply send messengers with messages of the standing and conditions of the Church. The Moderator of the church where the body meets, act for the body. Invite all orderly Baptists to seats, and be one with us; appoint a committee to arrange the order of public worship, and set a time and place for next meeting. I don't think that sort of association would be an institution of man. But a regular constituted body to dictate to the churches, is of man, and that is the reason (one of the reasons) that cause so much trouble among our people all over the United States.—Elder W. P. Merrell.

Is it not a shame to see jealousy among the ministry and one preacher trying to destroy another even if he has to misrepresent him to do. it? Think of the man-made laws to destroy the innocent! Think of an association, to gratify one or more ambitious jealous preachers, will drop one or more whole associations, letting said act amount to an exclusion of all dropped, without one particle of Gospel labor! Worldly courts do not resort to such methods! "Doth our law judge a man before it hear him?" What right have we to exclude hundreds of innocent Baptists by associational rulings? The accused and accuser should be brought face to face before a trial even in worldly courts. Each member is amenable to the church of his membership and no other court can deal with him. When our precious Savior was on earth His enemies said, "we have a law and by our law He ought to die." We fear there are too many that have human laws now. Will any say, "Stand by thyself, come not near me, I am holier than thou." Let us all prayerfully get the beam out of our own eye. Confess our own faults. Our love has waxed cold. We all should live closer to God.—Elder Lee Hanks.

I heartily endorse your opinion, let it be a union meeting of all Churches near enough to attend and let the same rules which govern the Churches also govern the union or Association, using the officers of the Church with which the union or Asociation meets, not allowing any outside matters or business to come up while in session. Let it be a union and communion of Churches, allowing other unions or associations to unite with us which are of the same faith and order, with emphasis on the order and faith both, and when it becomes necessary to enforce discipline, let it be done by the Church or Churches, and if a sister Church or Churches becomes heretical in faith or practice, let the orthodox Church or Churches labor with the erring to reclaim them and instead of the Association withdrawing let it be done by the Churches.—E. B. Bartlett.

I am sure we all have more or less seen the baneful effects of associations assuming authority over churches and other association, assuming the right to pass declarations of non-fellowship against some association, church or churches. Where in God's precious word do we find authority for one association to pass a declaration of non-fellowship against another association or a church? Some times brethren of one association become offended at brethren of another association and the first thing is to go to work on other associations to have that association dropped from the general correspondence. We have seen them at associations in groups planning and scheming to carry their designs and thus the ball is started rolling. If they can succeed at the first association then they feel they will have more power at the next and so the war rages until a general division results with churches that ought to be living in sweet fellowship to the glory of God and their mutual edification, all because the object of associations has been set aside, for the gratification of some brother or brethren who act purely from a carnal principle. I am not against associations when the object is for the worship and service of God.--J. C. Ross.

"The Right of an Individual Church to discipline her members is clearly taught in the Scriptures. From the righteous decision of an orderly church, in matters of discipline, there is no appeal. The church is the only authority to which complaint may be made only when a church has refused or neglected to discipline a member or members whose actions are bringing reproach or distress upon the cause in general, or when a church, in the opinion of sister churches, has so far indulged in disorderly practices as to render her incapable of proper self-government, or when she has departed from the faith, has a council of churches any right to consider her case, unless they are specially called on by her to do so. For instruction of churches in such cases as described above we refer them to the London Confession of Faith, Chapter 26, Section 15, 1689."--Fulton Council.

Churches should labor to preserve sisterly relationship among all the body. Let all of our associations henceforth meet to worship God, to cultivate acquaintance, to sing, pray, and preach the truth in love. All who want confusion should stay at home. The Lord's people should not discard each other over mere local forms or customs. No preacher, church or Association has a right to reject a sound Gospel minister who is in good standing with the church of his membership, if his church is orthodox and orderly. If a member, minister or church made mistakes in the past, if he or they are living right now, they should be recognized.


Let Peace Be Restored (Eph 4:31-32; 5:12; Col 3:12-25; 1Pe 2:1).

"Mt. Zion Association, of North Alabama, is one of the oldest Primitive Baptist associations in the state, having been constituted in year 1822 or 1824, being preceded in age by only two others, to-wit: The Flint River, constituted in 1814, and the Mud Creek, constituted in 1821."—Hassell's History, page 886.

"Some years after the organization the Mount Zion Association divided on the Missionary question, and Elder Hosea Holcomb went to the Missionary side. Elder Martin Putnam, who joined this association in 1836 has been moderator of it about twenty-five years, and who is now (1886) about 75 years old, says he came in after the division and found all in peace and harmony among the churches. The Canaan Association, a Missionary body, was formed about 1833. The Mount Zion refused outright to fraternize the delegates of the new body, and declined to allow the ministers of the Canaan to preach at its session (the new Missionary association was formed from those who departed from the Gospel order of the Mount Zion Association). See Church Order, pages 10 and 11.

"It is admitted by the Mount Zion Association brethren that some of the churches (Brown's Creek, Salem, Zion Hill, Mt. Moriah and Shiloh) did receive alien immersion. A majority of the churches NEVER DID SO. The cases were all as follows: Brown's Creek received Lydia Moon in October, 1856; William Moon and Mary A. Moon in May, 1858;. G. F. Ballew in March, 1859. These were all dismissed from this church by letter, G. F. Ballew uniting with Salem Church on that letter. In 1875 they received P. R. Helms and Martha Helms by experience, and they were baptized by G. F. Ballew while he had Missionary baptism. They (P. R. and Martha Helms) were both baptized by legal authority in 1877. Zion Hill received H. W. Baker in 1875 or 1876 on Missionary baptism. He was again baptized by legal authority in 1877.

"Mount Moriah received a Sister Hood, who was in bed sick at the time the churches .agreed to put out alien baptism from them. She died' in about two weeks after the agreement and was never able to be baptized. Shiloh had received a Sister Gilley, who was withdrawn from June 14, 1884, she refusing to be baptized by legal authority. At Salem, where G. F. Ballew had joined by letter from Brown's Creek, having only Missionary baptism, the church passed an act to put out all Missionary baptism. On August 19, 1877, G. F. Ballew went before the church, related his experience and was received and baptized. All those who had been received and who had been baptized by Elder Ballew prior to this time were put out and none retained in the church. Some of them came to the church and related their experience and were received and baptized. All the work of Elder Ballew, here and elsewhere, was corrected.

At this time, in August, 1877, Salem Church declared non-fellowship for alien baptism; Brown's Creek did the same thing in the same month. This was the sentiment of EVERY CHURCH in the asociation, although one party was borne with for several years, but finally disposed of as stated. In the minute of the association held with the church at Shiloh, September 12, 13, 14, 1884, the following item appears: "Motion, seconded and carried, that we hereby publish that all the churches in the Mount Zion Association answered the request of last year's association in regard to baptism, and ALL STATE they have NONE BUT PRIMITIVE OR SCRIPTURAL BAPTISM."

The minute shows that Elder George M. Holcombe, now of the Fellowship Association, was at the Mount Zion Association in 1883, and that he preached on Saturday and Sunday. Witnesses state that at that, association Elder Holcombe advised them to not withdraw from any at that time, which might have alien baptism, but to give them. one more year to set themselves in order. At the association, 1889, 'Elder John Phillips, clerk stated in the Mt. Zion minute the following: "Be it known to all Primitive Baptists in order, that we did away with all illegal baptism that we had in 1861, and we defy anyone to prove to the contrary."--Church Order, pages 11, 12, 13.

Church Order further shows, that Salem Church, 1866, of the Mt. Zion Association, did grant the Missionary Baptists the use of their house, the Missionaries having no house of their own, and they ran a ten days' protracted meeting. Salem Church had nothing whatever to do with it. They only allowed their neighbors to use the house. Thorough investigation shows that all the churches of the Mount Zion Association were legally and gospelly constituted and the greater majority of the churches of the association never received alien immersion and contended for Primitive Baptist faith and practice.

If the churches of the Mount Zion Association lost their identity because some made mistakes and had erred for a time, what about the Primitive Baptists having the Missionary societies among them form their introduction in 1792 until the church non-fellowshipped them and cleaned up in 1832? Did these errors cause all Primitive Baptists to lose their visibility? Did the errors in the apostolic churches cause them to lose their visibility? Certainly not. They were commanded to repent—not disorganize their churches.

Mt. Zion did repent, after which she had the endorsement of elders from the New Hope, Euharlee and many more orderly associations. No churches ever labored with or withdrew from the Mount Zion churches at any time. We have no Gospel right to condemn and reject any Primitive Baptist Church until official Gospel or church labor is bestowed, and upon a refusal to repent of her wrongs, to withdraw from her and her official works. Till then and not until then, have we the Gospel right to reject the official acts of a Gospel church.

There were three churches of the Mt. Zion that refused to repent, and they were withdrawn from and are known as the Allgood Party. They nor their official work are recognized by the Mt. Zion Association. In 1884 the Mt. Zion Association published their constitution in their minutes (13th article) as follows: "This association will not fellowship any church or churches, nor hold them in union, who are engaged in any Missionary, Bible, tract, or Sunday School union society, advocate state conventions or theological schools; nor any other society that has been or may hereafter be formed under a pretense of circulating the Gospel of Christ; nor any secret organization; nor will we correspond with any association that is engaged in supporting any of the above-named institutions, they being without a "thus said the Lord!"

Church Order says, page 21: "Again, to censure, condemn and non-fellowship a church, or churches, because of some error of such church or churches, in doctrine, or practice, without labor, trial or investigation, is disorder, and in utter violation of the discipline, doctrine and spirit of the glorious Gospel of the Son of God."

Elder J. R. Respess, in Gospel Messenger. 1890, said: "In reference to the troubles of the churches in the Mount Zion Association, we are apprehensive that too much has already been done, as has probably been done to no profit in other sections in Zion. It will not do to incorporate the Gospel with the law, with its endless ceremonies and washings. It is one of the chief glories of the Gospel over the law that repentance, confession and doing so no more, puts away all manner of sin, not only of individuals but also as churches. The woman that was brought to Christ for judgment (Joh 8) was sent away with the blessed words of the adorable Master, 'Go and sin no more!' She was not required to undo her adulteries, but to do them no more.. . .

"We as Primitive Baptists have no grounds to expect any greater church purity than our fathers had, and the apostles had hardly died before many churches had gone astray in one thing or another, some in doctrine and some in order, and were commanded to repent."

Elder S. F. Cayce, in 1897 took a tour through Mt. Zion Association and said: "Many good brethren, good disciplinarians, able ministers of the Gospel, etc., not connected at all with the Mount Zion Association, have said that the brethren and churches of that association have done as much to rid themselves of ALL irregularities and to set themselves in order, as should be required of them. Elders Respess (deceased), Hassell, Gold and others have so expressed themselves in articles which have been published in their respective papers. And we certainly think they should be recognized by all true Baptists everywhere, not only as being sound in doctrine but as being orderly in their administration of their ordinances, church discipline, etc."—S. F. Cayce.

Elder T. S. Dalton of Baltimore, said (1913): "Now, in short, your churches (of Mt. Zion Association) have repented of their errors in receiving members from the New School. Baptists, and their alien baptism; also turned from receiving secret orders among them, and cleansed themselves of the errors. Now let them go in peace and love; they have done all the Bible requires in that line. My brother, we have too many Baptists regulators among us who think they know it all, and many of them (I fear) know nothing as they ought to know it." This also was the sentiment of Elder J. R. Daily, of Indiana.

Elder F. A. Chick, Hopewell, N. J., (1913), said: "Now, with regard to churches receiving members, fifty or sixty years ago, from the Missionary Baptists without re-baptism, of which they repented and gave it up nearly forty years ago, I will say that I think that is all the Scriptures require of anyone, whether of individuals or of churches. I presume that there is hardly a church of the age of 75 or a hundred years in the country that has not at some period gone astray, either in this or some other way. And I do not think more should be exacted of the church or of a member, than that he should cease from his wrong. Sins committed in the past, either by churches or members, can not be undone. The only thing to ask is, Are they doing right now? And if so, that has been deemed sufficient among our brethren in this section generally. I do not feel myself responsible for the sins the fathers may have committed in the order of the church and have never felt called upon to set their mistakes in order. I have known of churches who received members upon their Missionary baptism before the matter was clearly understood as it came to be afterward. But all that has been thought needful after the lapse of many years was to ask, Is the church pursuing the right course now? We never thought that by receiving one on his Missionary baptism destroyed the church that received them, or made invalid their acts while these members remained with them."—F. A. Chick.

