Hawker's Dictionary


In the very opening of this Concordance, I cannot pass over the first letter, which the Hebrews call Aleph, and which they pronounce A. And I do this the rather, because, as the Greeks call their first letter Alpha, and our adorable Redeemer graciously condescended to call himself by that name; so equally applicable is Aleph, to the person of Jesus. Indeed, as if to shew the infinite fulness and comprehensiveness of his nature and character, the Lord Jesus took the names, both of Alpha and Omega: the former, the first; and the latter, the last, in the letters of the Alphabet. There is no letter before Alpha, and none after Omega. Nothing can be more strikingly characteristic of Christ. For as Christ, he was, and is, and ever will be, the first letter in all JEHOVAH'S alphabet; and the last, in all the ultimate design of his glory. (See Re 1:8; 21:6; 22:13.) Now the word Aleph is expressive also of a first, a leader, or chief, and sovereign person. So that in this sense, Jesus is Aleph, as well as Alpha. And it is still worthy of farther remark, that as the sound of the Aleph, or A, in Hebrew, is only a soft breathing as it were, and needs nothing more to form it, than the mere motion of the lips; it may be supposed, to have a peculiar reference to Him, who first "breathed into man's nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." (Ge 2:7)


Son of Amram, and the elder brother of Moses. He was of the tribe of Levi. (Ex 6:19-20.) His name is derived from Har, a Mountain: and consequently signifies somewhat great and lofty. And when we consider, to what an high honour Aaron was called; to be the type of Him, who, in the everlasting nature of his office, was, and is, JEHOVAH'S High Priest; both the altar, and the offering, the sacrifice, and the sacrificer, through whom alone, all offerings must be presented: surely, none taken from among men, could be more great and lofty in .office than Aaron. The history of Aaron, incorporated as it is with that of Moses, fills a large part in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. But the great eminency of his character is formed from his becoming so illustrious a type of the Lord Jesus Christ. Every thing in his priestly office ministered to this one point. Indeed the whole law, and consequently the priesthood, became "a shadow of good things to come; but the body, which formed that shadow, was Christ."   (Col 2:17; Le 16:2; Nu 16:46-47.)


This word signifies a Destroyer. As such, it is given to the apostate angel of the bottomless pit, and very properly suits him. His whole pursuit, in scouring the earth, is, we are told, as "a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour." (See Re 9:11; 1. See HAWKERS: Devil. See HAWKERS: Satan .)


One of the chamberlains of Persia. His name, if Hebrew, is compounded of Ab, father, and Gath, a press: probably, he was the "master of the wine-press." (Es 1:10.)


A river of Damascus, made memorable on account of Naaman's leprosy. Its name is compounded of Aben, a stone, and Bana, to build. The Syrian prided himself on the greatness of this river, and contemned the sacred streams of Jordan. His conduct was not unsimilar to modern Syrians in nature; who think high of their own moral excellency, and cannot brook the necessity of being washed from the leprosy of sin, in the blood of Christ. May we not say with the poor captive servant in the house of Naaman: Would God that sinners, conscious, like Naaman, of their disease, "were with the Lord God of the prophets, for he would recover them of their leprosy!" (See 2Ki 5:1-14.)


These were several smaller mountains, "Or hills, of rising ground, beyond Jordan, in the country of Moab; which went by the name of Abarim. Nebo, Pisgah, and Peor, were in the number. Nebo became ever-memorable, as being the sacred spot where Moses the man of God died. (Nu 33:48; De 32:49-50; 34:1.)


A Syriac word, signifying Father. It is thrice used in the New Testament. Once, by the Lord Jesus, (Mr 14:36.) and twice by his servant the apostle Paul. (Ro 8:15. and Ga 4:6.) It is a word of peculiar tenderness; and I could wish that the real and full meaning of it was strongly impressed on the mind of every regenerated believer. It would tend to give great confidence and comfort in a dark and trying hour. David,  Levi, in his Lingua Sacra, derives it from a root, which signifies, desire, delight, complacency, satisfaction: and implying no less, special interest of relationship, as between the nearest of all connections. And agreeably to this account of the word, it is remarkable, that though the word, in its extensive sense, signifies the Ab, or Head, and Lord of a family; yet a slave, or menial servant, was never allowed to use it in addressing the Ab.


I very earnestly beg the reader not to lose sight of this view of the word Abba, but to let it possess a suitable place, equal to its importance, in his remembrance. For if it was so specially confined, among the people of the East, to the children of a family; and Jesus and his people in him, are enjoined to use it on this account; can any thing more strikingly prove their relationship? And I cannot but express my hope, that if the reader of this Poor Man's Concordance, is enabled, by grace, to see his own personal privilege herein, and can enter into a proper apprehension of the word, in this most endearing view, he will be led to discover the sweetness and blessedness of it, and from henceforth adopt it, in all his approaches to the throne of God in Christ. And how delightfully in this sense, doth it explain to us that passage of the apostle, in his epistle to the Galatians; where he saith, "Because ye are sons, [not because ye are to be made so, but because ye are already sons] God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying Abba, Father." (Ga 4:6.)


While I am upon this word Abba, Father, I cannot forbear adding to those observations, though in a cursory manner, a remark upon the word Ammah, Mother. For it is from the same root, and is also of the like peculiarity of tenderness, in reference to the church of Jesus; which, as the apostle saith, (including both that in heaven and in earth, for they are but one and the same,) "is the mother of us all." (Ga 4:26.) We meet with the several branches of the same root in Scripture, according to the several relations arising out of it; but they are all one and the same family. (Eph 3:14-15.) Hence Zion is called, and by the Lord himself, the "Virgin daughter (the Almah) of Zion." (Isa 37:22.) So again she is spoken of as the sister (Ruhamah) (Ho 2:1.) And it is no uncommon thing for Christ to call his church by all these names. (See Song 4:9-10,12.) And when Isaiah was commissioned to proclaim to the church, the subject of the miraculous conception, he used the same word as the Lord did of Zion. "Behold, a virgin, (Almah) shall conceive." (Isa 7:14.) I venture to believe that if the recollection of these names, all springing as they do from one and the same source, were frequent in the believer's remembrance, they would much refresh the soul. And I think it worthy of yet farther remark, that there is a beautiful sameness between the first cry of nature, in the infancy of our being, and this language of grace when the souls of believers are first born to God. It was said by the prophet concerning Him, whom he predicted, that "before the child should know to refuse the evil and choose the good," the event leading to it should be accomplished. (Isa 7:16.) And it must be truly said, that before the cry of the soul, in the new birth of grace, goes forth in Abba, or Ammah, the apprehending union, interest, and relationship in Christ with his church, had been settled long before, even from all eternity.


Though I have already far exceeded, under this article, the ordinary limits to be observed in a work of this kind, yet I must beg to trespass a little farther, by way of confirmation of the observations made upon it.


The special and personal interest of the word Abba, derives another authority, from the customs and manners of the East. It is well known, that the ancient nations of the Arabs, retain many of the usages we read of in sacred history. And although they know nothing of the true religion of the patriarchs, yet in provincial acts and habits, they are much the same people that they were, two or three thousand years ago. Hence, among many proofs in point, which might be given in confirmation of this sameness of manners, the mode of salutation is one, in which there is nothing changed. We find among the patriarchs, the general expression was, "Peace be to you." (Ge 43:23.) In the days of the Judges, the salutation was the same. (Jg 19:20.) So in the days of David, (1Sa 25:6.) and in the days of our Lord, and by Christ himself. (Joh 20:19.) In like manner the limitation of the word Abba is still the same as ever, not being brought into common use, but wholly restricted to relations, and of the nearest and tenderest kind.


One proof more. In the common acts of respect observed in the East, when servants do reverence to their masters, or superiors, it is always done by kissing the feet, or the garment. Hence the poor woman we read of, Lu 7:38. But when children meet their parents, and do reverence, they kiss the hand, or the head. Hence the father in the parable. (Lu 15:20.) Moreover, the posture which is observed upon those occasions, differs materially according to the rank of the parties. From inferiors, in giving what is called the Asslem-mah, (Salutation) they always offer it, by laying their right hand upon their breast. Persons of equality, or relations, do it by kissing the hand, head, or shoulder of each other. So Dr. Shaw relates in his Travels to Aleppo, page 301. Let the reader connect this with Jacob kissing his son, and the church's call unto Christ. (Song 1:2.) How beautiful and striking both cases! How little the change made in those things, in a period of near four thousand years!


From the whole of these observations, I cannot but conclude, that the word Abba hath a peculiar sweetness in it, and is intended to intimate what a nearness and dearness of affinity there is, between Christ and his church. And I venture to believe, that our holy faith, not only warrants the use of it, but enjoins it, from the personal union, and oneness, of the Lord Jesus Christ with our nature. And under such high encouragement and authority, I confess, that I feel a disposition, upon  every occasion, to adopt it, considering it the peculiar privilege of all true believers in Christ, to bring it into constant use, whenever they draw nigh to a throne of grace. See HAWKERS: Ammi .


This name was given to Azariah, by the Chaldeans. (See Da 1:7.) I should not have thought it necessary, in a work of this kind, to have noticed the change of name; neither perhaps the name itself, more than many others, to be met with in Scripture, which I shall pass by; had it not been for the purpose of making an observation upon it; and which I hope will not be found improper or unprofitable. I humbly conceive, that the motive with the Chaldeans, for changing the names of the children of the captivity, was somewhat more than the naturalizing them. The Hebrew, and the Chaldee language were very similar. The Chaldeans perfectly understood the Hebrew names. And they no less knew, how tenacious Hebrew parents were to give names to their children, which bore some relation to the Lord God of their fathers. In changing their names therefore, they not only designed to make them forget their beloved Jerusalem, but the yet more beloved Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. And what a change they wrought here, in the instance of this man! Azariah, or more properly speaking, Azar-Jah, meant, as the words themselves indeed express, the Lord is my help; from Azar, assistance; and Jab, Lord. But Abed-nego means the servant of Nego; Abed or Obed being the Chaldee for servant. And Nego most probably was one of the dunghill idols of Babylon. So that from Azariah, to remind him, as often as he heard himself called, he might remember that JEHOVAH was his help; he is brought into remembrance whenever he now heard his name, that he was the servant of an idol, in whom there is no help. Lord! keep thy people from "mingling with the heathen, and learning their works." (Ps 106:35.)


The second son of Adam and Eve. His name is mentioned by the Holy Ghost with peculiar honour, in that illustrious list of Old Testament saints, who all died, as they had lived, by faith. (Heb 11:4.) "By faith, Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain." By which we derive full authority to conclude, that Abel's faith in Christ, the promised seed, gave a blessedness in the acceptance of his sacrifice, which Cain's had not. Abel came to the Lord as a sinner; and, by the lamb he offered in sacrifice, testified the sense he had of sin, and his hopes of salvation by Christ. Cain came to the Lord, not under the apprehension of sin, but to present an offering of tribute. He therefore slighted the promised seed, and redemption by, Christ: and stands in the front of the Bible, the first desit the world ever knew. (Ge 4:3-5.) It may be not amiss to add, that the word Abel signifies vanity, a vapor, emptiness, and the like.


We meet with this name, 2Sa 20:15. And as Abel means vanity, mourning, and emptiness; so Beth, an house: and therefore the whole taken together implies; vanity or mourning to the house of Maachah.


The mourning of the waters. (2Ch 16:4)


The mourning of sickness. (Jg 7:22.)


This name was given at the floor of Atad, on the occasion of the funeral of Jacob. The margin of the Bible renders it, "the mourning of the Egyptians." (Ge 50:11.)


A place in the encampments of Israel; meaning the mourning in Shittim, in the plains of Moab. (Nu 33:49.)


See HAWKERS: Month .


To abide, in the language of Scripture, means somewhat more than merely the remaining in one place. It implies an adherence to a thing; or an union with, and connection with it. Thus Jesus saith, (Joh 15:4.) "Abide in me and I in you." So, speaking of the Holy Ghost, he saith, "He shall abide with you for ever." (Joh 14:16.) And his servants, the apostles, use similar expressions, in the same sense. The apostles, Paul and John, describe the indwelling residence of the Holy Ghost, and a vital union with Christ, under this character of abiding. (See 2Ti 2:13; 1Jo 2:27; 5:21.) It is a blessed consideration, in the view of this doctrine, that when Jesus saith, "Abide in me, and I in you;" and a little after; "Continue ye in my love:" (Joh 15:4,9.) it is not a mere precept, without imparting with it ability. But it is, willing them into an ability, by virtue of a oneness with them, as the head of efficiency, to the members of his body. He directs the thing to be done and he enables them to do it; according to that blessed promise: "Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power." (Ps 110:3.)


We read of several of this name in the Scriptures. (Jos 17:2; Jg 6:34; 2Sa 23:27.) The name is interesting, signifying my Father [God] is my help: from Ab, father; and Hazar, to help.


A memorable name in Scripture, whom the Lord, in his providence made instrumental to save David from blood-shedding. (See the history, 1Sa 25:2-35.) Her name is as remarkable, for the event the Lord enabled her to accomplish; for it means, the joy of the Father; from Gul, to rejoice, and Ab, father. I have often admired the sweet and gracious conclusion, which David made, on occasion of the sin-preventing providence, the Lord accomplished on the patriarch's mind, through the instrumentality of this woman. He saw the hand of the Lord in the appointment; and, first, he blessed God; and next, he blessed her advice; and next, he blessed her: for all come in for a blessing, since the Lord had wrought deliverance by such means from sin. "Blessed (said he) be the Lord; and blessed be thy advice; and blessed be thou that hast kept me this day from shedding blood." (1Sa 15:32-33.)


Son of Aaron, whose awful death, by the immediate judgment of the Lord, With his brother Nadab, is recorded Le 10:2. I refer the reader to that history, for the particulars of this visitation. Some have thought, that they were drunken, when they thus ministered in their priestly office; and so forgot to take the sacred fire in their censers. And they have formed this opinion, on the precept in the ninth verse: where it is said to Aaron, "Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation; lest ye die." But it should rather seem, that it was the act of taking strange fire which was their offence, and for which the Lord smote them. Strange fire; not the fire which was appointed, and which was always durning upon the altar: and which typified Christ's fiery sufferings. And if so, what an awful view it affords, to shew the danger of all offerings, void of an eye by faith in Christ! (Isa 1:11.) The name of Abihu means, he is my father.


We meet with many of this name in Scripture: and it is not to be wondered at; for it is a very blessed one, compounded of Ab, Father, JAH, Lord, and I, my. Sweet appellation, when a child of God can say, JEHOVAH is my Father! For this is what the Lord himself provided for his people. "But I said, (said the Lord) how shall I put thee among the children, and give thee a pleasant land, a goodly heritage of the hosts of nations? And I said, Thou shalt call me my Father! and shalt not turn away from me." (Jer 3:19.) For the several persons in Scripture, called Abijah, I refer to the several chapters (1Ki 14:1; 1Ch 24:10; 2Ch 29:1; Ne 10:7.)


There are several of this name in the word of God: and it must be confessed, that a goodly name; compounded of Melech, king, my father; meaning, the king is my father were two kings of Gerar of this name, and son, in the days of Abraham and Isaac. (Ge 20:2; 26:1.) There was also an Abi-Cmeleeh the son of Gideon. (Jg 9:1). And also an Abimelech among the priests of the Lord, in the days of David. (1Sa 21:1.)


There were several of this name in the Old Testament. Saul had a son of this name; and David a brother. (1Ch 2:13.) And there was an Abinadab a Levite. The signification of the name is, my father is a prince.


Captain of Saul's army. (1Sa 17:55.) The name means, father of light; from Ner, a lamp, and Ab, father.


In the language of Scripture, the word abomination for the most part means idolatry. Thus we read, (2Ki 23:13,) that Ashtoreth was the abomination (that is the idol) of the Zidonians; Chemosh, the abomination of the Moabites; and Milcom, the abomination of the Ammonites. Hence our Lord forewarned his disciples, that when they saw the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, in the holy place, namely, the temple, they should accept this, as a token, that Jerusalem would be destroyed, and should accordingly then take their flight. And this was done, when Titus Vespasian's army put up the image of idolatry in the temple. Compare (Da 9:27 with Mt 24:15. and Mr 13:14.)


See HAWKERS: Abram


The great father of the faithful, whose history is so dear to the church in all ages, and whose faith so illustrious, as to have procured for him this most honourable title. The memoirs of this friend of God, as he is called, (2Ch 20:7 and Jas 2:23.) begin at Ge 11:26, and run through the whole of Scripture, like a golden thread, from end to end. The distinguishing honour put upon this man, in depositing the covenant in his seed; and the change of name thereupon both in him and his wife, are most striking events, and on every account meriting the most particular attention. Concerning the cause of the former, we can form no certain conclusions upon it. There are indeed no grounds to form any data upon. All must be referred unto the eternal purposes of JEHOVAH, "who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will and pleasure." Concerning the latter, we can trace somewhat very sweet and interesting, of the Lord's approbation of his servants, both in the man and his wife, by the change of name. I shall beg to offer a short observation upon it.


    The original name of Abram was truly honourable, meaning, in the compound of the word Ab, father, and Ram, exalted; a father of eminency or exaltation. But when the Lord added the Ha to it, and made it Abraham, this became still more honourable; for his name now, in the literal sense of it, was, a father of many nations. And all this became greatly increased in point of honour, on account of the covenant entailed on Abraham's seed, even Christ, (See Ga 3:16.) from whom, and in whom, all the nations of the earth were to be blessed.


    But there is yet. another purpose which the Lord accomplished in the display of the riches of his grace, by this change of name: and which, if I mistake not, (the Lord pardon me if I err) seems to have been the Lord's great design, in this act of mercy and favour shewn both to the patriarch and his wife; namely, by this alteration, or rather addition given to each; by one of the letters which form the incommunicable name of JEHOVAH. By this express act of divine grace, Abraham and Sarah, both possessed in their name an everlasting symbol, or token of JEHOVAH'S glorious favour. And I am the more inclined to this belief, because, in the instance of Jeconiah, in an after age of the church, the Lord manifested his displeasure to this man, by taking from his name one of those distinguishing letters of JEHOVAH, and calling him Coniah, a "despised broken idol." (Compare Jer 23:24-30, with 1Ch 3:16.) I beg the reader to observe, that I do not presume to speak decidedly on a point of so high a nature; I only propose the thought, and that with the most profound reverence.


    May I not venture to suggest, that perhaps it was on this account, of the honour done to their father Abraham's name, by taking into it a part of JEHOVAH'S, that the children of Abraham, in every age of the church, have been so anxious to call their descendants by names, which either took in some of the letters of JEHOVAH'S name, or had an allusion to the Lord. This is so visible a feature, in almost all the Jewish names of the Old Testament, that we meet with very few among the pious Israelites where this respect is not had, in the choice of their children's names, through the whole Bible.


    I cannot dismiss these observations on Abraham's name until that I have requested the reader to connect with the review, the sweet consideration, that all true believers in Jesus take part in the same. They have a new name given them, as well as Abraham their father, when, like him, they are by regeneration made "new creatures in Christ Jesus." They are interested in all the rich promises of God in Christ; and being Christ's children, by adoption and by grace: then are they "Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise." I pray the reader to turn to the following Scriptures by way of confirmation. Re 2:17; 2Co 5:17; Ga 3:7-29; Ro 4:16.


    I know not how to turn away from this subject, concerning our great father Abraham, who in any, and in every view, opens a constant source for improvement, without offering a short observation more, in respect to that circumstance in his life, when compelled by famine to go down into Egypt, he begged Sarah to call herself his sister, and not his wife. We have the account of it in its own beautiful simplicity related to us, Ge 12:9-20. I beg the reader to turn to the Scripture and peruse it over. And when he hath so done I request him to attend to a short observation which I would offer upon Abraham's conduct, in this particular.


    It certainly doth, in the first view of things, appear strange, that the great father of the faithful should have had upon this occasion his faith so slender, that he became alarmed for the safety of his wife's chastity, when he had before this, at the call of God, come out from his father's house, "not knowing whither he went." (Heb 11:8.) He had strength of faith to trust God for every thing respecting himself; yea afterwards, even to the offering up his only son: and yet he could not, when driven by famine into Egypt, trust to God's watchful care over Sarah. But we shall discover, that in this instance of danger respecting his beloved Sarah, humanly speaking, there was no possibility of her escaping with her chastity, unless the Lord accomplished her deliverance by a miracle. Sarah was exceedingly fair, we are told, and her beauty would soon be known (as we find it was) to the prince of the country, on their arrival at Egypt. Instantly she would be seized upon for Pharaoh's haram. And this was literally the case. In vain would be Abraham's remonstrances, or the humblest petitions. If he had said, She is my wife, his death would have immediately followed. But if he said, She is my sister, his life would be spared. And in this case, even then nothing short of the Lord's interposition could restore to him his beloved Sarah again. This therefore he hoped. And here Abraham's faith became as illustrious as before. The patriarch had grounds to hope it. Necessity, and not choice, had driven him down into Egypt, that he might not perish by the famine. And being in the path of duty, and no doubt, constantly in the path of faith and prayer; the whole terminated at length to the divine glory, and to his faithful servant's happiness. And when Sarah was taken, and separated from him: when no possibility of communication between Sarah and her husband was found: locked up in the haram of Pharaoh, from whence there could be no escape, (according to the custom of those Eastern courts, during the life of the prince, the women of the haram being confined there never to get out,) here was a season for the exercise of faith, and for the display of the Lord's favour to his servants. And the way the Lord wrought on the occasion, is as remarkable, in proof of his interposition, as the patriarch's faith in exercise. "The Lord plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues, because of Sarah Abraham's wife." (Ge 12:17.) And so the Lord overruled the visitation, as to give a voice to the rod, and cause the prince very gladly to give up Sarah, unviolated, to her husband. So that when the whole subject is properly considered and taken into one complete view, so far was the faith of the patriarch from being lessened by the exercise, as in the first blush of the history it seemed to appear, that by the means Abraham adopted, he still threw himself with confidence on the Lord, to save his beloved Sarah from ruin, and his life from danger; and without this trust in the Lord, and dependence on the Lord's interposition, Abraham could not but well know, that whether he had called Sarah, sister, or wife, the peril was the same.


    If it be said, (as it has been said) but wherefore did the great father of the faithful make use of a falsehood in this instance? might he not have told the truth, and with more confidence still looked up to God for the issue? To which I answer. Certainly, truth at all times, and upon all occasions, is most closely and faithfully to be followed up, leaving it with the Lord to make all things minister to his own glory, and to his people's welfare. But it should be observed, that though upon this occasion, the patriarch did not tell the whole truth, he told no falsehood. Sarah was his sister, as well as his wife. If the reader will turn to the twentieth chapter of Genesis, and peruse a similar situation, into which Abraham and Sarah were afterwards brought at Gerar, he will there behold the patriarch's modest apology for calling his beloved Sarah his sister, rather than his wife. When Abimelech, the king of Gerar, remonstrated with Abraham for calling Sarah sister, and not wife, and said, "What sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing?" Abraham answered, "Because I thought, Surely the fear of God is not in this place; and they will slay me for my wife's sake. And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother: and she became my wife." (Ge 20:10-12.)


            But what I am more particularly earnest to impress upon the reader's mind, respecting this history of Abraham, (and indeed the sole purpose for which I have introduced the subject in this place) is, that the act itself was founded in faith and reliance upon the Lord. The patriarch had not recourse to mere human policy, without first throwing himself on divine aid. Abraham was well aware of his critical situation. He knew the danger to which both himself and Sarah would be exposed. He therefore used what he thought the best human means: but he certainly was all the while relying by ardent faith on the Lord. And let it be remembered, that in those journies the patriarch was prosecuting, they were by the Lord's command, and not Abraham's pleasure. So that the same faith which first prompted him, at the call of God, to leave his own country, and his father's house, and, as the Holy Ghost testifies of him, "by faith he went out, not knowing whither he went;" (Heb 11:8.) the same perfect reliance upon the Lord went with him all the way. How beautifully the patriarch accounts for this, as well as his whole conduct in calling Sarah his sister, and she calling him brother, in the close of his apology to Abimelech! "It came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father's house, that I said unto her, This is the kindness which thou shalt shew unto me; At every place whither we shall come, say of me, He is my brother." (Ge 20:13.) What a sweet and interesting tale the whole forms! I beg the reader's pardon, for the length I have made of it; and shall now leave it to his own judgment, under the hope of divine teaching concerning it, from the Lord.


Son of David. His history we have 2Sa 14; 15; 16; 17; 18. His name was but ill suited to his character; for he was of a rebellious, turbulent spirit. Ab, the father, Shalom, of peace.


See HAWKERS: Abstinence


The Scripture sense of both these words hath a very extensive meaning, beyond the mere abstinence of the body. Fasting from food is easily done, and it is to be feared is often done by many, who give unrestrained indulgence to the lusts of the flesh and the mind. The Holy Ghost, by his servants the apostles, hath given them very blessed directions of "abstaining from fleshly lusts which war against the soul: and from the very appearance of evil." (1Pe 2:11; 1Th 5:22.)


See HAWKERS: Acceptation


There is nothing more opposed to each other, than the Scripture sense of acceptation, as it relates to the Lord, and as it relates to man. To accept any man's person, is the sinful act of a sinful man. And to accept a poor sinner in Christ, is the gracious act of a gracious God. And those different views of acceptation very fully explain the meaning of the apostle, in his sermon before Cornelius and his household. "Of a truth I perceive, (said Peter)that God is no respecter of persons." God hath no respect to the person of any, but as they are in Christ. It is to Jesus, that the Lord hath respect. And, therefore, "in every nation, he that feareth him and worketh righteousness, is accepted with Jesus." (Ac 10:34-35.)


This, in Scripture language, means, the drawing nigh to a throne of grace, and having a nearness, and audience with God in Christ. The apostle Paul hath a short but comprehensive verse, (Eph 2:18) which explains this most fully; and at the same time shews, how each glorious person of the GODHEAD takes part, in the distinct office of each, on those sweet and blessed occasions. "For through him (that is the Lord Jesus) we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father." It is through the mediation of the Lord Jesus believers draw nigh, and have access unto the Father; and this, by the gracious leadings and influences of the Holy Ghost. And I beg the reader to note yet farther; the blessedness of this access to the throne. It is not simply as introduced by Christ, but beheld, and accepted also in Christ. He is our peace, our cause, both of access and acceptance: for it is "to the praise of the glory of JEHOVAH'S grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the Beloved." (See Ro 5:2; Eph 1:6; 2:18; 3:12; 1Pe 3:18.) This seems to be the scriptural sense of access.


In Scripture language, this means, being separated from, and under the curse of God. (Jos 6:17; Ro 9:13; 1Co 16:22; Ga 1:8-9.) What a sweet relief to a poor burdened soul, when led to see that curse done away in Christ! (Ga 3:13.)

Accuser of the Brethren

One of the names of Satan. (Re 12:9.) See HAWKERS: Devil See HAWKERS: Satan .


The field of blood. It was very properly called so, because it was purchased with the thirty pieces of silver, which the traitor Judas received of the chief priests for Christ's blood. (Mt 27:8; Ac 1:19.) It lay to the south of mount Zion, not far from the pool of Siloam. The name given it of Aceldama, is rather Syriac than Hebrew; and compounded of Achel, (from Chakel)field, and Damah, blood. This memorable ground is said to be shewn to travellers, even to the present day. Wherefore it was called the potter's field, is not so easy to say: unless, like our church-yards, some neighbouring potter dried his earthen pans there, as people now dry their clothes, after washing, in our church-yards. An old monk, called Drutmar, relates, that in his days, there was an hospital built in this charnel house for strangers, where the pilgrims, going to, and from, the Holy Land, used to lodge.


    It is blessed to observe, how the Lord in his providence overruled events, at the crucifixion of Jesus, that his holy body should not have been thrown into this, or any other Aceldama, as a common malefactor. The Mishna reports, that it was not allowed, for any among the Jews who died by the common hands of justice, to be buried in the sepulchre of their fathers, except their flesh was first consumed. Now as the Lord Jesus, being considered by the law as a criminal, (Joh 18:30) was thus liable to have been cast out with the common dead; what an overruling power must it have been, to prompt the minds of the honourable counsellor, Joseph of Arimathea, and Nicodemus a ruler of the Jews, to have begged the forfeited body from Pilate!


    And there was another providence, directing all this to the accomplishment of the purpose intended; in that the request was so well timed before the chief priests could influence Pilate's mind to refuse; and Pilate's mind so guided by the Lord, to grant the request before that he had power to deliberate. Had the Sanhedrim foreseen such a thing, no doubt they would have been beforehand with Joseph and Nicodemus, and prevailed upon the governor to deny. But He that had predicted Jesus should make "his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death," (Isa 53:9) took care not only that a new sepulchre, suited to the infinite dignity of his person, should be prepared; but all the steps leading to the accomplishment of placing his holy body there, should make way, so as to answer all the important purposes of that prophecy.


    As the holy body of Jesus was not to see corruption, but to arise the third day from the dead; this new sepulchre, wherein never man had laid, not only corresponded to the dignity of his person, but served to identify that person, as an article of faith to the believer; that it was Jesus, the very Lord of life and glory, whom the disciples placed there, that arose the third day, as he had promised, from the dead. Thus confirming the faith by circumstances, which, considering the difficulties with which the thing itself was surrounded, and the little probability that one dying, as the Lord Jesus did, under the hands of the Roman government, as a common felon, should make "his grave with the wicked, and with the rich, in his death:" nothing but the over-ruling and determinate counsel and foreknowledge of JEHOVAH could have contrived; nor any less than the same sovereign power could have accomplished. Here, as in a thousand instances beside, we may well cry out, "O the depth of the riches, both of the wisdom, and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!" (Ro 11:33.)


A valley in Jericho: rendered memorable from the stoning of Achan, the son of Carmi, there. Indeed the valley seems to have borrowed its name from this man. See the history {Jos 7:17-26} The margin of the Bible at the last verse so explains. Achor means trouble. It is somewhat remarkable, that one so injurious to Israel should have been born called Achan, as if from his birth ordained to this condemnation. {Jude 4} I know not whether I should have noticed this valley, or the history of Achan, to whom it refers, had it not been from the gracious use the Lord makes of it, in a way of figure, by allusion, in promising happier times to Israel. {Ho 2:15} In this sweet chapter, the Lord is following up his rich promises of grace, in return for Israel’s repeated ingratitude and rebellion. But grace shall triumph. For, saith the Lord, from trouble like that of Achan, I will raise up comfort to my people: when from the sorrows induced by sin, under the quickening convictions for sin, and the exercises wrought in the soul, by the power of the Holy Ghost, I will bring my people into the blessed consolations of deliverance by Christ. "And I will give her her wine-yards from thence; and the valley of Achor for a door of hope: and she shall sing there as in the days of her youth, and as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt." {Isa 65:10}


The first man. The name implies the earth, from whence he was formed, which signifies red. It is worthy remark, that Christ is also called Adam. {1Co 15:45} And if we compare what the apostle saith of Christ, {Col 1:15} with what is said of Adam, at the creation of the world, {Ge 1:26} it serves to explain, in what sense we are to limit the expression concerning him, who was formed from the earth as the first man. In that Scripture of the apostle, when speaking of Christ, he is called, "the image of the invisible God, the first born of every creature." Hence we infer, that though the first Adam was indeed the first man, as manifested openly; yet the second Adam, so called, even the Lord from heaven, had a pre-existence in secret, and stood up the Great Head of his body the church, in the counsels of the divine mind, the Wisdom man, from all eternity. Indeed from this Wisdom man, this pattern, the first earthly man was formed. For so the charter of grace, at the creation, expressed it: "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness." {Ge 1:26} And if Christ was, and is, as the apostle was commissioned to tell the church, "the image of the invisible God, the first born of every creature," nothing can be plainer than that the first Adam, so called, because indeed he was the first man openly, was created in the image or likeness of Him, who alone can be said to be the image of the invisible God, and in his human nature, "the first born of every creature." {See Ps 89:19; Pr 8:22-31; Mic 5:2}


The twelfth month among the Hebrews.

See HAWKERS: Month .