The Mt. Zion in 1913 called for an investigating committee to come and investigate her order. She officially requested those churches charging her to meet with them with their complaints and let the difference be prayerfully investigated. This they refused to do.

Mt. Zion prayerfully desiring peace with all orderly Primitive Baptists, the. committee met at New Clear Creek Church Nov. 5, 1913, composed of the following: Elders G. W. Stewart, C. H. Cayce, J. E. Adams, Little River, Association, N. C.; R. O. Raulston, M. E. Petty, Lee Hanks and J. A. Taylor.

After a thorough and prayerful investigation it was found that a few of the churches made the mistakes as stated, of which they repented and thoroughly purged themselves and are now sound, orderly Primitive Baptists in faith and practice. They further found that no church or churches, or even an association, had ever investigated their standing, labored with them, or withdrawn from them.

The committee further found that directly after the Mount Zion Association set herself in order, 1877, that Elders Geo. M. Holcombe, of the New Hope Association, Georgia (now of the Fellowship); Elders Payne, Johnson and others of the Euharlee Association, Georgia, visited, endorsed and fellowshipped the Mt. Zion Association, and she then had the endorsement and fellowship of the Baptists most generally. We feel sure her order is as pure now as it was then.

The minutes of the Mt. Zion Association show the following: "Petitioned for correspondence with the Euharlee Association of Georgia in 1881 and 1882. In 1883 received from. Euharlee package of minutes and Brethren J. C. and W. C. Bryan.

1884—T. W. Duke and M. Scott as delegates and F. M. Wimpee as visitor (from the Euharlee).

1885--Received letter and package of minutes.

1886—Package minutes and W. H. (or K.) Bryan (from the Euharlee).

1887—W. C. Bryan (from the Euharlee).

1888—Package of minutes from. Euharlee.

1889—From Euharlee, letter and minutes.

1890—Motion carried to drop correspondence with Euharlee for the present.

The Mt. Zion Association corresponds with the Hillabee and Wetumka, with the Beulah and on into Georgia. The Beulah with the Primitive Western and Primitive Western with Yellow River and Marietta. The Mt. Zion corresponds with the Wetumka of Alabama, the Wetumka with the Flint River of Georgia, and Antioch and Patsaliga of Alabama, the Flint River with the Lotts Creek, Harmony and Upatoi Associations. The Upatoi with the Echaconnee, Ocmulgee, Ebenezer, Original Upper Canoochee and Old Kehukee Association of North Carolina, the Kehukee corresponds with associations in North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New York and Missouri.

The Mt. Zion corresponds with these associations on into Tennessee, and her chain of correspondence extends into Kentucky, Mississippi, Louisana, Arkansas, Texas and directly and indirectly throughout the United States. Surely enough was done for peace.


I will endeavor to answer the following questions received from a precious brother in another state concerning the Mt. Zion Association:

Q.—Please give the names of all associations with which you correspond?

A.--Flint River, Mud Creek, Sand Mountain, Wetumpka, Lower Wetumpka, Hillabee, Lotts Creek, Sequachee Valley.

Q.—Give the names of all elders that have visited, preached for and endorsed the Mt. Zion during the last fifteen or twenty years.

A.--Am giving all that I can remember or call to mind just at present, with postoffice addresses where known: From Georgia, Elders T. J. Head, Lee Hanks and Z. C. Hull, Atlanta; D. L. Calloway, Manassas; M. E. Petty, Donalsonville; Morgan Williams, Chipley; Primitive Western Association—J. A. Taylor, P. H. Byrd and M. L. Riner, L. Holloway. From North Carolina--Elder J. E. Adams, Angier. From Virginia—Elder Charles N. Tilson, Seven-Mile Ford. From Louisiana—Elder W. M. Brecheen, Greensburg, Amite Association. From Texas—Elders J. S. Newman, Stockdale; M. S. Hux, Barry; W. H. Bodine, Colorado; J. A. Payne. From Arkansas—Elders J. D. Elkins, Blevins; M.---Ryan (postoffice unknown). From Tennessee—Elders S. F. and C. H. Cayce (C. H. now at Fordyce, Ark.; S. F. dead). R. O. Raulston, Chattanooga; J. W. Lomax, Bold Spring; West Tennessee Association, N. P. Vandiver, Pulaski; R. D. Fountain Creek Association, also S. F. Best, same association; J. N. Dunaway, Decherd; David Wauford, Brush Creek; M. C. Johnson, Cumberland Association; W. J. Harwood, Dunlap. From Alabama—Elders G. W. Stewart, Akron; W. J. Hull, Headland; J. J. Turnipseed, Conecuh River Association; B. M. Jowers, Seman; Lytle Burns, Florence; N. M. Cook, J. T. Randolph and C. H. Tankersley of the Little-vine Association; E. J. Joiner of the Second Creek Association; J. W. Bragg and L. M. Walker, Flint River Association; J. Nix, H. P. and A. J. Houk, W. T. Flanagan, A. J. Wann,—Bullman, from Mud Creek Association; M. A. Hackworth, Sequachee Valley Association; J. K. Phillips, T. J. Roberts, W. J. Ball and—Garrett from Sand Mountain Association; Martin Wood from Wetumpka Association; S. W. Pruett, H. H. Goodman,—Denny, from Hillabee Association, and M. Shaddix, also Elders Purifoy and Spencer F. Moore (addresses or associations unknown to me) and others whose names I can not now recall. Nearly all of these I have known and heard them preach. Have also heard older brethren speak of other able elders who have been here and preached for the Mt. Zion Baptists. Among them were Elder Seals, of South Alabama and Elder Goodlow Wood, of Tennessee.

Q.--Do any of the churches of your association hold union meetings with the Missionaries and Methodists and at the close of a meeting divide up with them?

A.—NO! NO!! NO!!! Under no circumstances whatever is such thought of. I think the excluded Allgood party does.

Q.—Do they tolerate secret orders?

A.--This I will answer with the same great big NO! I have just recently heard several renounce such orders and lose large insurance policies in same for membership in our churches.

Q.—Has any of your associations alien baptism?


Q.—Have they had any alien immersion in forty years?

A.—No, not since the "clean-up" (as the older brethren sometimes call it) in 1877, when it was put out.

We feel that the Lord has wonderfully blessed the churches of the Mt. Zion this year, they having received 75 or 80 by experience and baptism, twenty odd by restoration and some thirty or more from the Fellowship people, including one whole church of twenty-three members.


Guntersville, Ala.






Sir:—Learning you are again preparing, or rather gathering together, another volume of scraps, which you intend to publish to the world in vindication of free-will, and to hold up to contempt the doctrine of electing grace, after having a thousand thoughts revolving in my mind upon the propriety or impropriety of interfering in the business, seeing you have, in many respects, been so ably handled, already, I at last resolved to drop you a few lines, to which I request your very candid opinion; for I assure you, as far as I know my own heart, I have nothing in view but the glory of the eternal God and the welfare of Zion.

And, first, you are hereby desired, as early as possible, to inform those characters whom your extraordinary piety induces you to hold up to public view as murderers, upon what ground the salvation of a poor sinner depends; whether it depends wholly and entirely upon the free grace of Jehovah, or whether it rests wholly and entirely upon man's free-will, or whether it be a joint concern, depending partly upon God's free grace, and partly upon man's free-will? Should you be disposed to give the preference to the first of these, you will have the goodness to reconcile that to your Arminian creed, and for the better clearing of the way, you will be very particular in stating upon what branch of the free grace of God salvation does absolutely depend; and lest you should mistake what I mean, I will just state a few things, unto which I hope you will conscientiously attend. And in the first place, does the salvation of a sinner depend upon the everlasting love or mercy of Jehovah, or is it not possible for a sinner to be interested in that mercy, which is from everlasting to everlasting (Ps 103:17), and after all perish everlastingly? And if so, does it not evidently appear that salvation does not depend upon the mercy of God?

But secondly, does salvation depend upon redeeming grace, and may the characters redeemed unto God by the precious blood of Christ (Re 5:9), depend upon the efficacy of the redemption of Christ for salvation, seeing they are thereby redeemed from all iniquity (Tit 2:14), from the curse of the law (Ga 3:13), and out of the pit where there is no water (Zec 9:11), or may not a sinner be interested in the redemption of Christ, and be damned at last? And if so, does it not appear that salvation does not depend upon the redemption of Christ?

Thirdly, does salvation depend upon quickening, regenerating, or renewing grace? As it is written, "You hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins."—Eph 2:1. Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost."—Tit 3:5. Or may not a sinner be quickened, regenerated and renewed by the Holy Ghost, and after all be banished from the presence of the Lord into the burning lake of never-ending perdition? And if so, does it not appear that this grace is not sufficient to save a sinner?

Fourthly, does salvation depend upon justifying grace? "Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus."—Ro 3:24. "And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses."—Ac 13:39. Or may not a sinner be justified by grace from all things, and after all be brought into condemnation, and have his everlasting portion with unbelievers in the torments of hell? If so, does it not appear that justifying grace will not save a sinner?

Fifthly, does salvation depend upon sanctifying grace? as it is written, "And such were some of you; but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God."-1Co 6:11. Or may not a sinner be sanctified in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of God, and be lost at last? If so, does it not appear that sanctifying grace will not save a sinner?

Sixthly, does salvation depend upon the grace of adoption? "According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ unto himself, according to the good pleasure of his will."—Eph 1:4-5. Or may not a sinner receive the adoption of sons, be an heir of God through Christ (Ga 4:5,7), and fall short of heaven at last? If so, does it not appear that salvation does not depend upon the grace of adoption?

Now if salvation does not depend upon any of these, separately considered, will you have the goodness to inform us whether it depends upon the whole of them, jointly considered, as one infinite treasure of immortal grace; or may not a sinner be interested in the whole of them, and after all -perish in his iniquity? That is, may not a sinner be interested in the unchanging mercy of God, and in the redemption by Christ, and in the quickening, regenerating ad renewing influences of the Holy Ghost; and may he not be justified from all things, and be washed and sanctified by the Spirit of God; I say, may not a sinner be interested in the whole of this grace today, and tomorrow die in his sins? And if so, how can salvation be of grace? But in order to give you room for your strength, and allow you every fair opportunity of proving salvation to be all of God's free grace, and yet the creed for which you contend to be of God, I will ask in the seventh place, does salvation depend on the unspeakable gift, of grace, viz., Christ Jesus? For "Herein is love; not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins."--1Jo 4:10. And if salvation depends on the unspeakable gift of grace, you will be particular in informing us upon what part of this gift it is that it depends.

Does it depend upon the work of Christ, or upon the characters he bears, or the offices he fills, or the fullness that in him dwells, or the union and relationship that subsists between him and his church; does salvation depend upon these things jointly or separately, or may not, a sinner be interested in the whole of this grace, and be lost at. last?

But to make the matter as straight as possible, I would ask, may not a sinner be interested in the work of Christ, that is, in his active and passive obedience on earth, and his intercession in heaven; and may he not build upon Christ as a foundation; shelter in him as a hiding-place from the wind; rest upon him as a resting-place; bathe in him as the fountain opened for the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and uncleanness; enter into the sheepfold by him, as the door and straight gate; trust in him as the Lord, his rock and fortress, and deliverer, and strength, and buckler, and as the horn of his salvation, and his high tower (Ps 18:2); may he not receive him as his Prophet, Priest and King; as the Captain of his salvation, his Day's-man, his Surety, Advocate and Mediator; may not a sinner live upon him as the bread of heaven, the water of life, and the wine of the kingdom; may he not be interested in him as the everlasting Father, and the elder Brother, a Friend that sticketh closer than a brother; may he not be united to him as a loving Husband and a living Head; may not his life be hid with Christ in God, and he be life of his life, body of his body, bone of his bones, and flesh of his flesh; in a word, may not a sinner receive Christ as the Lord his righteousness and strength, his portion, and his all in all; be blessed with repentance unto life, and have Christ in him the hope of glory; "be born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth forever" (Peter 1.23); be blessed with the fruits of the Spirit, as "love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, and temperance" (Ga 5:22-23); and after all be brought into condemnation? And if a poor sinner can be interested in the whole of this grace, and be lost at last, do, sir, for the Lord and truth's sake, and for the sake of poor, perishing sinners, inform us upon what salvation does absolutely depend.