One of the names figuratively given to the Devil. Hence, when the Lord Jesus Christ is said to bruise Satan, it is described under the similitude of "treading on the lion and the adder." {Ps 91:13} Hence also, as sin is of the devil, the infusion of it into our nature, at the fall, is called in Scripture, adder’s poison. (Ps 140:3. See also Ge 49:17; Pr 23:32)


This word in Scripture language is much more striking and significant than is generally considered. It contains not only the nature of a command when used by a person in authority, that the adjured party shall answer to the question proposed, but it goes farther; to bind the person adjured under a fearful curse if aught be concealed, or kept back in his mind, whereby a discovery which is needed be hindered and prevented. Thus Joshua concerning Jericho, (Jos 6:26. Ahab to Micaiah, 1Ki 22:16) And still higher than both, when Christ was adjured by the high priest. {Mt 26:63}

The law of adjuration appears to be founded in the divine authority. Thus we read, {Le 5:1} "If a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and is a witness, whether he hath seen or known of it, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity." It should seem from hence, that the concealment of any iniquity, made the party concealing a joint partaker of it, in the sight of God. To the same purport, is that passage in the Proverbs, {Pr 29:24} "Whoso is partner with a thief, hateth his own soul: he hearing cursing, and bewrayeth it not." Those views of concealment, according to the law of Moses, serve to explain to us the nature of adjuration, and throw a light upon the conduct of our Lord, in that unequalled moment of his meek and humble demeanour, when he stood before the high priest. "I adjure thee (said the high priest) by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ the son of God." And while the reader thus observes the law of adjuration, so faithfully fulfilled by Christ, I hope he will never lose sight of the Lord Jesus Christ’s answer: "Thou sayest that I am." Oh! precious testimony of Jesus, and from Jesus himself. Here was indeed a good confession. {1Ti 6:13}


In Scripture language, somewhat more is meant by those words than we annex to them, in our ordinary discourse. It is said, concerning the centurion’s faith, {Mt 8:10} that Jesus marvelled at it. But if this be supposed to imply any surprise wrought on the mind of Christ, this would be a mistake, and a perversion of language. We may apply the words of the Lord upon another occasion, and say,"Because it is marvellous in the eyes of the remnant of the people, should it be also marvellous in mine eyes, saith the Lord of hosts?" {Zec 8:6} The Hebrew word, in this instance, is the same as that given of Christ by the prophet, {Isa 9:6} when he calls him Wonderful. Hence in like manner, the Lord is said to shew his marvellous loving kindness. {Ps 17:7} So that it is marvellous, and it is to the admiration of his people and of all that look on, when the Lord by his grace distinguisheth them from others. They are men wondered at, {Zec 3:8} In this sense, the Lord Jesus admired and praised, it may be said, by the notice he took of it, the faith of the centurion, and the faith of the woman of Canaan. {Mt 15:28}


See HAWKERS: Admiration


This is one of the names peculiarly applied to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. By way of distinguishing it from JEHOVAH, it is rendered Lord in our English Bibles, in smaller letters, while JEHOVAH, which is also translated Lord, is in capitals. The reader will find a striking proof of it. {Ps 110:1} The Lord said unto my Lord. The words in the original are, JEHOVAH said unto my Adonai. It is a sweet and interesting name of the Lord Jesus. It carries with it the idea of a stay, or helper, security, confidence.


The lord of Bezek {Jg 1:4-5}


The fourth son of David. His name forms a wonderful compound of two glorious names of the Lord. So very earnest were the children of Israel to preserve the constant remembrance of the Lord God of their fathers in their families, {1Ki 1:5}


The lord of Zedek: supposed to, have been one of the ancient names of Jerusalem; and which is said to have had four: Salem, Jebus, Zedek, (or Justice) and Jerusalem. {See Jos 10:1}


This forms a most interesting word in Scripture, in the use that is made of it, in allusion to the state of adoption and grace, into which true believers are received by their union with Christ. They are said to be predestinated to the adoption of children. {Eph 1:5} And the purpose for which Christ is said to be made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law was, that they might receive the adoption of sons. {Ga 4:4-5} The word adoption is borrowed from a custom well known among the Romans, under whose government Judea became a province, who adopted the children of strangers and acknowledged them for their own, when they themselves were childless. But though the term is applied to believers, from being openly adopted and acknowledged in the family of Christ, yet strictly and properly speaking, this is not done, because they were not of the family of Christ before; for in fact they always were; but it is done in a way of publickly confessing and acknowledging it. The Holy Ghost by the apostle is express to this purpose, when he saith, "And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, where by ye cry Abba! Father!" {Ga 4:6} And all the Scriptures are express to confirm this most unquestionable truth. {Isa 44:3; 59:21; Eze 37:5-14; Zec 14} It is most blessed, when we consider the privileges of adoption, and know in ourselves that we are made, though grace, the happy partakers of it. By adoption, the children of God in Christ are brought out of the spirit of bondage into the glorious liberry of the sons of God. They are translated from the kingdom of darkness into the kingdom of God’s dear Son. Hence they are regenerated, illuminated; justified, sanctified, and made partakers of grace here, to be made partakers of glory hereafter. Sweetly the Spirit witnesseth to their spirits, that they are the children of God. "And if children, saith the apostle, then heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ: if be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together." {Ro 8:16-17}


See HAWKERS: Adore


By the act of adoration is implied the full and most absolute acknowledgment of worship; and of consequence, such can only be suitable or proper to offer exclusively to Almighty God. JEHOVAH, in his threefold character of person, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, can be the only object of adoration; and this, through the glorious mediator, the Lord Jesus Christ. "I am the way, and the truth, and the life; (saith Jesus) no man cometh unto the Father but by me." {Joh 14:6} This, in the strictest sense of the word, is adoration. But in the Eastern world, the customs and methods observed in acts of reverence among men, from the humbler to the higher ranks, too nearly approach that homage, which is due only to the Lord. The prostration of the whole body, kissing the earth, and the like, savour much of idolatry.

See HAWKERS: Kiss .


The law of Moses made this crime capital, both to the man and woman; and upon clear proof, they were both to be put to death. {Le 20:10} It is somewhat remarkable, however, that in the case of the adulteress brought to Christ, we hear nothing of the man. Was it the case then, as it is but too generally now, that both the sin and the shame are thrown, with fulness of every thing blameable, upon women, while the seducers and more worthless, pass off unrebuked? yea, to the disgrace of human nature, not unfrequently applauded! Not so in thine eye, blessed Lord Jesus! {See Joh 8:1,11} It should be remarked under this article, that beside this natural adultery, noticed in the Scripture, there is a spiritual fornication of which the Lord complains, which is idolatry. {See Jer 3:9; Eze 23:37; Ho 2:2} Reader! if Jesus be the husband, that is, as the prophet calls him, the John of his people, who would forsake him for the idols of a dying world? {Ho 2:16-17}


This is a general name applied to all persons, in common, who have a controversy, or are at variance with each other. Thus the Lord saith to Israel, "I will be an adversary to thine adversaries." {Ex 23:22} And the prophet describes the Lord as an adversary to his people, in the day of his displeasure. "He hath bent his bow (saith he) as an enemy; he stood with his right hand as an adversary." {La 2:4} And the Lord Jesus describes God the Father, as a law adversary, when he saith, {Mt 5:25} "Agree with thine adversary quickly, whilst thou art in the way with him." The Scriptures represent also Satan, as an adversary to Christ and his church. Thus Jesus, by the spirit of prophecy, saith, "Who is mine adversary? let him come near to me." {Isa 50:8} And Zechariah {Zec 3:1} represents Satan as "an adversary standing at Joshua’s right hand, to resist him." And the apostle Peter calls the devil an adversary going about to devour; and chargeth the church to resist him steadfast in faith. {1Pe 5:8} From these different views of the word, it will be very easy to learn, that the name of adversary is indiscriminately given to all persons who are in a state of controversy with each other, whether good or evil.


-is one that pleads the cause of another. In a very particular manner, the Scripture applies this to the Lord Jesus Christ. Indeed, it is so peculiarly and personally his, that it expressly forms one of his divine offices. Hence, the apostle saith, "If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the propitiation for our sins." {1Jo 2:1-2}

It is very blessed to see the personal and peculiar fitness and suitability of the Lord Jesus Christ to this office, and in how endeared and affectionate a manner he is thereby recommended, and comes home with all the warmth of tenderness to our hearts. I persuade myself that I shall have the reader’s pardon and indulgence, if I trespass for a moment, on dwelling a little more particularly, than the merely noticing it, on this sweet feature in the portrait of Our Lord.

That our poor nature, universally speaking, stands in need of an advocate, is unnecessary to insist, upon, for "we have all sinned and comeshort of God’s glory." And therefore, he who undertakes to plead the cause of the sinner, must himself be sinless. And he must not only possess sufficient abilities to the office of a special pleader, but,he must know every person, and every case, with all the disadvantages of all the causes for which he undertakes. Neither is it sufficient, that he hath all these qualifications, and more than these, unless that he be lawfully constituted to the office. It is not enough, in our common courts of justice, between man and man, that many an able and a feeling heart could stand up for poor guilty criminals, and plead their cause. He that advocates for them, must have a legal call to the office, and be sworn into it, according to the laws of the court. It is most blessed, therefore, to see that in the person of our Lord Jesus Christ all these different qualifications meet and centre, and shine forth in one full constellation.

An attention to a few leading particulars, will make this appear abundantly plain and obvious to every beholder. The Redeemer’s claim to this office of an advocate, and the only advocate of our poor nature, is founded on the call of JEHOVAH. We are told by God the Holy Ghost, {Heb 5:5-6} that Christ "glorified not himself to be made an High Priest, but was called of God, as was Aaron." And he was not only called to the office, but sworn into it, by the solemnity of an oath.-"The Lord sware, and will not repent; thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek." So then, it appears beyond all question and dispute, that JEHOVAH, who said unto him, "Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee;" said also, "Thou art a priest for ever;" and confirmed it by his oath. I beg the reader to keep the remembrance of this everlastingly in view. Your Jesus, your advocate with the Father, is your sworn advocate, and by JEHOVAH himself. And as by reason of the sin of our nature, God our Father is the law adversary of every poor sinner; {see Mt 5:25} so Christ is our law advocate, and fully and legally appointed to this office, by JEHOVAH himself. Sweet thought!

But we must not stop here, in examining into the right of Christ, for the exercise of this divine office, the advocate of his people. He is no less so, by virtue of his being the propitiation for our sins; and in a double sense in this particular, because, not only the infinite dignity of his person, and the infinite merit of his propitiation gives him this claim, but also he is the very propitiation which God "himself hath set forth, through faith in his blood." Let the reader consult those Scriptures for himself, which prove the certainty of these precious truths, and he will see how unanswerably conclusive they are. {Job 33:24; Isa 42:21; Mt 17:5; Ro 3:25} Now, then, let me pause, and ask, Hath not this almighty advocate a right to plead for his own rights, and those of his people in him? Was it not an absolute promise, in the charter of grace, that "when he had made his soul an offering for sin, he should see of the travail of his soul, and be satisfied?" {Isa 53:10-11} And shall not the blessed Jesus stand up and plead for the fulfilment of those promises? Hath he, indeed, given himself as the sinner’s surety "an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savour?" and can he rest satisfied, till he hath brought all his ransomed people around him in glory?

Moreover, there is one point more to be considered in this subject of Christ’s advocacy, which we have not yet even glanced at, though it forms a principal object, for which the Lord Jesus carries on his high priestly office, in the court of heaven, namely, the destruction of all his enemies, and the enemies of his dear people. When the Lord Jesus, by the Spirit of prophecy, spake of the purposes of his coming, it was for the overthrow of the empire of Satan, as well as the establishment of his own kingdom. "The day of vengeance (said Jesus) is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed is come." {Isa 63:4} So, then, it must follow, that unless we can suppose what is impossible, that when Jesus returned to heaven he ceased to take concern in the exercises and sorrows and temptations of his redeemed upon earth, and that the triumphs of the powers of darkness engaged not the attention of the Lord to destroy: surely he is now, as much as ever, carrying on, by his everlasting intercession, all the grand purposes of his victory over hell, until he come, in the fulness of the times appointed, finally to crush the foe, and to root out of his kingdom "all things that offend." I must not stay to describe what the Scriptures of God so very largely and blessedly set forth, the numberless qualities of the Lord Jesus, in his abilities, and readiness, and grace, and a thousand endearing things beside, which render him so peculiarly suited to the office. The prophet sums up all in one, his character, in this department of it, when calling him the Wonderful Counsellor; and the Apostle no less, when declaring that "in Him are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge." {Isa 9:6; Col 2:3} And if it were not for swelling the pages of a work that I must rather study to abridge, I might easily shew, that such are the powerful recommendations the Lord Jesus brings with him, to induce any, and every poor sinner, that is conscious of the want of an advocate, to plead his cause before God, that not a soul, earnest for his everlasting welfare, would cease a moment from putting all his concerns in the hand of such a wise, tender, and successful High Priest as Jesus. Indeed, indeed, it is most blessed to behold the Lord Jesus in this endeared character. All he undertakes is altogether free, "without money and without price." No case of his people, however desperate, he refuseth; and none that he undertakes can fail. Other advocates may, and indeed must, ultimately bring forth disappointment, but no cause put into the hands of Jesus can. And the gracious manner in which the Lord carries it on, is most blessed; for he makes every case which he takes up his own. He enters into all their concerns, gives them to see how much he sympathizes with them, during their exercises, and supports their souls with an abiding assurance, that he is everlastingly attentive to them. Not all the hallelujahs of heaven can make him for a moment intermit his overlooking either the persons, or the causes, of all his redeemed upon earth. For it is not their deservings, but his love; not what they have done, or can do for themselves, but what he can do for them, that becomes the standard of his grace. What they are, and what they merit, comes not into the amount. That they are his, and that he hath purchased their redemption, and received them as the gift of his Father; these are the motives which operate in the heart of Christ. He saith himself, in his pleadings for them before the throne, (for the words are already given to us) "Father, I will that they whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory which thou hast given me." {Joh 17:24}

Ye sinners in Zion! here bring all your causes. Come to Jesus and put every concern in his almighty hand. Jesus waits to be gracious. He can, and will save to the uttermost, all that come to God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. {Heb 7:25} Hail! thou glorious, gracious, lawful, and successful Advocate of my poor, soul!

Ages of The World


There have been generally reckoned six ages from the creation of the world to the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ.


* The first, from the creation to the flood containing a period of 1656

* The second, from Noah to Abraham 425

* The third, from Abraham to the going forth of Israel from Egypt 430

* The fourth, from the departure from Egypt to Solomon’s temple 479

* The fifth from Solomon’s in the captivity in Babylon 424

* The sixth, from the going into Babylon to the coming of Christ 584


We meet with this word but once in the Bible, namely, {Ga 4:24} where the apostle, speaking of the history of Sarah and Hagar, calls it an allegory; that is, a figure, or parable. The Old Testament writers were very partial to this way of teaching, in conveying divine truths through the medium of human illustrations; and sometimes by other objects from the world of nature and art. Our almighty Saviour was pleased to adopt a similar manner; and so much so at one time, that we are told, "without a parable spake he not unto the people." {Mt 13:34} This allegory of Sarah and Hagar, is not only uncommonly beautiful, but most highly interesting. We never can be sufficiently thankful to God the Holy Ghost, for bringing the church acquainted with the blessed truths which were folded up in this patriarchal history. Never would it have entered into the breast of any man alive, untaught of the church’s almighty Teacher, that such glorious things were intended by the Lord to be shadowed forth in the children of the bond woman and the children of the free. Let the reader learn from it this most blessed truth, that the Lord hath been preaching all along, and from the first dawn of revelation, the covenant of redemption by his dear Son. Think reader, if it be possible, how JEHOVAH’S mind hath been occupied from all eternity, in bringing in, and revealing the Lord Jesus to his church and people. Well might it be said, as it is said, when Jesus, who had been secretly set up from everlasting the glorious Head of his body the church, was openly to be brought into the world,"Let all the angels of God worship him!" {Heb 1:6} It will be a blessed view of this sweet allegory, now so graciously explained to us as it is, by the Holy Ghost himself, if both he that writes and he that reads, when summing up the wonderful account, can say with the apostle, "We are not children of the bond-woman, but of the free." {Ga 4:31}


This word which is become so general in use, in our churches and places of worship, is preserved to us in many parts of Scripture, as it is in the original Hebrew, compounded of Hallelu, Praise ye, and Jab, Lord. The beloved apostle John tells us, that in those visions he was favoured with, in seeing heaven opened, and beholding the glorified inhabitants of the New Jerusalem, he heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Hallelujah. {Re 19:1-3} And it is worthy remark, that the five last Psalms begin and end with this expressive word, Hallelujah; as if to teach the church, that the first and great end of man is the praise of God. And it is, and ought to be, a subject of sweet consolation and joy to every true believer in Jesus, to know that this will be, ere long, the everlasting employment of the Church in heaven. There the spirits of just men made perfect now are; many of whom we once knew upon earth, and with whom we shall know and be known, for ever in heaven. So that in the prospect of this never-ending eternity, we may now, by faith, mingle our Hallelujahs with theirs, until by sight we all surround together "the throne of God and the Lamb."