I presume it is impossible to propose to you, or to any other person, a subject of greater importance, and therefore I hope you will use all diligence to make the matter clear and straight; and if, upon due inspection and cool deliberation, you conclude that no sinner can be interested in the whole of this grace, and be damned at last, you will then, without the least reserve, inform us what part of it a sinner may be interested in, and yet be lost, and what part he cannot be interested in, and miss heaven, that we may be able to form some just views of our real state, and be no longer left at an uncertainty about the grounds upon which salvation absolutely depends.

II. Should you be disposed to give the preference to man's free will, and inform us that salvation depends upon the will of man, you will inform us how such a sentiment agrees with the word of God. But if, after all, you cannot feel any real regard for me, yet for the truth's sake, and for the sake of poor, perishing sinners, you will inform us how such a sentiment agrees with the following passages of holy writ:

The first passage that I will recommend to your attention upon this part of the subject is Joh 1:13: "Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God." The second is in that precious chapter which you have employed your wits in giving a distorted, in and out explanation of (as Mr. Roby has made evidently .appear), viz., Ro 9.: "So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy." The third is Eph 2:8-9: "For by grace are ye saved,' through faith: and that not of yourselves: it.is the gift of God; not of works, lest any man should boast." The fourth is 2Ti 1:9: "Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began." The fifth is Jas 1:18: "Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first-fruits of his creatures." The sixth is Php 1:6: "Being confident of this very thing, that he who hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of. Jesus Christ." The seventh is Ac 13:48: "And as many as were ordained to eternal life believed." See also the first six verses of the second chapter of the Ephesians. I could produce many more, but am inclined to think the above will be as many as you will be able to manage, and keep free-will upon its throne.

We also earnestly wish you to inform us whether the will of man became completely perverse by the introduction of sin, or whether it was only slightly injured, or whether it was injured at all; and if the former, what you and your brethren mean by free-agency and free-will; and if the latter,. and salvation 'depends upon free-will, what do you mean by praying that God will have mercy upon all men, and save them with an everlasting salvation, and then tell the congregation that God has done all he can to save them, and the matter now rests with them, whether they will be saved or not? Surely, such vain jangling can never be acceptable to God, however it may feed the carnal mind of man; for if God has done all he can, why pray to Him to do more, if Gad has not done all He can, why tell the people he has? Strange as such contradictions may seem to a sensible mind, they are frequently produced in the course of one hour by an Arminian preacher. Now, sir, depend upon it, the credit of your favorite system depends much on these things being made to appear clear; nor can an experimental child of God be satisfied with a shuffling put off.

III. If you feel disposed to say that the salvation of a sinner is a joint concern, depending partly upon God's free grace, and partly upon, man's free-will, you will doubtless be careful to inform us where such a salvation is recorded, and how it agrees with the following passages of holy writ: "I, even I, am the Lord; and beside me there is no Savior."—Isa 43:11. "Neither is there salvation in any other; for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved."—Ac 4:12. "And if by grace, then it is no more of works; otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then it is no more of grace; otherwise work is no more work."---Ro 11:6. "Who hath directed the Spirit of the Lord, or being his counsellor hath taught him? With whom took he counsel, and who instructed him. and taught him in the path of judgment, and taught him knowledge, and showed to him the way of understanding? Behold, the nations are as a drop of the bucket, and are counted as the small dust of the balance! behold, he taketh up the isles as a very little thing. And Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for burnt offering. All nations before him are as nothing; and they are counted to him less than nothing, and vanity." "It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretched out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in; that bringeth the princes to nothing; he maketh the judges of the earth as vanity."—Isa 40:13-17,22-23. And again: "For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called; but God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise" (pray, sir, do not forget that); "and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things that are mighty; and base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to naught things that are; that no flesh should glory in his presence."-1Co 1:26-29.

Now from this account given of man by the eternal God, it evidently appears that all the nations of the earth are but a drop of the bucket, or the small dust of the balance, as grasshoppers, having no might; nay, they are as nothing, and less than nothing, and vanity. What flesh can bear it? Well, be it as mortifying as it may to proud man, God informs us by the mouth of the psalmist that "every man at his best state is altogether vanity."—Ps 39:5. And it evidently appears that if any of these particles of nothing, and less than nothing, and vanity, appear to shine brighter than the rest, there are but few of these saved. But God has chosen the foolish, the weak, the base, and the despised; and the end answered thereby is, that no flesh should glory in his presence; that, according as it is written, "He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord."

Now, sir, in case you should still feel yourself inclined to maintain that salvation is a joint concern, partly depending upon the free grace of God, and partly upon man's free will, your work in this business is judiciously to inform us what deficiency there is in the free grace of the eternal Jehovah, and in what sense he needs the aid and assistance of this drop in the bucket, this small dust of the balance, these wonderful grasshoppers, these particles of nothing, and less than nothing, and vanity, yea, these foolish, weak, base, and despised particles of less than nothing, who, at their best estate, are altogether vanity; I say sir, your work is to inform us, and that with the greatest accuracy and clearness, wherein these worms can aid and assist the great Jehovah in their eternal salvation, and upon what part of their aid salvation depends. And having done this, you will then inform us whether it be just and righteous in God to demand all the glory, and not to admit any flesh to glory in his presence, but in the Lord, seeing that all the goings forth of the free grace of God will never save one sinner, if the sinner neglect to do his part. It is be hoped that you will not pass the things over as trivial matters, for they are matters of the greatest importance; and surely it behooves every sinner that expects to go to heaven to be well persuaded in his own mind upon what ground his salvation depends, lest he should be building upon a false foundation, and, after all his diligence and watchfulness, be found wrong at last.

Now, sir, as your conscience is so tender that you could not satisfy it till you had protested against the doctrine of unconditional election, you surely cannot die in peace without answering these important questions; important, I say, for I repeat again, that nothing can be of greater importance than to know upon what ground salvation does absolutely depend; and if it will not be thought insulting your superior abilities and understanding, I will remark, that should you find yourself inadequate to the task, you are at full liberty to call in the assistance of any of your brethren, and truly they are many; for if the matter be but fully and clearly stated, it matters not to us whether the statement be the work of an individual, or the joint concern of a host; it is the truth itself we want to appear.

You will perhaps wonder that I so frequently mention the pronoun us, as if this epistle was a joint concern; but if you will only read a small pamphlet called "A Dialogue between a Barber's Block and a Methodist Minister," your wonder will perhaps be at an end, for there you will see the same question proposed, namely, "What is it that saves a lost sinner?" in which pamphlet some of the above questions are asked.

Thus you see that I am not the only person who wishes to know upon what ground salvation absolutely depends; and as I have never heard of any of your brethren that have ventured to solve the important question, I thought if the question be put to Mr. Smyth, and the nature of it clearly stated to him, who can tell but he will exercise his superior talents in giving a plain, unequivocal, decisive answer; and I think I may venture to say, that in this town I can find some hundreds of people who feel themselves interested in the subject, and who will be sure to conclude that if Mr. Smyth does not answer the above, the just reason will be because he cannot. And therefore, if neither regard for the truth of God, nor a concern for the welfare of immortal souls, will induce you to answer this epistle, let your credit as a man of learning and talent have some weight with you, and never let it be said that that country rustic, William Gadsby, has proposed questions to the Reverend Edward Smyth, formerly of Trinity College, Dublin, which he is not able to answer without exposing the fallacy of his creed, and that, therefore, rather than do that, he will pass them in cowardly silence.

I would not have solicited an answer, did not the subject appear to me to be a matter of the greatest moment. I am acquainted with characters who are in possession of an immortal soul, and consider themselves bound for an eternal world, and have had, or imagine they have had, some soul-ravishing foretastes of immortal felicity, and are living in daily expectation that "When the earthly house of this tabernacle is dissolved, they have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens," where they shall be forever free from sin (a monster that their better part abhors), yea, where they shall be free from all the insults of hell, the sorrows of the world, and every carking care, fear and distress, and be forever with the Lord; where they shall see as they are seen, and know as they are known, and in one immortal song chant forth the high praises of the triune Jehovah forever and ever. O how the soul longs to be with Christ, which is far, infinitely far better than to dwell below! Indeed, sir, they are expecting the period to arrive very soon, when their immortal sight will be favored with a clear view of the majestic blaze of Jehovah's unsullied glory, when all their powers will be sweetly employed in realizing those immortal blessings which are in reserve for those who wait upon God.

But if, after all, they are only building such expectations upon a false foundation, how awful, how dreadfully awful will be the disappointment! The very thought of being disappointed convulses the whole frame; and when such a thought prevails any length of time, it produces a tremor in the mind not to be expressed by tongue or pen. Therefore, to such souls no subject can be of greater importance than that now proposed for your consideration. We might expect to be princes and emperors, and be disappointed, but a disappointment of this nature is not worth a thought compared with the above; for all the riches, pleasures, honor and dignity which this world can afford are but poor, fleeting, perishing trash. A few years at most puts an end to the whole, and the beggar upon the dunghill, and the king upon the throne, will become equally level with the dust. But to be disappointed in soul concerns, concerns of an external nature, is awful beyond description; therefore, if Mr. S., or any of his brethren, feel any regard for poor, perishing sinners, who are thirsting for God, even the living God, let them inform us, with the greatest accuracy, upon what salvation does absolutely depend, that we may know upon what to ground our expectations.

Bear with me a moment, sir, for I have one thing more to propose, and then I have done for the present. If, after you have dispassionately discussed the above subject, you should still think yourself doing the work of an evangelist in holding up to contempt the doctrine of unconditional election, and still maintain that upon the ground of such a doctrine God is more barbarous than the worst of tyrants, nay, even as sanguinary and implacable as Apollyon himself, you will have the modesty to inform us what there is in sinners, and what they have done, that lays the eternal God under the obligation of providing for them a Savior.

Now, sir, either God is just in electing some according to the good pleasure of his will, and leaving the rest without what you call a chance of being saved, or else man must have some just and righteous claim upon him, whereby he has a right to demand salvation at his hands. Suppose upon this subject we propose a passage of Scripture for your consideration; and if we turn our thoughts to the third chapter of the Romans, we shall see that there were characters who slanderously reported the apostles, and affirmed that they said, "Let us do evil, that good may come," whose damnation we are informed, is just. Having given this statement of the matter, does the apostle then begin to admire his own goodness, and the goodness of the rest of the apostles and believes in Christ Jesus, and intimate that they were characters more worthy of Jehovah's complacency and delight than those whose damnation is just? No, not a single hint of the nature, but quite the reverse. Hence he asks, "What then? Are we better than they?" To which he replies, "No, in no wise." That is, if I understand him aright, we are in no sense whatever more deserving of the favor of God than they; for we are by nature no better than they, but were by nature children of wrath, even as others. But what is the reason the apostle gives for such an assertion? A very plain and a very obvious one indeed, namely, that both Jews and Gentiles are under sin; and then, to illustrate the point, he quotes a variety of passages from the Old Testament, which give a short description of the real state of man by nature; as it is written, "There is none righteous, no, not one; there is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God; they are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one; their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips; whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness; their feet are swift to shed blood; destruction and misery are in all their ways, and the way of peace have they not known; there is no fear of God before their eyes."