I pause over the contemplation of this distinguishing name of JEHOVAH; desiring that the glories of it, and the fulness of it, may have their suitable impression upon my heart. This is the glorious name by which JEHOVAh in Christ chose to himself known to Abram. (See #Ge 17:1 with #Ex 6:3) I am El Shaddai, God all-sufficient. Some suppose it is derived from a word signifying many paps, or breasts, to suck from. {#Isa 66:11} The word Shaddai may be explained, both to bless his people, and to destroy their enemies. And certainly, both form a blessed security to the Lord’s people. For when the Lord saith, I am God (all-sufficient) Almighty, it comprehends all in himself for them, and all to them. And oh! how blessedly are these explained, confirmed, and secured in Christ.


We meet with this word, Re 1:8,11. and in two other chapters of the Revelations. It is the first letter in the Greek alphabet. And the Lord Jesus, in having graciously condescended to call himself by this name, hath made it very precious to the believer. Jesus is, indeed, the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the Author and Finisher of salvation, It should seem that the Lord intended by this name, and adding to it Omega also, to imply the comprehensiveness of his nature, and being, both the first and the last, to intimate his eternity. {See Isa 43:10}


See Aleph


In the old church in the wilderness, there were three altars erected. One, called the altar of incense; another, the altar of burnt offerings; and the third, the altar, or table of shew-bread. These material altars were all typical of Christ. And so jealous was the Lord concerning the altar, on which all offerings were to be made, that the whole of the materials of which it was formed were to be of earth only; or, if of stone, it was not to be hewn stone. And wherefore were matters conducted with such caution? Surely it was to shew, that in all offerings the Lord was to be offered only what was his own. "If thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it.." {Ex 20:24-26} For, as every altar represented Christ, it was lessening Christ’s dignity and the infinite value of his sacrifice, to presume to mingle any thing with this. Now then, as Christ is our New Testament altar, let us see to it, that we bring nothing to offer upon this altar of our own. Let Jesus be all and in all; both the Sacrifice and the Sacrificer, the High Priest, the Offering, and the Altar. We have (saith Paul) an altar whereof they have no right to eat which serve the tabernacle. {Heb 13:10} I cannot forbear remarking, that seeing the holy jealousy of the Lord, as noted in these things, how very wrong must it be, not to say profane, to call the communion table the altar, and to talk of companions to the altar, in the books so called, as if such things could be companions to Christ. Surely it doth manifest great ignorance in divine things.


See HAWKERS: Mount Amalek


One of the distinguishing names of the Lord Jesus Christ, as Christ God-man Mediator. For so Jesus condescended to make use of it. {Re 3:14} And the meaning of it, in the original language, shews the great blessedness of it, as it concerns his people, in the Lord Jesus condescending to do so. For the word, in the original Greek, from whence it is taken, means verily, certain, sure, true, faithful. And surely, the Lord Jesus Christ is all these, and infinitely more, JEHOVAH’S Yea and Amen, as he saith himself; the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God; that is in his mediatorial character.

And it is worthy our closest remark, that our Lord very frequently began his discourses with this word, and repeated it-"Verily, verily, I say unto you;" that is, in plain terms, (and indeed, it is the very word in the original) Amen, Amen. And it is yet worthy of farther remark, that none but the Lord Jesus ever did use such words, at the opening of the discourse, by way of confirmation. As if the use of it was particularly his, and belonged to him only, as his name. All the gospels, indeed, end with Amen. But then, this seems to be but as a farther proof that they are his, and he puts, therefore, his name as a seal at the end of them, by way of establishing their truth.

And I beg to remark yet farther, by way of shewing the sweetness and peculiar claim that the Lord Jesus hath to this name, that all the promises are said to be, Yea and Amen in Christ Jesus, {2Co 1:20} that is, strictly and properly speaking, they are His; for He himself is the One great promise of the Bible, and all are therefore, promises in and by Him. And the prophet Isaiah {Isa 65:16} describes the believer in the gospel church, as saying, That he who blesseth himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth; that is, the God Amen. It were devoutly to be wished, that whenever this sacred name is used, in our public worship, or private devotion, our minds were to recollect the person of the Lord Jesus. For certain it is, when we say Amen to the giving of thanks, {see 1Co 14:16} we do, to all intents and purposes, use the name of Christ, however inattentively it be said. And, therefore, if this were rightly considered, we should use it with an eye of love, and faith, and thankfulness to him.

I shall only beg to add, to what hath been offered on this precious name of our Lord Jesus, that as John is the only one of the Evangelists who hath recorded, so very particularly, our Lord’s discourses with those double Amens, or Verilys, it is plain, that he considered them very highly important. And the apostle Paul, in desiring that no one should ignorantly say Amen in the church, at the assemblies of the faithful, seems to have same sentiment with John, that every one naming Christ should know Christ.


That is, as the margin of the Bible renders it, my people; and Ruhamah, or perhaps, more properly Rachamah, having obtained mercy. {See Ho 2:1} There is a great sweetness in these words, and the translators of our Bible, having retained them in their original language, as they have done, while at the same time giving the English of them in the margin, (as the reader will perceive if he consults his Bible) seem to show their view of the importance of the words themselves, and their wishes that the English reader should, in some measure, be acquainted with them, so as to have some apprehension of their importance.

I do not presume to decide positively upon the subject, yet I venture to believe, that the words themselves were meant to express somewhat of peculiar tenderness. Let the reader observe, that the Lord commands the prophet to call by this name, the brethren and sisters of the church. "Say ye to your brethren, Ammi, and to your sisters, Ruhamah: plead with your mother, plead." And whose brethren and sisters were those but of the Lord Jesus? And were they not the Ammi and Ruhamah of Christ from everlasting? Jesus had a people whom he was not ashamed to call brethren, and whom in the council of peace from the womb of the morning, the Lord JEHOVAH promised to make willing, in the day of Christ’s power. {Ps 110:3} Hence, therefore, as they had been always the Ammi, so had they been the Ruhamah; having obtained mercy, in their glorious and almighty Brother, from everlasting. And to such among them in the church, who in the days of the prophet, felt and rejoiced in their relationship to Christ, and their salvation by Christ, by the lively actings of their faith on Him that was to come; they were commanded to plead with their mother (the Ammah) the church, and to call her from her backsliding, that all her children might enjoy the same privileges. And the close of this same chapter, (if the reader will compare what is there said, with the sixth and ninth verses of the former chapter, he will find) becomes a blessed confirmation of the whole subject, for it explains wherefore it was, that the Lord thus remonstrated with his people. I will say to [to leave out the words,] them which were [for they are in Italics, and are not in the original, and have no business there] not my people, Thou my people, and they shall say, Thou my God; that is, I will put them in mind of the whole cause of my mercy towards them; namely, my covenant relation with them in Christ. And it is worthy the reader’s closest consideration, in farther proof of these grand truths, that the putting them away, in consequence of their adulteries, had been done in strict justice, and by right. Such was the law of divorces. I beg the reader to see De 24:1-4. The prophet, therefore, had been commanded, by way of illustrating this doctrine, to take an adulterous woman, and to call the children born of her, Lo Ruhamah, and Lo Ammi; that is, not having obtained mercy, and not my people. And this was following up the law concerning the right of divorce. But though the law made no provision for recovery, the gospel, which was preached to Abraham four hundred and thirty years before the law, had done this; and the covenant which was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law could not disannul. And what was this covenant and promise? Turn to the apostle Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians, {Ga 3:8,17} and compare with Ge 12:3. where the charter of grace runs in those delightful words, In thee shall nations be blessed. Hence, though the law of divorce, among men, allowed not a return to each other after separation, yet, in the Lord’s marriage with his church, the gospel not only allowed a return, but graciously appointed it. "They say" (saith the Lord in one of the sweetest chapters of Jeremiah, and full of the sweetest promises), {Jer 3} they say, "If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man’s, shall he return unto her again? shall not that land be greatly polluted? But thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; yet return again to me, saith the Lord." {Jer 3:1} What a full proof is here of the whole doctrine. Though put away by reason of her many adulteries, and though committing fornication with the idolatrous nations around, yet the everlasting provision made for herrecovery in Christ, her lawful Husband, must take place; and she shall return to her rightful Lord. Plead, therefore, (saith the Lord) with her (Ammah) mother, plead; work upon her maternal feelings, give her to see, that though by adulteries she is by law justly liable to be divorced for ever, yet the right and interest of her (Ishi) husband, hath never been lost. He claims her as his own. Return again unto me, saith the Lord.

If the reader be led to consider the subject in this point of view, the expressions of Ammi and Ruhamah, with all the doctrine connected with both, become interesting and tender beyond all imagination.



There were several of this name in Israel. Ammiel, the son of Gemal, {Nu 13:12} Ammiel, the father of Machir, {2Sa 9:4} and Ammiel, the son of Obededom, {1Ch 26:5} And the name is, indeed, most desirable, meaning, the people of my God, from Arum and ll.


Several of the Israelites were called by this name. We find it, {Nu 1:10; 34:20,28} It is a compound of Amm, people, and Hud, praise, and with the i, make it the people of my praise.


We meet with this word in Song 6:12. It is a compound word, consisting of Ammi, my people, and Nadib, willing, or generous, princely; some read the word, therefore, together, my princely people. And as all believers in Christ are made kings and priests to God and the Father, certainly, the expression is warrantable and just. But as the church is here speaking with grateful affection of her Lord, that so sudden and unexpected, as well as gracious, were the workings of his Holy Spirit upon her, it should seem that the word rather means in this place, a royal willingness wrought in her heart, by those impressions. It is therefore, as if she had said, Or ever I was aware of what my Lord, by his sweet influence, was working upon me, I found my whole soul going forth, in desires after him, as the swiftness of chariots. Blessed frame, and always to be desired.


Ahiezer had a son of this name, {Nu 1:12} and a very sweet and blessed compound it forms, meaning people of the Almighty, or the Almighty is with the people.


A prophet of the Lord. See his prophecy. His name hath been sometimes spelt Omas, which signifies a burthen, or somewhat weighty. In allusion, perhaps, to the importance of his writings. But it is more generally spelt Amos, from Amatz, strong

Anathema Maranatha

We meet with this expression but once in the Scripture. {1Co 16:22} The apostle seems to have borrowed it from the Jews, whose custom was, when they could not find a punishment sufficiently great according to their apprehension of the crime, to devote the offender to the Lord’s own punishment, in his own time and way. The apostle, therefore, in allusion to this custom, when speaking of those who love not the Lord Jesus Christ, as if no punishment he could think of would be equal to such horrible ingratitude and impiety, exclaims, Let him be Anathema Maranatha! The want of that love will be to him an everlasting source of bitterness.

See HAWKERS: Maranatha .


A beautiful village, in the tribe of Benjamin, about three miles from Jerusalem, remarkable for being the birthplace of the prophet Jeremiah. The name, if taken, as may be supposed, from Anath, signifies song.

Ancient of Days

Three times, in the Prophecy of Daniel, and in the same chapter, we find the Lord distinguished by this name, and in no other part of Scripture. {Da 7:9,13,22} Some have thought that the person of God the Father is meant, and it should seem to be so, because it is also said, that One like the Son of man, (a well known character of the Lord Jesus Christ) came to him. See Da 7:13. But others, considering the thrones spoken of in this chapter as the thrones of the house of David, and all judgment being committed to the Son, for the Father judgeth no man, {see Joh 5:22} they have concluded, that it must be the Lord Jesus Christ which is spoken of under this glorious name. One thing however is certain, that this distinguishing name, and every other which marks the GODHEAD, may be and must be equally applied to each, and to all. The holy sacred Three, who bear record in heaven are One. {1Jo 5:7}


An order of beings with whom we are but little acquainted; and yet, in whose ministry the heirs of salvation are much concerned. {Heb 1:14} In Scripture we meet with many accounts of them. The Lord Jesus Christ himself is called the Angel or Messenger of the covenant. And his servants are called by the same name. But then, it should always be remembered, that these names, to both the Lord and his people, are wholly meant as messengers; for it is a sweet as well as an important truth, that Christ is no angel; "for verily he took not on him the nature of angels." {Heb 2:16} So that as God, he is no angel; neither as man. I conceive, that it is highly important always to keep the remembrance of this alive in the mind. And that his people are no angels, they need not be told, for they are sinners; and they know themselves to be redeemed sinners, redeemed from among men. In the upper, brighter world, it is said that they shall be as the angels: that is, in glory and in happiness. But still men, and not angels, united to their glorious Head as the members of his mystical body to all eternity. (Ex 23:20; Zec 1:12; Mal 3:1; Mt 22:30 and Mt 25:41; Re 2:1).


Evil angels we read of, Ps 78:49. And we read of "angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, that the Lord hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day. {Jude 6} And we read that Satan is sometimes - transformed into an angel of light." {2Co 11:14} But the Scriptures are altogether silent respecting their nature, agency, and extent. The Holy Ghost hath been graciously pleased to give general precepts and warnings to the church, respecting the malignity of those evil angels, and to admonish the people of God to resist the devil, and that he shall flee from them. We are taught also, by the several names given to the chief of those evil powers, to be always looking to the Lord Jesus for grace to resist the "fiery darts of this enemy," who is called, "the prince of this world." {Joh 12:31} "the prince of the power of the air; the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience," {Eph 2:2} But to numberless enquiries, which we feel highly disposed to put forth, concerning these things, there are no encouragements of any answers to be given in the word of God. It is very blessed, however, to be enabled by the promises of God, to take to ourselves those glorious and comprehensive assurances which belong to the whole church of Christ, and which ensure the present safety of every individual member, and the ultimate triumph in Christ, over Satan and all his angels. One Scripture tells the church, that"no temptation hath them taken, but such as is common to man: and that God is faithful, who will not suffer them to be tempted above that they are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that they may be able to bear it." {1Co 10:13} And another Scripture saith, that "the God of peace shall bruise Satan under their feet shortly." {Ro 16:20} Here then, is enough for every child of God to know and to rest in, until the whole comes to be explained in eternity.

See HAWKERS: Satan




In the language of Scripture, this is a most important word. It means the consecrating, setting apart, and sanctifying, in a peculiar manner, persons or things to sacred purposes. Hence, in a very eminent and personal degree, the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Christ of God, is emphatically called the Messiah, or anointed of JEHOVAH. His name, Messiah, means this. It is, indeed, the same word in Hebrew, as Anointed in English. And what I particularly beg the reader to remark, under this article, as a proof of this dedication of Christ, as Christ, to this office character, from everlasting, is, that he is all along in the Old Testament Scripture spoken of as such, the Messiah or Anointed, and shewn to be so in the New. A plain proof of his consecration by the Holy Ghost before his incarnation. I beg the reader not to pass on until that he hath turned to the following Scriptures, and read them all attentively. {Ps 89:19-20; 1Sa 2:35; Ps 110:4} Hence, Aaron as a type of Christ, {Ex 8:12; 28:41; Ps 2:2; 45:7; 132:17} Hence, the whole church is represented as calling upon God for acceptance and favour in Christ: "Behold, O God, our shield, and look upon the face of thine anointed!" {Ps 84:9}

And as Christ is thus the Christ of God, so the church, by virtue of her union and oneness with him, is anointed with him, and that from the beginning. "Touch not mine anointed." {Ps 105:15; 23:5; 1Jo 2:20,27; 2Co 1:21} Reader! it is truly blessed to trace through both Testaments the testimonies of these things. What can be, indeed, more satisfactory to the soul than thus to discover, first, Christ, as the source and fountain and security of all our hopes; and then, secondly, to behold the church interested and made a rich partaker of the same in Him. {Ac 4:27; Ps 133:3; Ac 10:38}


This is a word well known in the New Testament, It is peculiarly applied to the twelve men, whom the Lord Jesus called and commissioned to be his more immediate disciples and followers, to preach the gospel. But Christ himself condescended to be called by the same name. (Heb 3:1.) Indeed, he was the apostle of JEHOVAH. As it may be gratifying to have their names brought into one

 1 Peter.                       

 2 Andrew.                     

 3 John.                          

 4 Philip.                        

 5 James the Greater.    

 6 Bartholomew.           

 7 Thomas.

 8 Matthew.

 9 Simon the Canaanite.

10 Jude, the brother of James.

11 James the Less.

12 Judas the Traitor.

Matthias was elected in the Traitor’s room.


See HAWKERS: Linen


In the language of Scripture, this word is peculiarly significant. Paul the apostle best explains it, when he saith, "I follow after, if that I may apprehend that, for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus." {Php 3:12} that is, if by faith, I may be enabled to lay hold of Christ Jesus, as the Lord by grace hath laid hold of me.


I should not have thought it necessary, in a work of this kind, to have noticed this name, but for the purpose of noticing at the same time an error, into which, as I humbly conceive, not a few have fallen. I cannot find in all the Bible, the name archangel but twice; once in 1Th 4:16; and once in Jude 9. And as for archangels, as if there were more than one, or many, the very name itself implies that it is an error. For arch-angel signifies the first, or prince of the order of angels, consequently, there cannot be many firsts, without making it necessary to altar the term. So that, what is said of angels and archangels, together in hymns of praise, seems to be founded in a misapprehension of Scripture in relation to one arch-angel only, for the word of God speaks of no more, and the name is not plural.

The question is, who is this archangel, twice, and but twice only, noticed as such in Scripture? if the reader will consult both places, he will find that of whomsoever it be spoken of it is only spoken of him in office. And if the reader will compare the passage, particularly in Jude, with what the prophet Daniel saith, {Da 10:13-21} I conceive that both together will throw light upon the subject. "Lo!" saith the prophet, "Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me." And again, he calls the same person, {Da 10:21} "Michael, your prince." In the passage of the apostle Jude’s Epistle, he saith,"Michael, the archangel, when contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses." It should seem, therefore, pretty plain, that this Michael is one and the same person. In one he is called prince, in the other, archangel. But in both, it is evident, that the name is a name of office. For my own part, I do not hesitate to believe that it is Christ himself, which is meant by the name archangel in Scripture; and of whom it is said, in relation to his coming at the last day, that "he shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels." {2Th 1:7} And elsewhere, the Lord Jesus describes this advent in similar words. {Mt 25:31; Zec 14:5; Mt 16:27} And whether this appearing of Christ hath respect to his coming in his thousand years’ reign upon earth, or to the universal judgment, the sense of the words (in reference to the subject of the archangel we are now considering) is the same. Some have thought that the archangel spoken of by Jude cannot mean Christ, because it is there said, that he durst not bring against Satan a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee. But this is not an objection in the smallest degree. The Lord Jesus durst not do it; not because he dared not, or had not the power, but because it belonged not to the Redeemer’s character, "who, when reviled, reviled not again, but committed himself judgeth righteously." {See Zec 3:1-4} Here we have a similar contest. Now that he who spake was the Lord, appears by his saying, "Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with a change of raiment." Hence, therefore, it is plain from this passage, that the angel before whom Joshua, as a type of the church, stood, was Christ, who is elsewhere called the angel of the covenant; {Mal 3:1} the same as Jacob spake of. {Ge 48:16} So that both the angel of the covenant and the archangel are one and the same; and both spoken of in the nature of the office and character of Christ, for Christ "took not on him the nature of angels, but the seed of Abraham." {Heb 2:16}

From the whole view of this subject, I venture to believe, that, as Scripture speaks but of one arch-angel, and that officially, that archangel is Christ. For on the supposition, that it be not so, it becomes a matter of greater difficulty to say, who this arch-angel can be. If it be not Christ, it must be some created angel. And is there a created angel higher than Christ. If, while Jesus is called the angel of the covenant, is there an archangel also, above this angel of the covenant? I leave these questions with any one, not satisfied with my former observations, that the Lord Jesus Christ is the person spoken of twice in Scripture as the arch-angel.

See HAWKERS: Malachi and HAWKERS: Michael


We read in Scripture of the ark which the Lord directed Noah to make. {Ge 6:14} And Moses in the wilderness was commanded to make an ark. {Ex 25:10} And we read of an ark seen by John in the temple in heaven; but then, this latter was visional. For the same apostle elsewhere saith, that he "saw no temple in heaven? (Re 11:19 with Re 21:22) The ark of Noah, as well as that of Moses, were types of the Lord Jesus Christ. Hence, Noah it is said by the Holy Ghost,"by {Heb 11:7} faith being warned of God, "prepared an ark for the saving of his house." Faith in what? Surely, faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. And the ark in the wilderness is called the ark of the covenant, intimating Christ given of JEHOVAH to the people. (See Nu 10:33; Jos 3:11; 7:6 with Isa 42:6; 2Ch 8:11) We no where read of arks. Never is it said in the word of God of more than one ark; no more than one Lord Jesus Christ. They who talk of arks, like them who talk of archangels, do err, "not knowing the Scriptures, neither the power of God." And it were to be wished, that such men would call to mind the Lord’s jealousy in the case of the men of Bethshemesh, {1Sa 6:19} and also the circumstance of Uzzah, {1Ch 13:10} What was the sin of all those but overlooking Christ? And wherein do those differ, who talk of arks instead of one ark, and that expressly, and on no other account valuable, than as it represented the Lord Jesus? {1Sa 4:3; 2Sa 15:24}

Arm of the LORD

In the language of Scripture, this is one of the names of Christ. Thus the prophet calls upon the Lord to arise for his people. {Isa 50:9} And thus the Lord promiseth, under this character, to make bare his holy arm; that is, to reveal Christ. {Isa 52:10; Lu 1:51}


The church is called so, and said to be terrible. {Song 6:10} And in allusion to the same, the Lord himself is called the Lord of hosts. And hence, that expression in the hymn, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Sabaoth, or rather Zebaoth, which signifies, hosts or armies. Beautifully the Lord takes this title to himself; not only to indicate the greatness of his power, but the greatness of his security to his church and people, in his care and government over them. And it is a blessed thing to have this Lord God of Zebaoth for our stay.

See HAWKERS: Sabaoth


In Scripture terms, this word is for the most part used spiritually, meaning that divine strength is to be our armour against all opposition, and under all human weakness. {See Ro 13:12; 2Co 6:7; 10:4; Eph 6:11-13}


This word is not unfrequently used in Scripture to denote divine judgments, and terrors in the soul from the arrow of the Lord. {See Zec 9:14; Job 6:4; Ps 38:7; Heb 4:12}


See HAWKERS: Ascension


With peculiar reference to our Lord Jesus Christ, the Psalmist demands, "Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord?" {Ps 24:3} And in answer to the enquiry, we may truly say, that the glorious doctrine of the ascension is never cordially received, nor indeed properly understood, until that we are taught by the Lord the Spirit, to have both a just apprehension of his person who is ascended, and the blessed purposes included in that ascension for his church and people. The personal honour put upon Christ in our nature, and the oneness and interest all his redeemed have in that honour, are among the first and most important views we are called upon everlastingly to cherish in the heart, concerning our risen and exalted Saviour. It is our nature in the person of the man Christ Jesus that is thus exalted. And the purpose of that exaltation is, to receive gifts for men: or, as the margin of our Bibles renders the expression, it is to receive gifts in the man, even the human nature of Christ. {Ps 68:18} Oh! precious, precious in the GODHEAD of Christ’s nature, no gifts could be received, all things being his in common with the Father and the Holy Ghost; so when received by Christ, as the Head of his body the church, it is as the Head of communication in "the fulness of Him that filleth all in all." {Eph 1:22-23} And when this blessed doctrine is fully received, and lived upon, and enjoyed, what unknown blessings are contained in this one view, which the soul hath in this unceasing contemplation of our glorious and ascended Lord Jesus!


One of the sons of Jacob, by Zilpah. {Ge 30:12-13} His name means happy, or blessed; taken from the same word in the root which means blessed. Hence, Jacob, when adying, declared that "the bread of Asher should be fat." {Ge 49:20} And Moses, when blessing the children of Israel, with his last prophetical benediction, followed up the same in allusion to his name as blessed; "thy shoes (said Moses) shall be iron and brass; and as thy days, so shall thy strength be." {De 33:24-25}

I cannot help remarking upon the name of Asher, that there is in it somewhat of peculiar gracefulness. The noun, which is taken from the root, is never used but in the plural number, blessedness instead of blessed, as in the first word of Ps 1. And the Hebrews give a very decided reason for it. They say, that blessedness doth not depend upon a single blessing, but upon all. Hence, in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ, he is the blessedness, the Asher of his people. So that the opening of that Psalm being plural, should be read with an eye to Christ; blessedness is the man, &c. And of none but Christ could this be said; neither to any other but Him, could the things spoken of in that Psalm refer.


In the language of Scripture, ashes are sometimes spoken of to denote great humility and contrition of heart. Thus Abraham calls himself "dust and ashes." {Ge 18:27} Job saith, that he "abhorred himself, and repented in dust and ashes." (Job 42:6 See Da 9:3; Ps 102:9; La 3:16)


The holy Scriptures, when speaking of the venom of asps, mean to convey by figure the awful nature of sin, which, like that deadly poison, hath infused itself into our whole nature. Hence Moses describes it, {De 32:33} and Job, {Job 20:14} and Paul. {Ro 3:13} But how sweetly doth the prophet Isaiah describe, under the same figure, the application of Christ as a balsam, to cure the envenomed poison, and to render the serpent’s bite as harmless. "The sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice den, They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain." {Isa 11:8}


I have thought it worth while, to stop the reader in this place, in order to make an observation or two on the condescension of the Lord Jesus, respecting his use of this animal, in the unequalled humility of our Lord’s character. We read {Mt 21:2, &c.} that the Lord Jesus, to fulfil the prophecy of one of his servants the prophets, made his entry into Jerusalem on an ass. But there seems to be a general mistake in respect to the humbleness of Christ, in what it consisted. Not, I apprehend, in riding on the ass, but in the person of the rider. White asses were among very noble animals in the estimation of the people of the East. Witness? what Deborah said of them in her song of triumph, {Jg 5:10} "Speak ye that ride on white asses, ye that sit in judgment." {Jg 12:14} And Jacob, in his prophecy concerning Judah evidently had an eye to Christ: "Binding his foal" (said Jacob) "unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes." {Ge 49:11} The humbleness of Christ, on this occasion, was the meekness and lowliness of his person, not from the noble beast he rode on.

But I will beg to detain the reader with another thought upon the subject, which hath not, as far as I have ever read or heard, been noticed; and yet may be after all, for aught I know, the chief circumstance for which the prophet predicted, and Jesus fulfilled, the prophecy. {Zec 9:9} The ass, though a noble animal, was deemed by the Levitical law, unclean, for it chewed not the cud. {Le 11:26} And the same law declared, that whosoever touched such, should be deemed unclean. It was on this beast the Lord Jesus was pleased to make his entrance into Jerusalem. And was it not meant [I do not decide the point, but merely ask the question] to shew, that he came to take away the defilements and uncleanness of his people? If Christ became both a sin and a curse for his people, {2Co 5:21; Ga 3:13} might there not be somewhat significant and typical in thus riding upon a beast deemed by the law unclean? I leave the reader to his own determination on the point, under the grace of God.


Particular mention is made in Scripture of the avenger of blood, {De 19:6} and cities of refuge were appointed for the manslayer. {Nu 35:12; Jos 20:5} There is much of Christ as a refuge, represented under this appointment, and we shall do well at any time when reading those Scriptures, to be on the look out for discoveries of the Lord Jesus in the several features of the history. Every man, by sin, is a murderer, yea; a soul murderer, and that of himself. And the avenger, both in the law of God and the justice of God, is always, it may be said, in pursuit of the sinner, until he hath taken shelter in Christ. Jesus is the city of refuge. And Jesus is near to flee unto. {Heb 6:18} It was not the stronghold of those places which secured the manslayer, but because it was the provision of divine mercy. "Salvation the Lord appointed for walls and bulwarks." {Isa 26:1} And what endeared the city of refuge to the manslayer was, that it was wholly of God’s own appointing. And the general and extensive nature of its security was, that poor stranger, as well as the Israelite, found a sanctuary. {Nu 35:15} Such is the Lord in the greatness and extensiveness of his salvation. "For (saith the apostle) there is neither Jew nor Greek, neither bond nor free, male nor female, for they are all one in Christ Jesus." {Ga 3:28} Sweet type of Jesus, the city of refuge.

See HAWKERS: Bezer


In scriptural language, this word is very frequently used to denote a spiritual recovery from death and deadness of sin. Hence, the apostle saith, {Eph 5:14} "Awake, thou that and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light." Hence, the church saith,"I sleep, but my heart waketh." {Song 5:2} Heace, the state my the unregenerate, who are never awakened, are described by the prophet under the image of a perpetual sleep. {Jer 51:57} Sometimes, the Lord himself is called upon by the church, under the image of awakening, to come to her deliverance, "Awake, awake, O arm of the Lord," &c. {Isa 51:9} And the church, in like manner, is called upon by the Lord, Isa 51:17; 52:1.


One of the family of Kish. {1Ch 8:37} This name should seem to have been derived from Azazel, taken away, or separated, and by which the scape-goat in the wilderness was called.

See HAWKERS: Expiation


A name generally used for an idol. And when more than a single idol is spoken of, the word is made plural, Baalim. The children of Israel, from being surrounded with idolatrous neighbours, too often were led away by their allurements to the same idolatry. (See Nu 22:41; Jg 2:13; 1Ki 16:31; 2Ki 10:19; Ho 2:8.)


     I cannot take a more effectual method to shew the Lord's watchful care over his Israel, to preserve them from this contagion, than what the Lord himself hath manifested in that beautiful chapter, the second of the prophecy of Hosea. If the reader will turn to it, and peruse it from beginning to end, he will observe, that at that time the tribes of the Lord were much disposed to idolatry. The Lord sets himself therefore to bring them back, and in opening to them the prospects of salvation, shews how he will bring them under afflictions, in wilderness dispensations, and then having hedged their way up with thorns, compels them, by his grace, to return to him their first lover. And to keep them from revolting again, he will open to them a new name, whereby they shall know him and delight in him. "And it shall be in that day, saith the Lord, that thou shalt call me Ishi, and shalt call me no more Baali. For I will take away the names of Baalim out of her mouth." (Ho 2:16-17.) In the margin of the Bible, Ishi is rendered my husband. The reader will have a full apprehension of the grace and loving kindness of the Lord in this ordination, when he is told, that as the word Baal, Lord; or Baali, my lord, was a general name to imply lordship, or sovereignty: the Lord JEHOVAH had been considered as Israel's Baal, to distinguish him from the nations' Baal around. But as there was not distinction enough in those general names, to preserve Israel in a proper sense of reverence between JEHOVAH, and those dunghill gods, being all alike called Baal, or Lord; the Lord graciously saith, in this sweet Scripture, that he will be no more called Baal, but will lose as it were, the name of Lord, in that of husband. Thou shalt call me Ishi; that is, my husband, my man. Was there ever an instance of such rich grace and condescension and love?