This, sir, is a short description of fallen man, given by holy men of old who spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost; and from the same unerring authority we learn that "God made man upright, but men have sought out many inventions." Fertile inventions, indeed, if the above be a true description of them, and who dare deny it? And pray, sir, for which of all these inventions is the eternal God obliged to provide salvation? Or what virtue can there be in these things, jointly or separately considered, sufficient to merit the immortal favor of Jehovah, or to render him an unjust tyrant in case he gives them their portion with fallen angels? Does their virtue lie in their want of righteousness, and so because they are altogether unlike God he is necessitated to love and redeem them, or be unjust? Or does the virtue lie in their dreadful ignorance or want of understanding, or because they seek not after God, "having their understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God, through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart?"— Eph 4:18. Or does it lie in their having gone out of the way, and being altogether unprofitable, or because they do no good, seeing that they that are in the flesh cannot please God? Or does the virtue lie in that dreadful stench of sin which they emit through their throat, which is an open sepulchre, or in the deceit which they use with their tongues? Or is it in the poison of asps under their lips, which is a composition of every species of sin and rebellion? Or is it in that mouth full of cursing and bitterness they possess? Or does it lie in the swiftness of their feet to shed blood, or in the destruction and misery that are in their ways, or because they are strangers to the way of peace? Or does the virtue lie in their having no fear of God before their eyes? Now, sir, if there be no virtue in the whole of this, jointly or separately, that lays the eternal God under an obligation of extending his mercy toward, and bestowing his special favors upon them, he must be just in saving some, as the effect of his own purpose of grace, and leaving the rest to perish in their sins; I say, Jehovah must be just in so doing, unless his justice can be impeached upon some other foundation than what. has already been stated.

But as I said in the beginning of this letter, that I have nothing in view but the glory of God and the welfare of Zion, so I say again, and can assure you that I do not wish to take any unjust advantage of you or your creed. We will, therefore, for the sake of getting more fully to the real truth, suppose that some men by nature are not so vile as others, and we will suppose that those who believe in the doctrine of unconditional election are by far the worst, and that those who believe in the doctrine you profess are by far the best, and we put the question to each, Do you believe that the eternal God would have been just had he left you to perish in your sins? What says the electionist to this question? Methinks I see every one who in heart believes the doctrine, from a feeling sense of its intrinsic glory, ready to say, without the least reserve, Just indeed! I have been astonished, almost to an infinite degree, that he could be just in saving me. I am quite sure I have deserved his righteous indignation in thousands of instances, and, had he seen fit to banish me from his presence, into that place where hope never cometh, I must have said, even then, it is what I justly deserve. Thanks be to God for his unspeakable gift! Adored be his eternal name, that he has brought my poor, guilty, ruined, hell-deserving soul to know that he has made him to be sin though he knew no sin, and in the riches of his grace has made such a God-dishonoring wretch as I the righteousness of God in him! "Wonder, O heaven! and be astonished, O earth! for the Lord hath done it." When by a precious faith I am enabled to behold unworthy me among the sons of God, the purchase of the precious blood of Christ, I am lost in wonder, I sink to nothing before him, and am compelled, sweetly compelled to cry from my very soul, "Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto me, and not unto the world?"—Joh 14:22. I am persuaded that it is not for works of righteousness which I .have done, but according to his mercy he saved me, by the washing of regeneration and the renewing of the Holy Ghost. O my soul! let all thy powers unite in praising the eternal God for so great a salvation. Great God! fill me with thy blessed self; and may it ever be my highest ambition to be nothing, and to magnify thine infinitely adorable name.

But hark! What do I hear? Is it not the voice of Mr. S. calling such language "cant?" O, fie, fie, blush for shame! But whether you are capable of blushing or not, this is the language of a sinner saved by grace; and if you and your brethren were to call it by the detestable name of cant, ten thousand times ten thousand twice told, it would be their language still. I admit it is language that illy becomes a man who believes that God would be an unjust tyrant if he did not provide salvation for him; for what thanks can be to Jehovah for redeeming characters whom he in justice is bound to redeem? He either must do it or impeach his justice; and then wherein can grace and mercy shine? Indeed, sir, I am greatly mistaken if upon an inspection you are not induced to call the terms, grace, mercy and compassion of God, cant, too, or else give up that for which you plead. If salvation be a just debt that God oweth to his fallen creatures (and it must be, if he would be unjust in case he did not provide it), how can it be of grace and mercy? If your mind be not overwhelmed with enmity against the sovereignity of God, let these thoughts occupy it for a moment at least.

But we will now turn our thoughts to those characters whom we supposed might be considered the best sort of sinners, namely, the Arminians. Will Mr. S. inform us what claim these have upon the Almighty for an everlasting salvation? Now, sir, we earnestly wish you to be very particular in telling us what they have in them, or what is done by them, that is so virtuous in its own nature as to oblige the eternal God to provide salvation for them, or else be a cruel, unjust tyrant. But in order to get at the truth, we will suppose that Mr. S. is not able to answer for all this body, seeing that you are so amazingly numerous, and we will therefore bring the matter into a narrow compass, and he shall be desired to answer for himself only. Then the matter now rests here: If you feel yourself inadequate to answer for the whole, you are desired to come forward and truly declare, without any reserve, what you have done that lays the mighty God under an obligation of providing salvation for you, and wherein Jehovah will be an unjust tyrant if he does not give you a chance of being saved. We hope you will state upon what grounds you can appeal to the infinite God, and tell him you have a right in justice to expect salvation at his hands, and that if he 'withholds it, and leaves you to perish in your sins, he is no less than a capricious tyrant.

Should you feel yourself disposed to say that Jehovah ought to have prevented the fall of man, or provide a salvation that extends to all the fallen race, you will then, no doubt, inform us from what quarter such an obligation arises, or how Jehovah came to be thus obliged, and whether he was not as much under the same obligation toward angels as men; and if he be just in leaving fallen angels to perish, without a possibility of being saved, upon what ground can his justice be impeached in leaving fallen man to the same condemnation?

Satan was as much disposed to cavil with the sovereignity of God as Mr. S., and had the same opportunity of publishing his views to the world through the medium of the press, could he not represent the Almighty in as odious a light, for passing by fallen angels and redeeming fallen men (seeing they are all the creatures of God), as Mr. S. has done, upon the ground of unconditional election? Indeed, sir, to be consistent with yourself, it is high time your bowels began to yearn a little over fallen angels, and instead of calling Satan the destroyer and arch-fiend, etc., represent him in the same favorable light as you do fallen man, and be a complete champion for universal charity at once. O, sir, think and tremble. I have often thought that man excels Satan himself in rebellion against God; for though we read of him tempting Christ, and of him crying out, "What have we to do with thee, Jesus ,thou Son of God? Art thou come to torment us before the time?" yet we hear nothing about his calling him a capricious tyrant, because he has not given them a chance of being saved. No, this species of rebellion appears to be the sole prerogative of ruined man.

I have no more to say at present, only again to solicit your candid attention to the things proposed, and to request that you will give us a plain, unequivocal, decisive answer.

That the truth of God may run and be glorified, is the prayer of Yours to serve in the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ.


Of London, England.

—From Feast of Fat Things


(Continued from the above chart):
sus and we could not get all the minutes but have done the best we could. The last United States Census gives 336 Primitive Baptist organizations among the colored people in the United States and 15,144 members. Strict or Primitive Baptists in England, 209,773.

Two Seed Baptists were founded by Daniel Parker, who it seems believed in a self-existent eternal Devil. Hence two eternal headships. The children of God were eternal and so were the children of devil. They believe in the predestination of sin and wickedness and deny the resurrection of the body. The last census gives a membership of 679 in the United States following that most fearful heresy. No true Primitive Baptist has ever endorsed the Daniel Parker heresy. It is the sinner saved body, soul and spirit.

Evansville, Ohio, Baptist Church was organized December 2, 1842. Elder P. Hunt, Pastor; Elder Earl S. Smith is a member, and an able defender of truth.—L. E. Parker, Clerk.

Big Creek Old School Primitive Baptist Church was organized 1813 with seven members. It was pastored by such men as Elders Hume and Potter. In 1874 this church declared against secret orders. The church grew to nearly 160 members, but leaving off the old order and bearing with disorders resulted in divisions which left only eleven contending for the order and against secret orders, etc. —Elder C. E. Lowe, Pastor; E. P. Welborn, Cynthiana, Ind., Clerk.

Touloway Old School or Primitive Baptist Church, Pennsylvania, organized 1765. Elder J. W. Smoot, Pastor. Membership, 25.

Sideling Hill Church of Old School or Primitive Baptist Church, Fulton Co., Pa. Elder C. L. Funk, Pastor. Membership, 22.

1902, Great Cacapon, Great Cacapon, W. Va. Elder J. T. Powers, Pastor. Membership, 15.

Enon, Morgan Co., W. Va. Elder J. T. Powers, Pastor. Membership 15.

Little Capon, Hampshire Co., W. Va. Membership 20. Elder Burr, Pastor.

Three Churches, Hampshire Co., W. Va. Membership, 30. Elder J. T. Power, Pastor, Union Church, Hampshire Co.. W. Va., Membership, 10, Elder B. W. Power, Pastor. Grassy Lick, Hampshire Co., W. Va. Membership, 20, Elder J. W. Smott, Pastor. Timber Ridge, Frederick Co., Va., Membership 6, Elder J. W. Brannon, Pastor. Ten Mile, Harrison Co., W. Va., Membership 30, Elder J. W. Smoot, Pastor. Donora, Washington Co., Penn., Membership 25, Elder J. C. Corder, Pastor. Little Flock, Amelia C. H. Va., Membership 34, Elder F. P. Stone, Pastor.

Ordained Primitive Baptist ministers in good standing and not members of any association:

Elder Burr W. Power, aged 86, Creekvale, W. Va.

Elder J. T. Power, Creekvale, W. Va.

Elder J. W. Smoot, Great Cacapon, W. Va.

Elder J. W. Brannon, Whitacre, Va.

Elder C. L. Funk, Needmore, Pa.

Elder J. C. Corder, Donora, Pa.

Washington Church, South River, N. J. Membership four. Served by Elder Goble, Housel, Durand and at present by Elder J. M. Fenton, as pastor. This church was dropped by the Delaware River Association in the year 1922, because they would not approve of the Associational ruling over churches composing the same.

Jefferson Church, Jefferson, N. Y., Membership, eighteen and four to be baptized at their next meeting, April 14th, 1923. Was served by Elder Miller as pastor, then by Elder Clark and now by Elder J. M. Fenton. This church severed relationship from the Lexington Association, because of the preacher rule in the Association and have been blessed of God in spiritual blessings ever since they withdrew from the disorders in associations.

Schoharie Church, Schoharie, N. Y. Twenty members and has passed through deep waters because of the actions of the Lexington Association through preachers lording over God's heritage by associational relationship and trying to silence Elder J. D. Hubbell in the year 1888, thereby dividing members of the churches, so that there arose a Roxbury Association in opposition to the Lexington Association and Associations aligning themselves with one or the other Association, thereby causing confusion and distress. September, 1922, there was an amalgamation of the remnant of two legs or a piece of an ear of the Lexington Association and the Roxbury Association all the world are wandering after the beast in its amalgamation.

Shohola Church, Shohola, Pa. Elder Hugh McKean pastor.

Otego Church, Otego, N. Y., Ingleside Church, Ingleside, Pa., Cammal Church, Cammal, Pa., Justus Church, Justus, Pa., Brook- dale Church, Binghamton, N. Y., are all served by Elder Vail as pastor, and are not identified with any association. They hold two-days meetings and are blessed of God and many have been added to their numbers.

Trough Creek Church, Colfax, Pa., was at one time identified with the "Clark Baptists," but are now served by Elder J. M. Fenton as pastor. Membership was two, but four have been added to their number. This church is seeking to know the will of the Lord and held a two-days meeting in 1921 and did not hold the session of the Juiatta Association.

Springfield Church, Three Springs, Penn.; twelve members. Served by Elder J. M. Fenton as pastor and will hold the session of the Juiatta Association, provided that no troubles of churches or associations be discussed in their meeting.