                I beg the reader to pause over it, and ponder it well. And when he hath duly contemplated the unequalled subject, let him add to it the farther consideration, how the Lord Jesus Christ hath really, and indeed, fulfilled all he here promised, in becoming the Husband of his church and people. Hence the prophet sings, "For thy Maker is thine husband, the Lord of hosts is his name: and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel, the God of the whole earth shall he be called." (Isa 54:5.) Surely, nothing can be wanting to give the most finishing testimony to the grace that is in Christ Jesus. Blessed Husband of thy church; be thou my Ishi for ever!


Jg 8:33; 9:4 This dunghill god was made the idol of the children of Israel, after the death of Gideon. The name Berith means the Lord of the covenant. But what covenant? Was Israel so far gone in idolatry, as not only to set up an idol, but to insult JEHOVAH in his gracious covenant? To what an awful state is our nature reduced by the fall! Into what an awful apostacy may, and will, every man sink, void of grace! Reader, turn to that sweet covenant promine, Jer 32:40.


This was another of the heathen idols, and as we learn from the book of Joshua, {Jos 11:17} was set up in the valley of Lebanon.. Gad means fortune; so that Baal-gad means a lord of fortune.


I am inclined to think that this was not an idol, but a place; for the church, celebrating the glories of her Solomon, saith, that he had a vineyard at Baal-hamon {Song 8:11} Hamon, is people, multitudes, or riches. So that Baal-hamon may be rendered, lord or master of a troop, or people. We all apprehend, that "the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house, of Israel; and the men of Judah his pleasant plant." {Isa 5:7}


This was the idol of Beth-jesimoth, and is rendered, "the Lord of the house." {Eze 25:9}


This was the famous, or rather infamous dunghill idol of Moab; and which they tempted the Israelites worship. The Psalmist mournfully speaks of it, {Ps 106:18} "they joined themselves unto Baal-peor, and ate the offerings of the dead." {Nu 25:1-3; Ho 9:10} From what this prophet saith of their shame; and from the impure name of this strumpet idol; there is reason to believe that the greatest indecency was joined with idolatry, in the, worship of this Baal-peor.


At this spot, the Philistines were put to flight by David, {2Sa 5:20; 1Ch 14:11} The margin of the Bible hath rendered this name, the plain of breaches. And, consequently, David was the lord or master of it.


We meet with mention of this place, 2Ki 4:42, but whether there was an idol there, is not said. Shalesh is the Hebrew for three. So that it may be read the lord of three. But the cause for the name is difficult to explain.


A place near Gibeah. {Jg 20:33} It might be famous for palm-trees; for so Tamar means.


So called from Baal, lord, and Zebub, a fly. And this was the ridiculous idol worshipped at Ekron, to whom Ahaziah, king of Israel, sent to enquire concerning his recovery from a fall he had from his terrace. {See 2Ki 1:2-3} How very sadly this weak prince answered to his name! The man that was called Ahaziah should have had better views of the Lord, Achaz and Jah, meant, vision of the Lord. Whereas, his was a vision of folly! The Egyptians, it should seem, as well as the being near neighbours, paid divine to this contemptible idol. It is possible, the folly of this idolatry might take its rise from the plague of the flies, which Egypt suffered on account of Israel. {See Ex 8:20, &c.} But it said also by historians, that the rivers of Egypt abound with flies whose sting is very painful. It is worthy remark, that the name of this idol changed only from Baal-zebub in Hebrew, to Beel-zebub in Greek, was given to the devil, in the days of our Lord’s ministry upon earth. It doth not appear that was worshipped at that time; but it is evident so generally known and acknowledged by this name, that the Pharisees made use of it as a well known, and in a daring blasphemy, the miracles of the Lord Jesus to his power {See Mt 12:24}


Some have thought that this was only the name of a place. And some have concluded that it was the name of an idol. The words together may be read, the lord of secret, meaning one that inspects, and discovers what is hidden. One thing however is certain concerning it, that it was over against Baal-zephon, the Lord directed Israel to encamp, when the Egyptians were pursuing them after their departure from Egypt. I beg the reader to consult the Scripture concerning it, {Ex 14:2} Piha-hiroth it should seem was so called, because it formed the mouth or gullet of entrance to the sea. And Migdol, which means a tower, was a watch-place, where it is probable that this idol was placed to watch, or pretend to watch, at the extremity of the kingdom of Egypt, on this part to the sea, by way of deterring runaway servants, or slaves, like Israel, from attempting their escape. It was in this very spot, as if, at once, to shew Israel the folly of such ridiculous idols; and to shew Egypt of what little avail their dunghill deities were; Israel was commanded to encamp, from whence they should behold the arm of the Lord displayed for their deliverance, and at the same time Egypt’s destruction. (See Ex 12:12, &c. Nu 32:4)


I should not have noticed this article, being so perfectly understood in its common sense and meaning, but for the peculiar use that is made of it, in reference to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, and to his church in him. There is somewhat very sweet and interesting in it, considered in these views. To contemplate the Ancient of days as the Babe of Bethlehem; and to behold the church in every individual member, as babes in Christ, the imagination finds large scope for the indulgence of the most solemn meditation, when the subject is opened to the believer by God the Holy Ghost. We enter upon hallowed ground, when the Lord the Spirit leads us to behold by faith Him, whom the apostles called "the holy child Jesus." {Ac 4:27} And there is a most blessed and inexpressible sweetness in the soul’s joy, when, at the same time, through the same almighty Teacher, we enter into an apprehension of our child-like union with him, and interest in him. {Lu 2:12-18; Ps 8:2; Mt 11:25; 1Pe 2:2}


This word is, what it is designed to be, babel, or confusion. And our English language; in the strong term of bablers, has very happily borrowed from the Scripture babel or babbel, to express confusion. It were unnecessary for me to add, that Babel was the name given to the tower which the impiety of men began to build after the deluge. {Ge 11:9} And here also was the foundation of that city of Babylon laid, which in after ages became the confusion and sorrow of the church during the seventy years’ desolation. {Ge 10:10} And to go farther still, mystical Babylon, in the error and follies by which it is distinguished, may well retain the name, as the Scriptures have given it, for nothing but confusion is in it, and in confusion must it end. {Re 17:5 and Re 18 throughout.}

I cannot forbear adding one short, but I hope not unprofitable observation, by way of noting the wonderful grace and overruling power of God. By the confusion at Babel, in a diversity of tongues, and which ever since hath distinguished nations; the Lord rendered that miracle at Pentecost, of his poor servants speaking in every language then under heaven in a moment, and with the greatest fluency, a full proof of "the Lord speaking in them, and by them." But for this diversity of language the glory of this miracle would have been wanting; since, had all nations, as before the confusion at the tower of Babel they did, spoken but one language; the disciples of Jesus would have needed the use of no other. But by this punishment in the plains of Shinar, the Lord laid the foundation of his own glory and his servants’ honour; and the wonderful conversion of souls, at that season of Pentecost, demonstrated both the power of God, and the wisdom of God, in confirmation of the faith.


This eminent city, which was once the most noble and magnificent in the whole earth, the capital of the Chaldean empire: and concerning which the Scriptures themselves speak so highly, {See Da 4:30} is now so totally overthrown, that not a vestige remains. By Isaiah the prophet, the Lord declared this ruin, {Isa 13:19 to the end;} {Isa 13:19-22} and every traveller that hath seen the ground it stood on confirms it. The approach to the ruins, on account of the venomous creatures which inhabit it, is so dangerous, that no man durst venture, and many parts for ages have not been explored. Who that considers this, and connects with it what the prophets declared concerning it, years before the event took place, but must be struck with wonder and praise! I beg the reader to look again at Isaiah’s prophecy, chap. xiii. 19 to the end. {Isa 13:19-22} And when the reader hath duly pondered the subject, concerning the natural history of Babylon, thus desolated as the enemy of Christ and his church; he will do well to consider the subject in the spiritual sense of it, according to what the Scriptures have declared of mystical Babylon. Let him turn to the Revelations of John, and hear what the Spirit saith, concerning the awful close to all the enemies of Christ and his church. (See Re 17 and Re 18)


We meet with this word but once in Scripture, and that is in the book of Psalms, {Ps 84:6} The meaning of it seems to be weeping; though some consider it as referring to the mulberry tree.




I humbly conceive that this word, and which we often meet with in Scripture, is not so well understood, by the generality of readers, as it were to be wished. The common received opinion concerning backsliding is, that it is turning back, or going away, from the Lord. Whereas the very word itself implies sliding backward, and not turning round, and going away. The Lord himself, by his servant the prophet Hosea, makes use of a simile, which seems to explain the meaning, "Israel (saith the Lord) slideth back as a backsliding heifer." {Ho 4:16} Now, how doth an heifer slide back? I apprehend not by turning back, and going another path; but like one on slippery ground, whose steps, so far from gaining ground, rather lose ground. But all the while the heifer is still with her face and feet the same way, only sliding back, and not getting forward. And what follows, in the same verse, seems to confirm this sense of backsliding. "Now the Lord will feed them as a lamb in a large place." So that the Lord undertakes to preserve Israel from sliding back, by putting his people in a roomy place, where the ground shall not be slippery.

I do not presume to suppose, that I am right in this my conjecture concerning backsliding. I only venture to give my opinion upon it, as it strikes me. The Lord pardon me if I err. One thing, however, is certain, the recovery of all backsliding is of the Lord; and his promise to his people, on this subject, is most blessed. "I will heal their backslidings, I will love them freely." {Ho 14:4; Jer 3:22}


This was the famous, or rather infamous conjuror of the East, whose awful history is so fully recorded in the book of Numbers, and whose most awful end is given to us in the 31st chapter of the same book, and 8th verse. Nu 31:8 (See also Jos 13:22) His name, it should seem, is derived from Balel, and signifies old age. For his history, I refer the reader to Nu 20 and the two following chapters. In relation to the character of Balaam, it will be proper for me to beg the reader’s attention to what the word of God hath left upon record concerning him, in order to have a clear apprehension of the subject; comparing Scripture with Scripture, as we are commanded to do, 1Co 2:13.

It appears from the accounts given of Balaam, in the opening of his history, {Nu 22:1, &c.} that Balak, prince of Moab, fearful of the growing power of Israel, invited this Balaam from the East, to come to Moab and to use enchantments against Israel. It should seem from the history of Egypt, in the magicians we read of in that history, that this custom of using enchantments among idolatrous nations, was very common. {Ex 7:11} Prompted by the love of gain, Balaam readily listened to the messengers of Balak, and lodged them for the night, pretending that he would conconsult the Lord upon the subject, and go with them if permitted. But the Lord commanding him not to go, for that the people, the prince of Moab wished him to curse, were blessed; Balaam sent the messengers away, without going with them. We are not informed by what means the Lord communicated to Balaam his command: probably by a vision of the night; but, certainly, in such a way as left Balaam with full impressions on his mind, had he not heard the history of Israel before, that they were "a people blessed of the Lord."

Balak, not discouraged by Balaam’s refusal, sent again to him: and the wretch, earnest to go, pretended again to ask the Lord’s leave. And the sequel of this embassy from Balak was, that he arose and went. There seems to occur some little difficulty in the relation, as given in the Bible concerning Balaam’s going; because it is said by the Lord, If the men come to call thee, arise and go. But the thing had been determined before by the Lord’s telling Balaam, that the people were blessed. How then could he dare to tempt the Lord by any farther enquiry? and how could he presume to go forth, at the call of this idolatrous prince, to curse those whom the Lord had told him were blessed? We cannot but suppose that Balaam, coming out of the East, must have heard of Israel, and the Lord’s care over them. Indeed his pretending to consult the Lord, at the first invitation of Balak, very fully proves, that he was no stranger to the history of Israel; and the Lord’s bringing them out of Egypt, which all the people of the East had heard of with trembling. {Ex 15:14, &c.} So that Balaam could not be ignorant of the Lord’s love for Israel.

But what decides the infamy of Balaam’s character is this, that under all the impressions that the Lord had blessed Israel, and would bless them, Balaam was still so very earnest to oblige Balak, and get his promised reward, that he set off expressly the purpose of cursing Israel; neither, as the apostle saith, did "the dumb ass, speaking with man’s voice, forbidding the madness of the prophet," keep back his feet from the evil of his journey; so much did he love the wages of unrighteousness? {See 2Pe 2:16}

I need not go through with a comment on the several interesting particulars of Balaam’s tampering with his conscience while with Balak, in seeking enchantments, and in using every effort to curse God’s people, while all he said and did the Lord over-ruled to make him bless them. But there is one feature in the history and character of this man, which will serve to explain the whole; and to shew, that when disappointed of all the means he had used to gratify Balak, though compelled by a power he could not resist, to bless those he wished to curse; yet he gave Balak an advice concerning Israel, by way of accomplishing their ruin, which, but for the Lord’s preventing and pardoning grace, would indeed have tended to the ruin of Israel more than all Balak’s arms, or Balaam’s enchantments; namely, in counseling Balak to tempt Israel to come to the sacrifices, and to open an intercourse of Israel’s sons with the daughters of Moab. This plan, therefore, Balak adopted; and soon after we find Israel at the feast of their infamous sacrifices. The Psalmist, speaking of this sad history, {Ps 106:28-29} saith, "they joined themselves unto Baal-peor, and did eat the sacrifices of the dead." This Baal-peor was an obscene idol, before which image, the votaries offered the most horrid prostitution of their bodies, and wrought such abomination as would be shocking to the feelings of chastity to relate. (See Baal-peor. See Nu 25 throughout.)

We should not have known that it was from the advice of Balaam, the Moabites enticed Israel to sin, in the matter of Baal-peor, had not the Holy Ghost graciously informed us of it, in his holy word. But, if the reader will turn to the second chapter of Revelations, and read the fourteenth verse, there the whole matter is explained. (See also Nu 31:15-16)

The awful termination of the life of Balaam is just as might be expected. I refer the reader to the Scripture account of it. {Nu 31:8} How Balaam came to be amongst the Midianites when the Lord’s judgments overtook them, is not said; for we are told, in the former history, {Nu 24:25} that he rose up and went unto his place. Probably, he returned afterwards to live with the Midianites, to see if he might be farther helpful to them by his enchantments. And, perhaps, as Balak had promised to reward him with very great honours, he might have quitted his home, in the east of Aram, to be made a prince among the Midianites. But be this as it may, here he was, by the overruling power and providence of God, when Moab and Midian were destroyed; and fell with, them, unpitied, and with infamy on his name for ever.

We must not close our view of Balaam, without a short observation of the awfulness of such a character. When we read the many blessed things which the Lord, as he had graciously said, compelled Balaam to utter concerning his Israel, "the word that I shall speak unto thee, (said the Lord) that thou shalt speak." {Nu 22:20-35} When we hear this impious man’s confession, that "he had heard the words of God, and knew the knowledge of the Most High; had seen the vision of the Almighty, falling into a trance, but having his eyes open." {Nu 24:15-16} When we hear such things dropping from his lips, and in the same moment hiring himself out for the honours of this world, as an enchanter, to curse the people of God, whom God had told him were blessed; what an awful picture doth this afford of human depravity! Many of God’s dear children, from mistaken views of such characters, have been frequently tempted to call in question their own sincerity, and to fear, lest like Balaam, they should be found apostates in the end. But all this from the misapprehension of things, and not from the smallest likeness between their circumstances and Balaam’s. There may be, and indeed there often is, a natural apprehension which natural men often have, concerning divine things, where there is no one work of the Lord upon the heart. Men, by reading, or by hearing, may acquire great knowledge in the truths of God, so as to speak and discourse, as Balaam did very sweetly on the subject; but whose souls never felt any love of God, nor desire of salvation. This is head knowledge, not heart influence. This is all nature, not grace. Devils know more, in point of doctrine and the truths of Jesus, to their eternal sorrow, than many of God’s dear children do, to their eternal joy, while here below. Witness what they said, Lu 4:41. at a time when his people were, many of them, ignorant of him. How shall we mark the difference? The thing is very easy, under the blessed Spirits teaching; "when the Spirit witnesseth to our spirits that we are his children." There is a pleasure, a delight, an holy joy, in the soul of the regenerated, in the view of Christ and his salvation. Not all the riches of the earth would tempt such to curse the people of God, or even to hear the people of God cursed, but with the utmost indignation. In their darkest hours, and under the dullest of their frames, there is still a secret desire within to the love of Jesus, and the remembrance of his name, {Isa 26:9} And while such as Balaam write their own mittimus for everlasting misery, as in those soul-piercing words, when speaking of Christ, "I shall see him, but not now; I shall behold him, but not nigh;" {Nu 24:17} the hope and expectation of the poorest and humblest child of God is expressed in those sweet words, "As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied when I awake with thy likeness." {Ps 17:15}

There is one thing more I wish to drop a word of observation upon, respecting the history of Balaam. The reader will, probably, anticipate the circumstance to which I refer; namely, the conversation which Balaam held with his ass. I do not hesitate to say, that I wholly agree with St. Austin, and accept the fact simply as it is related, and believe it to have been a miracle of the Lord’s. I form my opinion on the authority of the Holy Ghost, who, by his servant the apostle Peter, expressly saith, that "the dumb ass, speaking with man’s voice, forbad the madness of the prophet." {2Pe 2:16} The occasion was as extraordinary and interesting, as the event of the animal being so commissioned to reprove; and for such an occasion, as in numberless other instances in life, the ordinary appointments in the Lord’s providences may be well supposed to be superseded. The only, or at least, the most striking circumstance in the whole relation is, the loss of the wonderful event on Balaam’s mind, that he should have been so addressed, and give such an answer, and yet persist in his iniquitous journey. But even here again, similar effects on the minds of sinners, in every age, are continually produced, and the end is the same. What conviction was frequently wrought upon the minds of the Jews, when beholding the miracles of Christ. But yet, what lasting effect did that conviction ultimately produce! He who well knew the human heart, void of sovereign grace, hath left it upon record as an unerring conclusion, that where the word of God is despised and set at nought, no higher evidences, even of miracles, will succeed: "If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither would they be persuaded, though one should rise from the dead." {Lu 16:31}


A king of Babylon. {2Ki 20:12} The name seems to be a compound of Baal and Adorn, both meaning lord.