Beulah Church,' Aberfeldy, Canada. Ten members. Elder J. M. Fenton pastor. Served by Elders Wm. L. Beebe, Vail and Watt. Elder Robert Watt was ordained by this church in 1921 and now serves them every month. This church has suffered persecution from its organization in 1889. The Lord has not forsaken it and they hold yearly meetings third Sunday in June.

London Church, London, Canada, organized September 5, 1920. Has been assailed ever since, but the Lord has added unto them members such as should be saved. Membership, 15; Elder Fenton pastor. Meetings held second Sunday in each month. Elder Robert Watt serves the London Church as well as the Beulah Church. Elder D. M. Vail, Elder Robert Watt, Elder Hugh McKean, Elder Wm. S. Alexander, Elder Benj. E. Cubbage, Elder J. M. Fenton serve among churches' and are one in their ministry as the Lord would have them go. None of the churches named are identified with any association.


Churches not in any Association: Mt. Pleasant, organized 1820; four miles Northwest of Middletown, Butler Co., Ohio. About 25 members; E. A. Hutchinson pastor. Mill Creek, 10 miles North of Cincinnati, Ohio; H. M. Curry pastor; membership 10. Fork Lick, organized 1818, Grant Co.. Kentucky; membership 18; Felix Bradley pastor. Ray's Fork, Scott Co., Kentucky, (organized 1791); Harry J. Adams pastor; membership 28. Dry Ridge Church, in Dry Ridge, Grant Co., Kentucky; membership, about 23; Pastor E. A. Huchison.


Elders J. B. Wilson, A. J. Banks, J. J. Kersey, M. A. Rico, P. H. Byrd, W. W. Howell, J. A. Taylor, J. F. Collins, G. W. Floyd, W. D. Smith, J. F. Dykes, J. A. Bowen, H. B. Wilkinson, Henry Swain, A. R. Strickland, A. C. McCorkle, P. C. Banks, J. S. Brannen, V. Y. Spivey, M. C. Jones, D. L. Calloway, M. L. Riner, J. E. Strickland, W. R. Wilkinson, C. B. Spivey, H. Hand, W E. Cribbs, W. J. Heard, J. A. Monsees, T. G. Wright, J. T. Reynolds, B. F. Williamson, D. Y. Hicks, W. O. Meeks, J. R. Hunt, M. E. Petty, D. M. Moneyham, A. J. McLeod, N. M. Cook, Dallas Jowers, J. F. Lord, J. A. Adams, A. A. Garrett, Spurlock; J. M. Murray, T. D. Roberts, W. M. Bullard, H. H. Phillips, Rees Prather, F. L. Fuller, B. C. Caldwell, W. P. Merrell, W. J. Green, J. D. Curtis, J. H. Gresham, J. M. Adams, J. H. Stewart, W. L. Allen, J. A. Jordan, R. L. Cook, W. W. West, D. M. Matthews. T J. Head, D. P. Smith, Lee Hanks, S. A. Huff, G. W. Jackson, A. J Webb, J. B. Brown, J. O. Moore, T. C. West, V. B. White, J. F. Moss, J. M. Livesey, D. S. Gower, J. C. Hewett, W. T. Walden, H. G. Mitchell, Z. C. Hull, W. E. Hembree, Oscar Hembree. J. H. Fuller, J. T. Abernathy, T. E. McGowen, J. J. Turnipseed, A. H. Henderson, R. W. Cross, M. G. Spivey, B. M. Jowers,, J. W. Jones, T. L. Parker, J. M. Little, J. R. Monk, R. Smith, J. P. Noble. J. T. Satterwhite, C. W. Welch, B. F. House, J. W. Harmon, H. H. Goodman, W. J. McCormick, E. F. Gilland, A. Whitworth, Moses Sparks, W. A. Childers, F. B. Moon, W. J. Dendy, J. N. Bobo, B. G. Parker, I. N. Cagle, J. D. Putman, G. E. Graves, J. E. Yancey, G. W. Heath, A. J. Houk, H. P. Houk, D. K. Livingston, John Page, T. H. Machen, W. T. Flanigan, W. D. Rouseau, Fred Stewart, J. T. Roberts, S. F. Best, W. J. Harwood, W. J. Ball, W. L. Garrett. W. D. Brooks, W. P. Strickland, J. W. Lomax, W. C. Edwards, J. M. Bagwell, S. G. Caudill, J. M. Royal, J. D. Vass, E. Davis, C. B. Kilby, W. H. Cave, Church; John Williams, G. O. Key, O. J. Denney, P. W Williard, C. H. Davis, J. W. Gilliam, C. F. Denney, Sam McMillen, Isaac Jones, R. Perdue, Pruett, Eggleton, J. T. Rowe, C. W. Miller. and many others.

Towaliga Association. This Association was constituted in 1838. It was regarded as the strongest association in Georgia and was said by many to have had the ablest ministry not, in Georgia only, but in the entire South. She, boldly denounced the modern mission movement and has always contended for salvation by grace, particular election, predestination of all elect sinners to eternal salvation, special atonement, effectual calling, final preservation of the saints, and the resurrection of the dead both of the just and the unjust and that the joys of the righteous and the punishment of the wicked will be alike interminable. They believed and contended for a complete separation between the CHURCH and the world and rigidly oppose instrumental music in the worship of God or other worldly societies to arminianize the church. For years THE TOWALIGA went on in peace and loving fellowship with sister associations in Georgia, but eventually the two-seed Heresy of Eternal Vital Union, Eternal Children, Eternal Church, non-resurrection of the body and Absolute Predestination of all things including sin and wickedness, was advocated and pressed by a number of preachers in the Ma rietta Association and Yellow River Asociation which heresies the Towaliga would not fellowship. THE TOWALIGA contended for the faith and practice—as records show—upon which all OLD BAPTIST CHURCHES and ASSOCIATIONS were organized and upon which, their preachers and deacons were ordained and where OLD BAPTISTS have ever stood.

Mistakes are freely admitted. In opposing the above extremes some of our churches received members from MISSIONARY BAPTISTS without baptism about sixty years ago, before the Mission Baptists departed from the doctrines of grace and so fully went into the modern mission movement. When convinced that those people, (from whom some few churches had taken their baptism) were determined to go into all the modern mission movement, our churches entered their solemn protest (1875) against taking any more of their work which we never did. When these churches received members on their baptism from mission churches, our people considered that their churches not having departed in faith and practice—at that time—sufficient to lose their identity or their official work to be invalid, so our fathers took their work, after investigation, we had no hopes of reclaiming them from the error of missionism into which they had launched. Later, our churches \denounced them and• seeing them determined to go into all the missionary machinery, we declared in 1875, that "WE WILL TAKE NO MORE OF THEIR WORK."

Extracts From Minutes of 1875.

Whereas, querries was sent up at the last session of the Towaliga Association from Lebanon and Mt. Pleasant Churches, asking: Can the churches of the Towaliga Association continue to recognize modern Mission baptism as valid and maintain their consistency as Primitive Baptists? And, whereas, said queries were sent back to the churches for consideration and action; with a report of their action in the premises to the present session of this body, and whereas, a large majority of the churches have by church action answered in the negative. THEREFORE, be it resolved, by the Towaliga Association, that the position of the churches thus taken be, and the same is, hereby adopted by this body as her position on this subject.

The churches of our Association have fully repented. We stand with the great body of PRIMITIVE BAPTISTS in faith and practice. We are glad to know that the different associations by whom we are surrounded, have gotten rid of the Two-Seed, Non-resurrection, Eternal-children heresy. We—all alike—have erred. We have repented. We have every reason to believe that the God of Jacob heard our cry of repentance, therefore, we rejoice. Not because we erred but, by reason of the fact that He is our GOD, whose ears are ever attentive to the cries of His erring children.

All we like sheep have gone astray. All have erred, all made mistakes, all have repented; why can we not all live together in peace?

Elder F. A. Chick stated, that the churches in his country received baptism from the mission churches before their departures were so great and all became fully established. They quit it and did so no more. They continued in fellowship with orderly Primitive Baptists everywhere.

We are informed that, the OLD KETOCTON Association received some from the Mission Baptist without baptism away back there. They repented and did so no more. They have the fellowship of orderly Baptists most generally.

Elder H. G. Mlitchell shows in the minutes of the Marietta Association that the UHARLEE now has missionary baptism in their Association. In different sections these mistakes were made, but all we can do is repent.

In 1874 the Echeconnee Association received EMMAUS Church from the Towaliga Association, her official work was not questioned.

Concord Church was a Towaliga Church, joined the Echeconnee Association some years past and her official work was not required to be done over.

Our churches did wrong back yonder, they repented. IS THERE NO FORGIVENESS IN ISREAL? Why should condemnation rest on a people who has done all that the Master requires. Our fathers erred, repented, begged forgiveness of all Orderly Primitive Baptists.

Apostolic Churches did wrong and all they were commanded to do was, REPENT.

We as churches and Association do desire to live in loving fellowship with all orderly Primitive Baptists. Today, we are one in faith and practice and feel sure we all love each other. To all peace-loving Primitive Baptists, WELCOME. In love, visit us. All unscriptural principles found among us we, stand ready to correct. If others have not lost their identity for preaching, indorsing and fellowshiping the S. Monk doctrine of ETERNAL-CHILDREN, Eternal-church, Non-resurrection of the body, etc. Why should we ?

They have repented and now enjoy the fellowship of orderly Primitive Baptists. They did not unchurch their churches, re-baptize all their members and re-ordain all their deacons and preachers. What did they do ? They repented which satisfied the Lord.

"It is not what they did in the past, but are they living right now," said Elder Chick.

Our sincere desire and prayer to God is, to see all orderly Primitive Baptists united in fellowship on a scriptural basis and all unscriptural bars removed.

Our churches have never been officially labored with nor withdrawn from by any Primitive Baptist Churches, just merely a suspension of formal correspondence between associations without labor.

May the God of all grace sustain his people.


W. M. HARTLEY, Clerk for past 23 years.








Notes—"It is not the name that identifies us with the Church established by Christ and His Apostles, but our faith and practice. We have shown that a people of this character have existed in every century of the Christian Era, separate and apart from the Roman and Greek hierarchies."—Owens.

"All history shows that a salaried ministry has proved a curse to the Church."

Mr. Weston sent to Jamaica as a Missionary tells of the heathen candidates kneeling before the preacher being asked a few questions, is taken by the hand and raised up, saying, 'In the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, I raise you to newness of life.' This is the new birth. The heathen is then received and immersed and is furnished with a ticket for which he pays twelve and a half cents—pays this amount for his new ticket monthly and made to believe that this ticket is necessary to reach Heaven. When he dies the ticket is put into his coffin which gives him a passport into Heaven."—Owen's Hist., page 145.

It is taught heathens are paid so much to make a profession of religion. It is said that heathens are hitched to vehicles like horses to draw the missionaries to their meetings and places of amusement; they are hitched outside while the missionary goes into the house and holds services. It is taught that heathens are far more honest, chaste and moral than so-called Christian people. Crime has increased where modern religion prevails. Mr. Bainbridge says he found the heathens less roguish than people in so-called Christian lands.

Much of the money given to save souls is donated to erecting free schools, colleges, hospitals, free medicine, free doctors, teaching music and gymnastics, etc. It is abundantly taught that modern missions is a failure. If they can accomplish so much they should give us an example at home.

Adam Stewart's clothing store was stormed yesterday by 200 men who claimed suits of clothes as recompence for accepting Baptist faith.

Mr. Stewart is a loyal Baptist, and recently announced that he would present a suit to each man who would come into his church.

Rev. Dan Shannon, the Baptist revivalist, has been holding a meeting here (Indiana), during the past three weeks and apparently every citizen in the place who needed a suit of clothes was coming to the front on the evangelist's call. Shannon and Stewart will decide who of the converts are actually converted. These will be given new wardrobes.—Atlanta Constitution.

Elder W. L. Beebe said: One receives a hope then is the Lord's. time for him to join the church. All the time is the Lord's. Today is the day of salvation. Elders F. A. Chick and J. F. Johnson condemned the idea of exhorting God's children to stay out of the church as long as he can. Elder L. H. Hardy condemned this idea. Elder Gilbert Beebe contended that man is an accountable being to God.


(Was a Primitive Baptist)

"Elder Charles W. Vaughn, pastor of Hopewell Old School Baptist Church, recently read to his congregation an interesting bit of history concerning the baptism of George Washington. It was from 'The Witness of Spirits,' by James W. Zachery, in part as follows :

"George Washington, the father of our country, was reared in an Episcopalian home, but had learned the way of the Lord more perfectly, and when he saw Elder Gano, his chaplain, who was holding a meeting with soldiers, and taking candidates to the river to baptize them, he exclaimed, 'I have never been scripturally baptized,' and demanded immersion at, the hands of his chaplain. Elder John Gano immersed George Washington in the Potomac River in the presence of about forty-two persons."

Elder John Gano was born in Hopewell, N. J., July 22nd, 1727. He was of French descent, and received his education at Hopewell Academy. He was ordained to the ministry in Hopewell Church, May 26th, 1754. From there he moved to Morristown, and after two years to Yadkin, N. C., where he succeeded in establishing a large church, which was discontinued during the war of 1776. Elder Gano then returned North with his family, owing to the ravages of the Indians. Mrs. Mary Gano, ninety-nine years old, the great-grandmother of former Secretary of State, William J. Bryan, is a granddaughter of Elder Gano."


Abraham Lincoln's parents were Primitive Baptists as records of Pigeon Creek Church, Indiana, will show. He was a strong believer in that faith.

Funeral Preaching. We find no authority for it in the New Testament. Christ and His Apostles never preached on such occasions. Constantine, the Roman Emperor, preached the first funeral sermon in the Fourth Century. Elders C. B. and S. Hassell authors of Hassell's Church History never engaged in funeral preaching.

Among the last words of that venerable man of God, Elder C. B. Hassell, were: "Bury me in a plain wooden coffin, and without display, or ceremony, or preaching, in the simple manner of the Apostolic age. I have never engaged in funeral preaching." I have never favored funeral preaching. I want no funeral over me. Let me be buried in a plain simple manner.

Mourners.—When one is regenerated he becomes a mourner and will be a mourner until death. No sound Primitive Baptist preacher ever makes propositions to come and give him his hand and let him pray for him. The preacher is not a mediator.

Feet Washing is an example that should be observed literally after partaking of the Lord's Supper (Joh 13:4-17).

Ministerial Support. Our poor self-sacrificing ministry should be cared for with temporal things (1Co 9:1-15) to enable them to do more efficient service to their brethren. Such great and noble men, now deceased, as Elders Beebe, Gold, Mitchell, Respess, Henderson, Cayce, Byrd, Chick and many others contended that it is Scriptural and right for churches to lovingly care for their pastors. Our great and good men, now living, teach this duty. such as Elders Hassell, Lester, Pittman, Dalton, Wilkinson, Swain, P. H. Byrd, C. H. Cayce, Newman, Bartlett, Bullard and others teach this important duty of churches to pastors.

Deacons are not set apart just to pass the bread and wine but to look after the temporal welfare of the poor and ministry and to see that the burden is systematically equalized. The deacons should know what is done. They should not be ashamed to call upon all who have purposed in their hearts to donate as God has prospered them and thus enable their pastor to do more efficient service to them. See Elder Walter Cash on duty of Deacons.

Scriptural exppressions should be used on controverted points. Absolute predestination, eternal vital union, saved before the foundation of the world, conditional time salvation, eternal church, etc., are controverted and objectionable expressions which confuse brethren, and hence should not be used. Let all use scriptural expressions and labor to unify our people. If you are stronger than your brother you should show your strength by bearing with his weakness. We should labor to save and unify our people in the sweet bonds of fellowship. Our ministry should stand together.

Parental Government.—God's people do- not obey God by force under a physical law, as a machine for things, under a physical law are not accountable: God deals with us as with sons. Life precedes action. We are passive in being born again, but by enabling grace we act in obedience. We need His grace continually. Our experience teaches us that sin is our fault. God is not the author of sin, neither does He coerce or influence man to sin. God tempts no man to sin. —James.

Preachers should not only preach in the pulpit, but should preach as they go, preach by their daily walk and conversation. They should so live as to have a good report of them that are without. They should be an example to the flock and shun every appearance of evil. No man that drinks to excess, that is dishonest, unchaste, or proves to be a wolf in sheep's clothing, dividing and devouring the flock by unscriptural dead lines against good Baptists, should be allowed to desecrate the sacred desks. The preacher is not a boss or lord over churches. He belongs to the church and not the church to him. If churches will assert their rights and follow Christ, peace will be restored. There are too many bell-weathers in the flock. It is said a flock of sheep has been known to follow a bell-weather to a great precipice and when the bell-weather jumped off and killed himselff the whole flock would follow him to their own destruction. Have you not seen churches and associations follow bell-weathers (preacher bosses) to their destruction? Beware of bell-weathers.

Covenant Relationship.—Our people most generally believe there was a covenant relationship between Christ and His people in eternity. The Father predestined to save them and that they were predestined unto the adoption of children before they existed. It was dead alien sinners chosen in Christ, given grace in Christ in eternity, who, by nature, were children of wrath even as others. He bore the relationship to them as their Surety, Husband, Head and Owner. They being His, the right of redemption was in Him for them. They ever stood complete in His mind and purpose before they were formed of the dust of the ground. Their eternal life ever existed in Christ for them. Christ atoned for their sins and made perfect satisfaction for all their sins on the cross. He bore all their sins and paid all their debt as their Surety and covenant head, they being His (Joh 6:37-38). Just as certain as the Son made atonement for His people on the tree, just that certain will the Holy Spirit most effectually call and regenerate every chosen vessel of mercy, at which time the quickened sinner will become vitally related to Christ.

The Resurrection of Dead.—Man was made in the image of God, possessing body, soul and spirit. Paul says: "I pray God that your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" (2 Thess. 5: 23). He believed that man is a triune being. Elder Hassell says: "The same word in the original Hebrew and Greek Scriptures are rendered, in the King James version, soul, spirit, mind, heart, understanding, etc., and they are generally used to denote the immaterial thinking principle which man derived directly from God (as distinguished from the body that was made out of the dust of the earth), and which returns directly to God at death for private and immediate judgment (Ge 2:7; Ec 12:7,14; Mt 10:28; Lu 23:46). Only in two passages of the Scriptures (1Th 5:23, and Heb 4:12) is the Greek word psuche (rendered soul) distinguished from pneuma (rendered spirit); and when they are distinguished, psuche (rendered soul) denotes the natural, animal, carnal, fleshly, outer, lower qualities or operations, and pneuma (spirit) denotes the moral, spiritual, inner, higher qualities of operation, of the one, indivisible mind, or immaterial, thinking principle of a human being—the distinction resembling that between the joint and marrow (which are parts of the same body), and between the thoughts and intents of the same heart (Heb 4:12)."

"The spirit of man, the thinking, self-conscious, immaterial, or incorporal nature, principle, or part of man, which animates the body during life, and is separated from it at death, and endures forever—spoken of 1,571 times in the Old and New Testaments. At death, it goes at once to God for private, particular judgment (Ec 12:7,14; Heb 9:27; Lu 16:19-31; 23:43; 2Co 5:8; Php 1:23). See London Confession of Faith, Chapter 31. Paradise, or Third Heaven, is the same as the full Heaven of ultimate glory (2Co 12:2,4)." In the absence of the soul or spirit the body would be dead, says James. At death the soul leaves the body. Read 1Ki 17:21, when the dead child lived his soul came into him again, showing that it had departed at death. The woman said, "I pray thee, let the child's soul come into him again." This condemns the soul-sleeper's doctrine. Some claim that the man is the soul or spirit, but Job says, "There is a spirit in man, and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth him understanding." He does not say the spirit is the man, or the man is the spirit or soul. Job said: "What is the hope of the hypocrite, though he hath gained, when God taketh away his soul." Job 27:8. This occurs when the hypocrite dies. His soul leaves the body. When the woman's daughter died, her spirit departed from her, but when Jesus quickened her, her spirit returned to her again (Lu 8:55). Stephen, when dying, said: "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit' (Ac 7:59). This is sufficient to prove that the soul or spirit does not sleep with the body. It is also a fact that the soul or spirit has an interminable existence. It remains in a conscious entity after death. It is the doctrine of the Bible and of all true Primitive Baptists, that there will be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust, and that the joys of the righteous and punishment of the wicked will be eternal. Our churches were organized upon this article of faith, and preachers and deacons were ordained upon the same. One is a heretic who denies the conscious existence of the soul or spirit after death, the doctrine of the resurrection of the bodies of the just and unjust, special atonement, that there is a devil and endless punishment. "The doctrine of the resurrection of the bodies of the deadis indisputably proved by such passages as Isa 26:19; Eze 37:1-14; Da 12:2; Ho 13:14; Mt 22:23-33; 27:52-53; Joh 5:28-29; Ac 24:15; 1Co 15:3-58; Php 3:20-21; Heb 6:1-2; Re 20, and by the translation of the bodies of Enoch and Elijah to heaven without dying (Ge 5:24; Heb 11:5; 2Ki 2:1-11,16-18) and especially by the resurrection of Christ's body of flesh and bones with the prints of the nails and spear, though wonderfully changed (Lu 24:36-43; Joh 20:24-29), to whose image all His people are predestined to be conformed (Ro 8:29; 1Jo 3:2). The unscriptural theory that, at the death of the body, the soul of the believer has a spiritual body given to it, and that the physical body is never raised, even in an immortal form, denies the resurrection, or raising again, or the body, and the divinity of Christ, and His victory over death for Himself and His people. In 1Co 15:41-42, the subject of the verb "is sown" is the subject of the verb "is raised;" but in the raising it is changed,. as is the case of the bodies of the saints then living (1Co 15:51-54). "This corruptible puts on incorruption; this mortal . puts on immortality. Nowhere in nature or in Scripture does destruction mean annihilation. Explaining the truth out of the Bible is false spiritualism or vain philosophy. The loss of personal identity is Buddhism and not Christianity.—S. Hassell.

He is a saducee, and if any preach such doctrine, after the first and second admonition, he should be rejected. "Many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, and some to shame and everlasting (endless) contempt." (Da 12:2.) Paul said, "There shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust." (Ac 24:15,21.) Again: "In the hope of the resurrection of the dead I am called in question" (Ac 23:6). Again: "Why should it be thought a thing is incredible with you, that God should raise the dead," (Ac 26:9)? "Marvel not at this; for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear His voice and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation (Joh 6:28-29). This clearly shows that the bodies of the just and unjust shall come out of the graves. In speaking of the wicked, Jesus says: "Ye are of your father the devil, and the lust of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth. because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it." (Joh 8:44). The devil's children are murderers. You can see that spirit of murder in Cain, Pharaoh, Ahab, Judas and millions of others who have persecuted and murdered the saints. "He that hateth his brother, is a murderer, and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him." (Joh 3:15). These are the children of Satan who get into the church to spy out their liberty, and seek to murder the just. Mystery Babylon, the mother of harlots, are all of the devil, and are classed with the goats that shall go away into everlasting punishment, prepared for the Devil and his angels.

We see the example in Sodom and Gomorrha, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire (Jude 7).

"And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night forever and ever" (Re 20:10). "And whoso was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire" (Re 20:15). "But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in, the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone; which is the second death" (Re 21:8; 22:15). We may try to explain away the plain teachings of the Bible, but this is God's eternal truth that will stand forever. Endless hell will be the doom of the wicked.