The Prince of Moab and Midian: the son of Zippor. We have his history, Nu 22 and following chapters. His name signifies, wasting, from Lakak, to lick up, and the prefix Beth, with.

See HAWKERS: Balaam


We meet with this name but once, namely in Eze 20:29. It means an high place. Bamoth is the plural of it, and we meet with this several times, Nu 21:19-20. Bamoth Baal, a city beyond Jordan. {Jos 13:17}


There are several of this name in Scripture, {See 2Sa 23:36; 1Ch 6:46; Ezr 2:10} Some render the word, from Ban, son. Hence, Rachel named her son, Benoni, in her dying moments, while Jacob called him Benjamin. The mother’s name made him Ben, the son, oni, of my sorrow. The father’s Ben, the son, jamin, the right hand, or the hand of strength.


In a figurative language, Christ is said to be an ensign, or standard, to his people. {Isa 11:10,12} Hence, the Psalmist, in allusion to Christ, "Thou hast given a banner to them that feared thee, that it may be displayed because of the truth." {Ps 60:4} And when Moses built an altar, after the victory obtained over Amalek, he called the name of it JEHOVAH Nissi; that is, the Lord is my banner. And what Lord but Christ? Were not both the altar and the banner tokens of the Lord Jesus Christ? {Ex 17:15} Hence, the church speaks, in allusion to Christ, "In the name of our God, we set up our banners." {Ps 20:5} And hence also, the church, when beheld in her warlike appearance, fighting in the strength of her Lord, is said to be, "fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners." {Song 6:4,10} It is very blessed to eye Christ in this most glorious character, as JEHOVAH’S banner to his people, for their waging war with sin, death, and hell. He is lifted up from everlasting, in the glories of his person, as the church’s Husband from all eternity. Hence, the Standard-bearer among ten thousand, under whose shadow all his redeemed are safe, and made more than conquerors through Him that loveth them. Reader! believer! friend! are we under this almighty Banner? Hath the Lord Jesus brought us to his banqueting house, and is his banner over us of love? Oh, then, let us sit down under his shadow, for, surely, all his fruit is sweet to our taste! Sure banner of peace with God, and good will towards men! See HAWKERS: Jehovah Nissi.


One of the ordinances which the Lord Jesus hath appointed in his church. An outward token, or sign, of an inward and spiritual grace. A dedication to the glorious, holy, undivided Three in One Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; in whose joint name baptism is performed, and from whose united blessings in Christ, it can alone be rendered effectual. {Mt 28:19} Beside this ordinance, which Christ hath appointed as the introduction to his church, we are taught to be always on the watch, in prayer and supplication, for the continual baptisms of the Holy Ghost. Concerning the personal baptisms of the Lord Jesus Christ, we hear Jesus speaking of them during his ministry. {See Lu 12:50} Hence, to the sons of Zebedee, the Lord said, "Can ye drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?" And Jesus added, "Ye shall drink of the cup that I drink of, and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptised." {Mr 10:38-39}

Some have thought, that these expressions are figurative of sufferings. But there doth not seem sufficient authority in the word of God to prove this. And, indeed, the subject is too much obscured by those expressions, to determine that sufferings were the baptisms to which the Lord had respect. Besides, had sufferings been meant by Christ, could he mean that the sons of Zebedee were to sustain agonies like himself in the garden and on the cross? This were impossible.

Others, by baptism, have taken the expression of John the Baptist literally, where he saith, "I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear, he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire." {Mt 3:11} Others, with more probability of truth, have considered the baptisms of the Holy Ghost, and with fire, to mean his manifold gifts and graces. The Old Testament spake of "the Spirit of judgment and the Spirit of burning." {Isa 4:4} And the New Testament gives the record of the first descent of the Holy Ghost, after Christ’s return to glory, in the shape of cloven tongues, like as of fire, which sat upon each of them. {Ac 2:4} It were devoutly to be prayed for, and sought for by faith, that all true believers in Christ were earnest for the continual influences of the Holy Ghost, as the only read and sure testimony of being baptized unto Christ, in having put on Christ. For if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his? {Ga 3:27; Ro 8:9}


John the Baptist, the herald and fore-runner of our Lord, predicted by the prophets. {See Isa 40:1-8; Mal 3:1} I must refer to the Gospels for the history of the Baptist. It would far go beyond the limits of this work, to enter upon the account of John’s life. One feature in his history and character I would only beg to an observation upon, and that is, indeed, in view, a very important one; namely, on his to the person and glory of Christ. The reader will recollect, that concerning John the Baptist, Jesus himself declared, that "among them that were born of women, there had never arisen a greater prophet than John the Baptist." {Mt 11:11} Now attend to what this greatest born of women saith, concerning his almighty Master: "The Jews sent priests and Levites to ask John who he was; and he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ. And they said, Who art thou? And he said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord?" (Joh 1:19-23. yea, to 31.) And what is a voice? Merely a sound, and no more. It is not so much as a person, but only ministers to a certain purpose, for which it is designed, and then dies away in the air, and is heard no more. Such, in comparison to the Lord Jesus Christ, was this greatest of all prophets, born among women. What a blessed testimony to the GODHEAD and glory of Oh! that Socinians and Deists would think of it!


A well-known name, rendered memorable from being preferred by the Jews to the Lord Jesus Christ, though a murderer and a thief. His name signifies; son of the father, from Bar, son; and Ab, father.


Father of Elihu. {Job 32:2} His name signifies, one who blesseth God; from Barach, to bless; and El, God.


Father of Zacharias, spoken of Mt 23:35. His name signifies, to bless the Lord; from Barach, to bless; and Jah, Lord. We meet with several of this name in Scripture.; {1Ch 3:20; 6:39} and {1Ch 9:16}


The son of Abinoam. We have his history, Jg 4 and Jg 5. His name signifies, thunder.


A false prophet, spoken of Ac 13:6. His name signifies, the son of Jesus.


The son of Jonah. {Mt 16:17} Sometimes Jonah means pigeon.


The son of the prophet, from Nabi, a prophet. The writer of the Acts of the Apostles derives his name from Jabah, consolation. {Ac 4:36}


The son of return; for so the word seems to be best explained. This man was so highly esteemed by the apostles, as to be put in nomination for the apostolic office, in the room of the traitor Judas. {Ac 1:23}


One of the apostles of Christ. His name signifies, a son of Tholomy, or, as some read, Ptolemy. Some are of opinion, that Bartholomew and Nathaniel are the same person. And in confirmation of this, it is remarkable, that where the one name is mentioned in Scripture the other is not.


Son of Timeus: from Bar, son; and Thamam, finished. We have his history, and a very interesting history it is, Mr 10:46, &c.


Son of Neriah, An interesting character, as related to us in the prophecy of Jeremiah. {Jer 32 Jer 36 Jer 43 Jer 45} His name is derived from Barach, to bless.


A most rich and fruitful country. It lay beyond Jordan; and before Israel’s conquest, it was possessed by Og. The sacred writers continually speak of the fertility of this land. The name seems expressive of it, Beth, in; Shen, the very mouth or tooth.


A measure among the Hebrews, of the same dimensions as the ephah, which contained seven gallons and four pints, liquid measure; and three pecks, three pints, dry measure. {Isa 5:10; Eze 45:10-11}


The wife of Uriah. Her history we have 2Sa 11, &c. If from Shaboh, which is the number seven; probably as Bath, is daughter, means, the seventh daughter.


See HAWKERS: Baal-Zebub


We meet with this name, Isa 15:8. But it is more than probable, that it is the name of well so sweetly spoken of Nu 21:16-18. I beg the reader to consult the Scripture, and let him judge for himself, whether it be not so. Beerelim means, the well of the princes. And the princes are said to have digged it. But when the reader hath satisfied his mind on this point, there is another object, and that of an higher nature, that I would request the reader to attend to. In those wells, I humbly conceive, we discover gospel lessons beautifully represented. Hence, the prophet sings, "Because God (saith he) is my salvation, therefore, with joy shall ye draw water out of those wells of salvation." {Isa 12:2-3} And hence, if, with an eye to the Lord Jesus Christ, who is himself, in the souls of all his redeemed, a well of water springing up unto everlasting life, {Joh 4:14} we accept those Beer-elim in the word, we then join the Lord’s song, in the Lord’s own words, as he directed Moses. This is the well whereof the Lord spake unto Moses, "Gather the people together, and I will give them water." Then Israel sang this song. "Spring up, O well! sing ye unto it. The princes digged the well; the nobles of the people digged it, by the direction of the lawgiver with their staves." {Nu 21:16-18}


The margin of our old English Bibles hath rendered this compound word by "The well of Him that liveth and seeth me." {Ge 16:14} The history which gave rise to this name being given to this well, is most beautiful and interesting. I entreat the reader to turn to it. His attention will be well rewarded. {Ge 16:1-14} It was Hagar, the handmaid of Sarai, which gave this name to the well, when she fled from her mistress, and was found by the angel of the Lord near a fountain of water in the wilderness of Shur. There is uncommonly striking in the history. I admire faith of this poor servant. And I beg to adore the Lord still more, in both giving her that faith, and affording so blessed an opportunity for the exercise of it.

That Hagar should have her steps directed into the wilderness-that there she should find a well of water, already prepared to her hands, when we know how rare and precious wells were considered in the Eastern world; what pains men took to dig them; and what strife for possessing them they occasioned;—that there the Lord should manifest himself to her, and give her such gracious promises:—these are so many distinct tokens of divine love. And how blessedly did the Lord, that led Hagar there, and present before her such testimonies of his watchful care over all, give her grace also, to eye the Lord’s hand in the Lord’s appointment. Hagar perceived the Lord’s grace in all. And she discovered his mercy towards her in all: so that, under the full impression of a full heart, she cried out, "Thou, God, seest me."

I cannot dismiss the subject before that I have first requested the reader to ask himself, whether, when at any time in the wilderness frames of his own heart, or under the wilderness dispensations the Lord hath brought him into, he hath not often found a well of seasonable and unexpected supplies, like that of Hagar, so that he could call it Beer-la-hai-roi? How very often hath it been found, yea, it may always be found, in the believer’s exercises, that where we least expected, there most of Jesus hath been discovered. That precious Redeemer, always beforehand with his people, and going before them in all his providences, as well as in all his grace, hath been at length manifested to the soul, in the close of some trying dispensation, as having been all the while present, appointing all, regulating all, watching over all, and giving a sweet and precious finish in his sanctifying blessing on the providence to all; though to our timid and unwatchful hearts, he hath been supposed by us as absent, and inattentive to our distress. How truly blessed is it, like Hagar, when the seasoned relief, like the well at Shur, opens with such manifestations of the Lord’s love, as to at the same time, the Lord’s hand. The use of every blessing then calls forth the cry, as Sarah’s handmaid, from the soul, "Thou, seest me. For she said, Have I also here looked him that (first) looked after me?" {Ge 16:13}


The well of an oath; So called, because here it was that Abraham made a covenant with Abimelech. {Ge 26:33} The word is a compound of Beer, well; and Shabah, swearing.


I could not prevail upon myself to pass over this word, though it be perfectly well understood, and is not frequently found in Scripture: yet, it appears to me, that as the Word of God hath made ample provision, not only in precept, but in the very constitution and frame of the human heart, for beggars, it is our duty to attend to it. {Ps 37:25; Mr 10:46} It should seem, by the precept delivered by Moses, that the Lord thereby intimated that there should be no poor unrelieved among them, in that the Lord had so greatly blessed Israel, that Israel would prevent the necessity of begging; though, for the exercises of their brotherly love, the poor should never cease out of the land. {De 15:4; 7:11} I recommend the reader to consult this whole chapter, from whence he will form better ideas concerning the mind of the Lord on the character of the beggar, and his own gracious and all-wise appointments of the inequalities of life. And when he hath done this, I would recommend him yet farther to consider the whole subject spiritually, and with an eye to Christ. The brother waxen poor was to be relieved by the nearest of kin; and when he had sold his possession, this brother, born for adversity, was to redeem it. {Le 25:25} Here Jesus, the nearest of kin, was plainly seen. And therefore, the beggar in Israel had always a claim upon every passer-by, who considered duly this relationship. And may I not ask was not this among the gracious designs of the Lord, in his providence, to afford luxuries to the minds of believers, in the true Israel of God, when, from the inequalities of life, the Lord afforded opportunity to follow the steps of Jesus, in relieving a poor brother? How little have those studied the Scriptures of God, and how little do they know of the mind of Jesus, who, to the numberless miseries of life, arising out of that sin which Christ hath put away, can, and do pass by, and behold, unpitied, and unrelieved, the wretchedness of the beggar, whether in soul or body!


I detain the reader at this word, because of its importance. Not in respect to the real meaning of the word itself, either in a natural or spiritual sense, for both are generally understood, but for an higher purpose, It is easy to apprehend what is meant by the term begotten, in natural generation among men. {See Mt 1:2, &c.} And we no less understand the scriptural meaning of spiritual generation, in application wholly to God. They who are new born in Christ, are expressly said to be born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. {Joh 1:13} But the meaning of the word begotten, when applied to the person of Christ, differs wholly from both these and (according to my apprehension of the scriptural sense of the word) is perfectly another thing. I beg to explain myself upon it.

If we look at the several Scriptures which speak Christ being begotten, we find the word connected at different places with different terms. Sometimes, Christ is said to be the first begotten, and at other of the Father. {See Heb 1:6; Re 1:5; Joh 1:14; 3:16; 18:1; 4:9; Ps 2:7} And some have supposed, that these expressions refer to the eternal generation of the Son of God as God. But with all possible respect to the judgement to those men, I venture to believe that those phrases have no reference whatever to that subject. The eternal generation of the Son of God as God, is declared in Scripture as a most blessed reality; and as such, forms an express article of our faith. But as God the Holy Ghost hath not thought to proper to explain it, in any part of his revealed word, it becomes an article of faith only, and here the subject rests. We are not called upon to say, how that eternal generation is formed, any more than we are to tell how Jehovah exists, or how that existence is carried on in an unity of substance, while distinct in a threefold character of person. Our capacities are, at present, incompetent to form any adequate conception, and perhaps, even in our future state, they never may be able.

But in relation to the Son of God, as the first begotten and the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth, if those terms are confined to the person of the Lord Jesus in his character and office as Mediator, here all difficulty vanisheth to the proper apprehension of our mind; and under divine teaching, we are not only brought to the full conviction of the glorious truth itself, but to the full enjoyment of it, in knowing the Lord Jesus Christ in his mediatorial character, God and man in one person, the Head of union with his people, and the Head of communication also to his people, for grace here and glory for ever.