It is sinners that Jesus came to save. It was the man in whom God breathed the breath of life that was given a law. The same man fell under the everlasting death sentence of that law. All the race, body, soul and spirit fell in Adam, their federal head. This is the man in his entirety that was chosen in Christ. All the chosen were dead in trespass and in sins, just like the non-elect. All the sins of the chosen were charged to Christ. All of them will be saved in heaven in their entirety. Christ came to save the whole man. It was Enoch, body, soul and spirit, that was translated and taken to heaven. It was Elijah, in his entirety, that was taken to heaven. It was Jesus in His entirety that ascended to heaven. On the mount of transfiguration, it was Moses and Elijah that Peter and John saw. It was not something else. This shows that it is the man that will go to heaven. Man, in soul or spirit, is regenerated; man in body dies, and returns to the dust; but in the resurrection, man, in body. will be vitally changed, spiritualized and immortalized, soul and body reuniting; then, all the elect, body, soul and spirit, will be glorified in heaven. Regeneration is a heart work. With the renewed heart, man believeth unto righteousness. The man with his heart renewed obeys the form of doctrine delivered unto him. The child of God is a complex being, possessing two natures, warring against each other. The good work is begun in the sinner, in regeneration, and will be fully consummated in final glorification, when the whole man will be immortalized. Paul says: "These vile bodies shall be changed and fashioned like unto His glorious body." Job believed that in His flesh He should see God. David's hope that he should awake in His likeness and be satisfied. The Bible abundantly teaches the resurrection of the mortal body. All articles of faith of Primitive Baptists, set forth the resurrection of the body.


1819-1901. Elder W. M. Mitchell, noted preacher, editor and writer, was born in South Carolina, Jan. 10, 1819, and died in Opelika, Ala. Feb. 26, 1901.

1808-1880. Elder C. B. Hassell, distinguished preacher, writer and senior author of Hassell's Church History, was born near Williamston, N. C., Oct. 14, 1808, and died at the same place, April 11, 1880.

Elder Gilbert Beebe, minister of the Gospel, and editor of the Signs of the Times for about 48 years, and one of the ablest writers of modern times, was born in the city of Norwich, Connecticut, Nov. 25, 1800, died, Middletown, N. Y., 1881.

Elder J. R. Respess, born Oct. 2, 1831, and died at his home, Butler, Ga., Feb. 4, 1895. He was one of our ablest, safest and soundest preachers, and writers. He was owner and editor of the Messenger for years.

1788-1866. Elder Wilson Thompson, one of the ablest ministers of the last generation.

1754-1841. Elder John Leland, a great preacher of his day.

1850-1905. Elder S. F. Cayce, born in Kentucky, 1850; joined the Primitive Baptists 1866, ordained 1878, died at his post preaching the gospel, 1905. He was the founder, proprietor and editor of the Primitive Baptist. He was an able writer and one of the ablest preachers and debaters of his day. He was a strong defender of grace, and lover of peace.

Elder F. A. Chick, born in Maine, 1845, baptized at about 18, ordained to the work of the ministry 1868. He was an able minister and writer and was editor of the Signs of the Times for years before his death,

Elder W. C. Cleveland, born 1836, baptized 1860, ordained 1873. He was one of the ablest defenders of the doctrine of grace of his country. Died 1905.

Elder J. R. Daily was born 1854, joined the church 1871. He commenced preaching 1875, was an able minister, debater and editor.

Elder W. T. Everett, born 1844, ordained 1876, died 1921. Elder P. D. Gold, born in North Carolina, 1833. He was an able minister and writer and was editor of Zion's Landmark for many years.

Elder J. E. W. Henderson, born 1839,- baptized 1863, ordained 1871. He was an able minister; editor of Primitive Pathway for years, then was associate editor of the Gospel Messenger until his death.

Elder A. B. Morris, born in Mississippi 1846, joined the church 1866, ordained 1870. He was an able and appreciated minister. Elder S. A. Paine, born in Tennessee, joined the church 1897, ordained 1898. He was said to be one of the ablest ministers and debaters of his country.

Elder J. A. Paine, (M. D.), born in Tennessee. He was an able minister and debater.

Elder. David Phillips, born in Tennessee1850, was an able minister.

Elder Lenmuel Potter was ordained 1863. He was a most noted preacher and debater.

Elder R. W. Thompson born in Indiana, 1842, baptized 1871, ordained 1876. He was an able minister and writer. Was editor of the Primitive Monitor until his death.

Elder H. Temples was born and reared in Georgia. He was one of our ablest ministers. He preached, I think, over fifty years. Died, 1922.

Elder Charles H. Waters, (M. D.), born 1849, baptized 1872, ordained 1880. He was an able minister and writer, was editor of Zion's Advocate for quite awhile.

Elder Thomas Weaver was born in Tennessee 1845, ordained 1871. He was a gifted minister and moderator of the Powell's Valley Association until his death.

Elder A. B. Whatley, born in Alabama 1847, baptized 1867, was ordained 1870. He died in Georgia. He was a sweet preacher.

Elder S. H. Durand was born in Pennsylvania, 1833, baptized in 1864, ordained December 1864. He was an able minister and writer.

The following elders who once so ably preached the Gospel, have fallen asleep in Jesus and gone to their eternal home, viz.: T. N. Alderton, W. D. Almand, Jesse Ashburn, W. R. Avery, J. E. Battle, Wm. L. Beebe, J. C. Beeman, R. A. Briggs, Samuel Bentley, S. T. Bentley, J. T. Blanchard, J. E. Blanton, L. I. Bodenheimer, J. K. Booten, F. P. Branscome, P. L. Branstetter, W. T. Broadway, W. T. Brown, Jesse Brown, W. C. Brown, J. J. Byrd, Balas Bundy, Jas. Burch, F. M. Casey, John Clark, Jacob Cloud, A. J. Coleman, Peter Corn, J. M. Crews, Amos Dickerson, E. S. Dudley, S. A. Elkins, A. B. Francis, W. R. Gallimore, J. E. Goodson, Wm. Grafton, A. N. Hall, J. C. Hall, Drury Halsey, Isaac Hamby, J. T. Jordan, Daniel Hess, H. V. Hill, H C. Hogan, Lonnie Holloway, F. M. Donaldson, J. H. Smith, A. P. Tucker, J. W. Parker, J. C. Hubbard, Joel Hume, J. M. Johnson, Benj. Lampton, G. W. Lee, W. L. Lines, E. E. Lundy, J. A. Maxwell, S. H. Moffitt, Samuel Moore, D. R. Moore, A. L. Moore, John McConnell, F. McGlade, F. M. McElroy, D. J. Neal, W. T. Oaks, F. L. Oakley, A. B. Philpot, W. J. Purington, A. L. Ray, C. M. Reed, E. Rittenhouse, G. D. Roberson, J. B. Stephens, J. T. Stewart, J. K. Stephens, Bennett Stewart, John Rowe, G. Y. Stipp, John Stipp, Z. T. Turner, M. M. Vancleave, I. N. Vanmeter, T. N. Walton, I. Webb, Harvey Wright. These are just a few that have been called home.

1707. Philadelphia Association organized, which was the first Baptist Association formed in America.

1751. Charleston Association formed.

1758. Sandy Creek Association formed.

1765. Kehukee Association of North Carolina and Virginia, organized and is the oldest Primitive Baptist Association in America.

1827. Kehukee Association of 35 churches and 1,951 members, by unanimous vote, refused to suffer the modern missionary system with its kindred institutions advocated among them.

1766. The Ketocon Association in Virginia and Maryland; formed as a true Primitive Baptist Association and is still firm in the faith.

1832. Convention of Primitive or Old School Baptists held with Black Rock, Maryland, in which they formerly withdrew fellowship from all Baptists advocating Arminianism and the unsriptural and idolatrous schemes and institutions of modern missions.

1808. First Baptist Church of Alabama was organized in North Alabama, called Flint River.

1814. First Baptist Association in Alabama composed of churches located in Alabama and Tennessee. Of this first association, Riley says: "The spirit of this parent body was decidedly anti-missionary." As to aggressive missionary enterprise in the first association there was none.

1638. First Baptist Church in America, at New Port, Rhode Island, by Dr. John Clark (a physician), and eleven other persons, it is believed.

1639. Baptist Church at Providence, Rhode Island, by Roger Williams, (1599-1683).

1743. Philadelphia Confession of Faith published, which was the London Confession of 1689, with two more articles.

Bancroft, the Historian, of the United States, declares that the little Baptist Church founded by Roger Williams, was the first instance in the history of the world of a civil government being founded upon principles of absolute soul liberty.

1775. Philadelphia Association, in its circular letter, teaches the doctrine of eternal and unconditional election.

1780. They teach original sin.

1784. In its circular letter, teaches effectual calling and irresistible work of the Spirit upon the hearts of God's people.

1789. They taught that God is the author of repentance and that it is brought about by grace.

1790. They expressed fears of the new divinity, which set aside the imputation of Adam's sin, the proper atonement of Christ, imputed righteousness, etc.

1806. The Philadelphia Association began to advocate the new fangled systems of men, and admit that in modern missions papal Rome has led the way.

1611. The First Baptist Confession of Faith, and the first declaration of the right of all men to religious liberty. George Washington declared that the Baptists had been throughout America, uniformly, the first friend to civil liberty. He was baptized by Elder John Gano, an old Baptist minister.

1687. London Baptist Confession of Faith by many congregations of England and Wales.

1700. "In the Seventeenth Century Baptists were greatly persecuted in both Europe and America. In Virginia and Massachusetts, they were 'whipped, branded, robbed, imprisoned and banished on account of their religion. It is said that the first man burned in England for his religion was a Baptist and that the last one so to suffer was a Baptist.'

"In accordance with 1Co 5:11, and 2Co 6:17, they excluded from their fellowship those guilty of immoral, unscriptural disorderly conduct," that sold spirituous liquors; those who drank to excess, and those who borrowed money and did not repay it, or that did not pay their debts. It appears that just prior to the Revolutionary War, Eighteenth Century, in New England, outside of Rhode Island, the Baptists, like other dissenters, were compelled to pay taxes for the support of the Congregational Clergy. And when they refused to pay, as they sometimes did from conscientious motives, their lands, and houses, and stock, and household and kitchen furniture, even the least and last articles, were taken from the poor, and sold sometimes for less than the tenth part of their value to pay these iniquitious dues, the Congregational minister himself sometimes becoming the purchaser. Poor men, and even women, were sometimes, for not paying these ministerial taxes, carried off from their little children, miles away, on dark, rainy or cold snowy nights, to prison, and kept many days in the common jail. Baptist preachers were sometimes arrested and put in the stocks for preaching the Gospel, contrary to law. Think of these things, O Ye Baptists of today, that refuse to go to the polls and cast your vote as best you know in the exercise of that liberty for which our patriotic revolutionary fathers poured forth their life blood to secure for us."—From Hassell's Church History, Two Witnesses, pp. 157-159.

1500-1600. "The Baptists were for the most part, called Lollards in England and Ana-Baptists and Mennonites upon the Continent of Europe, and it is said that they were very much persecuted in the time of King Henry, and that the records show that over seventy thousand of them in King Henry's time, were punished by fines, by imprisonment, by banishment or by burning. Ana-Baptists were so called because they baptized anew those that came over to them from other orders—those that had been sprinkled in infancy. `Ana-Baptists (or Re-Baptizers—Pedo-Baptists said they baptized again.') There was about this time another people called Ana-Baptist, or the 'Mad men of Munister' as different from the true Baptists, a good historian says, as possible.

1754-1815. Andrew Fuller, of England originator of Modern missionism among Baptists.

1792. First missionary society organized among Baptists at Kettering, England, by Andrew Fuller, Carey and others.

1773-1844. William Gadsby, an able Baptist minister of England, author of "Everlasting Task for Arminians."

Hassell, in his Church History, says that "the Gospel Standard Strict Baptists of England, most nearly of all the people of England resemble Primitive Baptists, and that their articles of faith are substantially the same. They number about 209,773."

1640-1704. Benjamin Keach, Baptist preacher, who wrote 43 works. He said: Christ's true ministers have not their learning and wisdom from men or from universities or human schools; for human learning, arts and sciences are not essential to the making of a true minister; but only the gift of God, which cannot be bought with silver and gold. And also, as they have freely received the gift of God, so they do freely administer; they do not preach for hire, for gain or filthy lucre; they are not like false teachers, who look for gain from their quarters (or "blind greedy dogs which never have enough" (Isa 56:11)-Ed.), who eat the fat and clothe themselves with the wool, and kill them that are fed (Eze 34). Also, they are not lords over God's heritage; they rule them not by force and cruelty, neither have they power to force or compel men to believe and obey their doctrine, but are only to persuade and entreat; thus is their way of the Gospel, as Christ taught them.

"The mild, harmless, Godly and persecuted Baptists, are frequent names given by eminent historians to the people of God in the Seventh Century."

1628-1688. John Bunyan, Baptist, author of "The Pilgrim's Progress From This World To That Which is to Come"-one of the most remarkable books of any age, and one which is worthy of your perusal. Bunyan was confined in Bedford jail twelve years for preaching the Gospel.

1834. C. H. Spurgeon, the great London preacher, preached to audiences numbering from one to twenty thousand people.

1697-1771. John Gill, perhaps the most learned, able, sound, upright and humble Baptist minister since the days of Paul-author of a Commentary on the Whole Bible, a Body of Divinity, etc.




A Brief Chronological Statement of the Chief Facts in Church History Since the Apostolic Age, According to the Highest and Latest Authorities.

A. D.

100. Close of the Apostolic Age, since which time no new doctrine or practice has been revealed by God to man.

242. Manichaeus, of Babylon, borrows from Zoroaster (600 B. C.) the idea of an Eternal Devil.

252. Birth of Catholicism in the brain of Cyprian, of Carthage, in North Africa.

256. First known instance of infant "baptism," in North Africa.

313. Edict of Milan, by Constantine and Licinius, for general religious toleration.

321. Sunday made a legal holiday, and salaries paid to Catholic clergy by Constantine.

325. Council of Nice, whose decrees were, by the Roman Emperor Constantine, pronounced inspired; he thus united "Church" and State, and soon began the cruel and bloody persecution of non-Catholics which continued more than 1,500 years, as long as the Catholics had control of civil governments.

410. Beginning of Pelagianism (so called from Pelagius, a British monk), a system professing Christianity, and yet maintaining the heathen doctrine of salvation by works.

420. Semi-Pelagianism; John Cassian, of France, maintains that man is saved by works and grace combined.

440. Leo I., surnamed The Great, chosen "Bishop of Rome," the first real Pope.

570. Birth of Mohammed.

602. Supremacy of the "Bishop of Rome" acknowledged by Phorcas, Emperor of the East.

610. Mohammed begins the propagation of his false religion.

622. Flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina, in Arabia-the beginning of the Mohammedan Era.

642. Theodosius, Pope of Rome, the first called "Sovereign Pontiff."

666. The organ introduced by Pope Vitalian I. into the Roman Catholic "Church." The use of instrumental music in the public worship of God ceased with the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem, A. D. 70, since which time the Orthodox Jews have never used it, nor have the Greek Catholics ever done so.

755. Beginning of the temporal power of the Pope.

831. The false doctrine of transubstantiation, that the bread and wine in the Lord's Supper are, by the prayers of the priest, changed into the real body and blood of Christ, invented by Paschasius Radbert, of France.

881-936. Papal Pornocracy, or rule of Adulterous Popes, and from 1484 to 1503.

988. The Greek Catholic religion introduced into Russia.

1054. The Roman Catholic Pope and the Greek Catholic Patriarch of Constantinople, excommunicate each other, so that, according to the Roman Catholics, the Greek Catholics are not a "Church," and, according to the Greek Catholics, the Roman Catholics are not a "Church"-each is a body of heretics and schismatics.

1074. Roman Catholic clergy forbidden to marry by Pope Gregory VII.

1080. The Anti-Pope Clement III, set up by the Emperor Henry IV. 1170. Peter Waldo begins preaching at Lyons, France.

1200. The Roman Catholic priests begin to withhold the cup or wine from the "laity," or private members, in communion. The Greek Catholics have always given both the bread and the wine to the "laity."

1248. Spanish Inquisition founded-the most horrible institution ever invented for the torture and murder of innocent human beings who would not conform to the Catholic "religion."

1311. The Roman Catholic Council of Ravenna, Italy, first authorizes sprinkling or pouring for baptism.

1341. First passage of Turks into Europe.

1380. Wycliffe's English New Testament completed.

1384. Wycliffe's English Bible completed; death of Wycliffe. 1457. The Moravian "Church" founded in Bohemia.

1517. Sale of Indulgences authorized by Pope Leo X., a price in
money being charged for the pardon of every sin, past or future. Tetzel in Germany. Luther's Theses published.

1521. Luther excommunicated. Luther at the Diet of Worms; carried off to the Castle of Wartburg. Death of Leo X.

1526. Birth of Lutheranism (separation from her Romish mother ) at the Diet of Spires.

1530. The Augsburg Confession of the Lutheran "Church."

1534. Birth of Episcopalianism (separation from her Romish mother) by the Act of the British Parliament. Luther's German Bible completed.

1559. English (Episcopal) Book of Common Prayer first used.

1560. Birth of Presbyterian (separation from her Romish mother) by Act of Scottish Parliament.

1563. The Thirty-nine Articles of the (Episcopal) Church of England. Canons and Decrees of the Roman Catholic Council of Trent.

1610. The Five Arminian Articles adopted by the Remonstrants of Holland, maintaining that man is saved by grace and works combined.

1611. The Authorized or King James Version of the Bible.

1612. Edward Wightman, a Baptist, the last man burned in England for his religion.

1622. The First Missionary Society (Congregatio de Propaganda Fide) organized by Pope Gregory XV.

1638. The Solemn League and Covenant of the Scots.

1647. The (Presbyterian Westminster Confession of Faith. George Fox (Quaker) begins to preach.

1651. First (Welsh) Baptist Association.

1653. First English Baptist Association.

1655. Rise of woman "preachers" among the Quakers or Friends.

1658. The (Congregationalist) Savoy Declaration of Faith.

1675. The Confession of the Society of Friends (Quakers).

1689. The London Baptist Confession of Faith (agreeing in doctrine with the previous English Baptist Confessions of 1643, 1644, 1656, 1677 and 1688).

1698. First Protestant Missionary Society, founded by the Episcopal (English) "Church," and called the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts"-that is, in the English Colonies.

1701. The Welsh Tract Church, the oldest Old School Baptist Church in America, was formed in Wales, and emigrated to Delaware, where it still exists, two miles from Newark-the only church that emigrated in a body from Europe to America.

1715. The First Hopewell Church, the second oldest Old School Baptist Church in America, formed at Hopewell, New Jersey; it is still one of our largest churches.

1739. The Methodist Society, as it was called by its founder, organized in the Episcopal "Church" by John Wesley, who said that he lived and died in the faith of the "Church of England (or Episcopal Church).

1742. The Kehukee Church formed in Halifax County, N. C.

1765. The Kehukee (the oldest Old School or Primitive Baptist) Association formed in Eastern North Carolina.

1781. Sunday schools originated by Robert Raikes, an Episcopalian of Gloucester, England.

1784. The Twenty-five Methodist Articles of Religion drawn up by John Wesley.

1792. First Baptist Missionary Society founded at Kettering, England.

1793. The Christian Connection formed in the United States, composed first of Methodists, and afterwards also of Baptists and Presbyterians.

1799. The first Protracted and Camp Meetings started together by a Methodist. minister, John McGee, on the banks of the Red River, in Kentucky.

1814. American Baptist Missionary Union formed.

1816. American Bible Society formed.

1826. American Tract Society formed.

1827. The rise or separate existence of the people generally known as Campbellites, but who call themselves "Disciples of Christ," or "Christians," and who had been Baptists.

1827. The Kehukee Association opposes all humanly invented religious institutions.

1832. The Black Rock Convention, in Maryland, does the same.

1830. Morman "Church" founded by Joseph Smith, of New York.

1854. Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, or Sinlessness, of the Virgin Mary proclaimed at Rome.

1870. Infallibility of the Pope voted by the Vatican Council, July 18; loss of temporal power by the Pope September 20.

1905. The formation of "The Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America," composed of thirty Protestant denominations, containing about twenty million members, to promote Christian fellowship and co-operation.

1906. The Laymen's Missionary Movement-the union of all Protestant Christendom in an attempt to evangelize the whole world, to preach the Gospel to every creature in this generation, and thus hasten the second coming of Christ and His millennial reign on earth. The Roman Catholics have been carrying on their foreign missions nearly 300 years, and have about 11,000 missionaries (men and women), and spend about a million and a half dollars a year on them, and now claim about four million converts; and the Protestants have been carrying on their foreign mission more than 100 years, and have about 17,000 missionaries (men and women), and spend about twenty-five million dollars a year on them, and now claim about five million converts. But there are about a thousand million heathens in the world, and the wisest missionaries admit that it is utterly improbable, judging from past experience, that all these heathens can be evangelized in the present generation, and they think and say that, as a reformation in missionary methods, the "Laymen's Missionary Movement" will have no permanent value. See the New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, volume VII., page 416.

1911. Men and Religion Forward Movement, a crusade started and headed by Frederick B. Smith, and using money, banquets, lectures and parades to induce men and boys to join the Protestant churches (women and girls being left out of consideration, as in heathen religions).

1912. About Five Thousand Million Dollars spent per year for vice by the so-called Christian nations of the world, proving the truth. of 2Ti 3:13.

The Baptists are especially distinguished from most other denominations respecting the mode and subjects of baptism. They contend that the ordinance should be administered to believers only, and by immersion only. The Baptist denomination was founded by Jesus during his earthly ministry. He was the chief cornerstone and upon Him was builded the Apostles and their doctrine and practice. All needful and necessary instruction is given in the four Gospels, and the only standard teaching of His ministry is the Acts of the Apostles and the inspired Epistles. For about three centuries after Christ the Church Universal was no doubt composed of Baptist communities. During succeeding centuries the baptism of unconscious babes, and sprinkling for baptism was introduced, and though the church was corrupted by the doctrine and commandments of men, yet a careful study of the most learned and accurate historian proves the following facts:

"1. For three centuries Christian congregations subsisted as do the Baptists of today. 2. They were called baptized (Baptists) churches. 3. They have continued in regular unbroken succession from the: Apostles' day to the present century. 4. They have preserved the truth of Christ in its purity. 5. That Novation was not the founder of the Novation churches. 6. The Apostates at Rome abandoned the true principles of the church, and separated from those who persistently adhered to those pure principles. 7. The numerous churches maintaining the principles of the apostolic church, stood with the strict party at Rome in opposition to heretical apostates. 8. They remained in separate, independent bodies. 9. That those who preserved the truth were called Baptists, Novations, Waldenses, etc."

See Moshiem's History, Jones’ History, Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, What the World Believes Hassell's History, Theodosia Ernest, The Two Witnesses, etc.

The following diagram of Church History traces step by step the footsteps of the flock.

This diagram is taken from Theodosia Ernest and will be quite helpful in presenting at a glance the names by which Baptists have been distinguished in different ages and countries from the days of the apostles to the present time.

Roman Catholicism A. D., 252.

Elder S. A. Amburgey, Esserville, Virginia, was born in Knott County, Ky., Feb. 12, 1869. The Lord revealed to him July 1888, that he was a poor justly condemned sinner and endless punishment was just. Jesus revealed Himself to him as his precious Savior, telling him his sins were forgiven, and to go home to his friends and tell how great things the Lord had done for him. He joined the Primitive Baptist and was baptized by Elder James Stewart, October, 1888. He was called to preach the Gospel September, 1889, ordained 1901, and has faithfully contended for the faith-salvation by grace alone. He rigidly opposed Absolute Predestination of sin and wickedness, and boldly denounces the heretical doctrines of Russelism, Universalism, no endless punishment for the wicked, no devil, unlimited atonement and every man is punished here for his own sins which denies the vicarious atonement of Christ and man becomes his own Savior by his own suffering which doctrine is Christless and no sinner would ever be saved according to that theory. He opposes hobby-riding and preaches the truth in love---preaches, too, by his daily godly life. He is a plain old Baptist preacher, satisfied with the goodness of the Lord's house. The Lord has blessed him with a truly humble Christian wife, who is a helpmeet, indeed.