In this sense, Christ is the first begotten and the only begotten of the Father before all worlds. In this sense, that sweet passage in the Psalms is explained, "Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee." {Ps 2:7} Begotten; that is, when in the decree concerning redemption, the Father predestinated the Son unto the being and office of the God-man Mediator. And this day means, when in the covenant transactions, the Lord Jesus stood up the Head of his church, at the call of God the Father. Had this begetting referred to the eternal generation of the Son of God as God, how could it be called this day? Eternity is never spoken of as a day in Scripture. For when the Holy Ghost would describe the eternal nature of the Lord Jesus Christ, he speaks of him in the past, present, and future; "Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever." {Heb 13:8} And hence, when describing also the eternal and everlasting nature and essence of him, the high and holy One, who inhabiteth eternity, the Holy Ghost saith, "from everlasting to everlasting thou art God." {Ps 90:2} Everlasting, in the language of Scripture, is without beginning without ending. So that in the eternal generation of the Son of God, as the Father is eternal everlasting in his personal character as Father, must the Son be eternal and everlasting in his character as Son. If there had been a period in eternity when the Son of God was not in that same period the Father would not have been the Father; for both, in the very nature of things, in the constitution of each character, have been equally existing together. Hence, (according to my view of things) nothing plainer than that in those expressions of the begotten and only begotten of the Father, is not the least reference to the eternal generation of the Son of God; but those, and the like of Scripture, respect only the person of the Jesus in his character and office of Mediator. In farther confirmation of this doctrine, I beg the reader to turn to Isa 42:1-9 compared with Mt 12:17, &c. Isa 61:1-3 compared with Lu 4:16-22; and yet as particularly as either, the Lord Jesus, under the Spirit of prophecy, describes his commission as Mediator both from the Father and the Holy Ghost, ages before his incarnation, and the consequent execution of his office as Redeemer to his church and people.

I hope that I have explained myself in the clearest manner, in order to render my meaning perfectly intelligible to the humblest capacity. And if so, and my view of this sublime subject is agreeable to the unerring word of the holy Scripture, and if the reader’s apprehension of this doctrine corresponds with mine, he will find (what I bless the Lord I have found,) much sweetness in such precious views of the Lord Jesus Christ. The distinction is, in my apprehension, highly important in the exercises of faith, between the eternal generation of the Son of God as God, and the Son of God as Mediator, begotten to the office mid character of Mediator. The distinction is essential, that we may not confound things, and thereby lessen our proper conception of the Son of God, "one with the Father over all, God blessed for ever." And it is no less most blessed and interesting to behold the Son of God thus begotten of the Father, the God-man Mediator, when, for the gracious purposes of salvation, he stood up in his covenant character, that he might be both the head of union and of fulness for communication to his people in grace, and in glory, for ever.

I beg the reader to pause over a subject so infinitely sublime, and so infinitely consolatory. And I beg of him farther to pause and remark with me, the wonderful grace manifested to creatures, such as we are, in the Lord’s giving such blessed manifestations of himself. Instead of being astonished that we know no more, the only astonishment is, that we know so much. Great must be the communicated influence of the Holy Ghost to our poor fallen nature, to enable us to grasp any thing relating to the GODHEAD, in his threefold character of person, in this our fallen state. By and by, we are promised that we shall know, even as we are known; that is, as far as our spiritual faculties, ripened into perfection, are capable of advancing. But here below, we are only, in our highest attainments, in the twilight of knowledge, and our best discoveries are but as seeing "through a glass darkly."

See HAWKERS: Generation .

Before I depart from the contemplation of this sublime subject as it refers to the person of God’s dear Son, I would beg to drop a short observation on what I humbly conceive to be a misapplication of the term begotten, as is sometimes made in reference to man, I mean, when ministers themselves, or others for them, are said to have begotten souls to Christ by the instrumentality of their preaching. It is more than probable, that the first idea of such a thing took its rise from what the apostle Paul said to the Corinthians, {1Co 4:15} I have begotten you through the gospel. And in like manner, concerning Onesimus, the apostle saith, Whom I have begotten in my bonds. {Phm 10} But whatever the apostle meant by the expression, certain it is, that the act of the new creation, as the act of the old, is wholly of the Lord. And uniformly in Scripture, the act of begetting is altogether ascribed to the Lord. {See 1Pe 1:3; 1Jo 5:1,18} And, perhaps it would be no difficult matter to shew, that the apostle did not mean what some have supposed, that when he used those expressions, he considered himself as their spiritual father. The very term sounds haughtily, and not scripturally; Paul himself would hardly have joined such words together: in application to one he thought the chief of sinners. But even admitting the contrary, supposing it be granted, that this inspired apostle used the term in relation to himself, what warrant would this be for the use of it among ordinary ministers? If it be said, that it is only meant to imply their instrumentality, I answer, that the term spiritual father is still unsuitable and unbecoming. There is no warrant in the word of God for such an appellation. And when it is farther considered, how much it tends to minister to spiritual pride, it is a very plain proof it cometh not of the Lord. I shudder to think to what lengths this misapplication of the words begetting souls to Christ, and spiritual fathers, have hurried men, when I have heard it hath been said from the pulpit, or committed to the press, that such preachers, at the last day, will have to say, "Behold I, and the children which the Lord hath given me!" Words which can belong to none but the Lord Jesus Christ, and never were intended to be used, or can with truth be used, by any other. {Isa 8:18; Heb 2:13}


This word is so often used in the word of God, that I do not think it unimportant to have a place in our Concordance. Sometimes, it is intended as a note of attention, by way of calling the notice of the reader in a more striking manner; and yet more eminently so, when the Lord himself is the speaker. Thus for example, the Lord JEHOVAH calls upon the church to regard with all possible attention, the person and character of his dear Son. "Behold, (saith JEHOVAH) my servant whom I uphold," &c. {Isa 42:1; Zec 3:8; Mal 3:1} Sometimes, the word is used as a note of admiration, as when Jesus speaks of the loveliness of his church, {Song 1:15} or when the angels announced the birth of Christ. {Isa 7:14} It is sometimes used to express joy and gladness, as when Jesus calls upon his church to behold him, "Behold me! behold me!" {Isa 65:1; Mt 21:5; Joh 12:15} And sometimes the word is used by way of confirmation to the word spoken. Thus the Lord to Jacob at Bethel, "Behold, I am with thee, and I will keep thee," &c. {Ge 28:15}


This is an Hebrew word, signifying somewhat evil. Hence, in Scripture, it is not unfrequently applied to wicked persons. Moses, when charging Israel not to follow vain and ungodly men, calls them sons of Belial. {De 13:13} The same by Hannah. {1Sa 1:16} So Abigail to David. {1Sa 25:25} In the language of the New Testament, Belial is another name for Satan. "What concord (saith Paul) hath Christ with Belial?" {2Co 6:15}


Perhaps, nothing is more simple than the act of believing; and yet, perhaps, nothing which hath created more mistakes and misapprehensions. In common life, we all perfectly understand what it is to believe one another: it is only in relation to our belief in God, that we find it difficult. If the servant of some kind and generous master was promised by him a favour, which he knew his master could perform, he would think it a base impeachment of his master’s character for any one to call the promise in question. But when the same kind of reasoning is brought forward concerning God, we overlook the impeachment of the Lord’s veracity, in doubting the assurance of what God hath promised. Now, to apply this to the case in point. God hath promised to the church eternal life; and this life is in his Son. To believe this on the simple word and authority of God, this is to give God the credit of God; and in doing this, we do in fact no more than the servant, as before stated, does to his kind master. The greatness of the promise, and the undeservedness of our hearts; these things have nothing to do in the business. It is the greatness, and honour, and credit of the Promiser, which becomes the only consideration with faith. And to take God at his word, and to trust in his promise as God; this is the whole sum and substance of believing. So that the simple act of faith, after all, is the simplest thing upon earth; for it is only believing "the record which God hath given of his Son." {1Jo 5:10}


See HAWKERS: Belief


We ought not to pass over this expression, though the word itself is so generally understood. There is somewhat in it so truly blessed, when we consider it in relation to Christ, as the Christ of God; and also, in relation to the church, considered from her union with Christ, and interest in Christ, that the word beloved, when spoken of either, comes home to the affection peculiarly sweet and endeared. To refer to all the passages of Scripture, in which Christ is declared beloved, would be very many indeed. It will be fully sufficient to all the present purposes intended, to remark, that in all the parts of the divine word, at every place, and upon every occasion, when God the Father is represented as speaking of his dear Son, or to him, he expresseth himself with the greatest rapture and delight. He calls him his elect, his chosen, his only beloved, his dear Son; as if he would have every individual member of his church, (and which is indeed the case) to fall in love with him. And what I would beg the reader particularly to remark with me on this occasion is, that this love of the Father to the Son is specially spoken of in Scripture, not with reference to his divine nature, but in his mediatorial character. It would have been of no profit to us, (for the subject is above our faculties of apprehension) to have been told of the love of the Father to the Son, in the nature and essence of the GODHEAD. How the divine persons love each other in the infinity and eternity of their nature, none but themselves in their eternal nature can have any conceptions concerning. But the love of God, yea, all the persons of the GODHEAD to the person of Christ, as God-man Mediator; this is a subject concerning which we find somewhat for the mind to lean upon; and, under divine teaching, can make discovery sufficient to create a joy from it, "unspeakable and full of glory." What a rapturous thought to the soul is it, that our Jesus is beloved of JEHOVAH, because he undertook our cause, became our Surety, lived for us as such, and died for us as such, and is now carrying on the one glorious design for which he became incarnate, in bringing "many sons unto glory." The Lord Jesus speaks of his Father’s love to him on this very account. "Therefore, (saith Jesus) doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life that I might take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself; I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father." (Joh 10:17-18. See also Isa 42:21)

And as Christ is thus beloved on the account of his gracious office and undertaking as Mediator, so is the church on his account, and for his sake beloved also. He it is, indeed, that gives this loveliness to his church, for there is nothing in the church, or in the acts of the church, which can be lovely, but on the Lord’s account, and as beheld and accepted in him. But as considered as one with Christ, and made comely, from the comeliness which Jesus hath imparted to her, and put upon her, she is lovely in God the Father’s view, and beloved by JEHOVAH for ever. Yea, the Lord Jesus not only calls her his beloved, and tells her that she is all fair, and that there is no spot in her, but he saith, in that sweet prayer he put up to the Father, in the night before his sufferings and death, that "the Father loveth the church as the Father loved him." {See Joh 17:23}


King of Babylon. His history, which is very awful, we have, {Da 5} His name is compounded of Baal, lord; and Otzer, treasure; intimating, no doubt, his great riches and power.



This name was given to Daniel by the Chaldeans in the time of the captivity. {Da 1:7} And no doubt, the design was evil; that he might in it lose sight both of his own name, and with it the remembrance of the Lord God of his fathers. And what a change it was! Daniel, a compound of Dan, judgment; and I, E1, my God: my judgment is with God, or God is my judge. Whereas, Belteshazzar was a compound of Bel, the idol which the Babylonians worshipped; and Shassar, from Etzar, to lay up. And as the idol’s name was derived from Bulat, secret, they both together implied the laying up in secret. From Daniel’s history, it should seem to convey the idea, as though the name Belteshazzar was given to him in compliment, on account of his great wisdom; but there can be but little question, that the great object was, that he might, in time, forget the Lord God of Israel, and be incorporated with the Chaldeans.

See HAWKERS: Abednego


King of Syria; the son of Hadad. {1Ki 20:1}


The youngest son of Jacob, by Rachel. The mother of Benjamin had expressed her dissatisfaction in having no children. "Give me children (said she in her displeasure) or else I die." It is said in the after pages of her history, that God "remembered Rachel, and that God hearkened unto her and opened her womb; and she bare a son, and called his name Joseph;" that is, as the margin of the Bible renders it, adding; and said,"the Lord shall add to me another son." (See the interesting history, Ge 30 throughout. See also HAWKERS: Joseph .) After the birth of Joseph, Rachel conceived again, and bore Benjamin, on which occasion she died. Moses gives a very affecting account of it, Ge 35:15-20. As the soul of Rachel was departing from her body, she named her child Ben-oni; and the margin of our Bibles hath thought it proper to mark it with some degree of emphasis; the son of my sorrow, from Ben, son; and On, grief or burden; and the pronoun I, makes it personal, my sorrow. Poor Rachel! what a mistaken judgment she made! She earnestly desired children; but behold the event! God gave her a son; but he was, as she properly named him, a son of sorrow; a Benoni. How many Rachels have there been since, who in wrestling or wishing to take the government out of Lord’s hands, have done it to their sorrow! Jacob, though his love to Rachel was unbounded, {see Ge 29:18-20} yet he would not suffer the child to retain the name of Benoni, but changed it to Benjamin, which is, the son of my right hand, from Ben, son; and jamin, the right hand. And his love to Benjamin is much recorded in the Scripture. Moses, the man of God, viewing, most probably, Benjamin typically in relation to the Lord Jesus Christ, makes a beautiful observation in his dying blessing, which he gave to the tribes of Israel; "And of Benjamin he said, the beloved of the Lord shall dwell in safety by him; and the Lord shall cover him all the day long, and he shall dwell between his shoulders." {De 33:12}



A place ever dear and memorable to the followers of the Lord Jesus, from being so sacred to the Lord’s solemn moments of suffering. Perhaps the name is compounded of Beth, an house; and hanah, affliction. It lay about fifteen furlongs (nearly two of our miles) from Jerusalem, at the foot of the mount of Olives. See Joh 11 and Joh 12.


It is the same place as Bethel. But after Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, set up his golden calves there, the pious among the Israelites called it Beth-aven; meaning, the house of iniquity; for it was no longer proper to call it Beth-el, the house of God. {1Ki 12:26-33}


We meet with this word only in the Songs of Solomon. In Song 2:17, the word is retained in its original, Berber; but in Song 8:14, it is translated "mountains of spices." In the margin of the Bible it is rendered division; as if separating from Christ. Some of the copies read the word Bethel; but it certainly is a different word, and of a different meaning. It hath been rendered very sweet and gracious, I believe at times, to the follower of the Lord, when feeling the desires of the soul going out in longings for the Lord Jesus. So Old Testament saints sought the coming of Christ, as upon the mountains of Bether, when in the dark shade of Jewish ordinances they saw the type and shadow of good things to come, and longed for the substance. And so New Testament believers, who have once seen and tasted that the Lord is gracious, are longing for renewed visits of Jesus, when in seasons of distance, and darkness, and unbelief, they feel as on the mountains of Berber, waiting his coming. And how do the best of saints, in the present day, and they who enjoy most of the Redeemer’s presence and grace, still long for the full manifestation of his person, and the coming of that great day, when he will come "to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all that believe." {2Th 1:10} Say, reader, doth not your heart go forth, as the church of old did, (sure I am it must, if so be Christ is precious) crying out with the same rapture, "Make haste my beloved; and until that everlasting day, break upon my redeemed soul, be thou like to a roe, or a young hart, upon the mountains of Berber." {Song 2:17; 8:14}


The word signifies, the house of mercy; from Beth, an house; and Chesed, mercy. It was the pool which the evangelist John speaks of, Joh 5:2. I refer to the account. It is probable, that into this pool the waters from the temple emptied themselves: and if so, all the washings of the sacrifices. And some have been weak enough to fancy, that the efficacy of the pool arose from thence. And others, equally erroneous, have supposed that some mineral quality might be in the pool, from the waters imbibing it in passing over certain strata of the kind, as the mineral waters of Bath, and other places of the like nature. But had they attended to what the Holy Ghost hath recorded, by his servant John, in the history of the Bethesda, they would have observed, that the peculiar miraculous quality the pool possessed, was only at a certain season, and from the descent of an angel into the pool; and the miracle expressly limited also to one person.

Some have raised questions of doubt concerning the reality of the pool itself, because it is not noticed by any of the evangelists but John. But this, if admitted as an argument of doubt, would go farther than the objectors perhaps intend; since the same cause of objection would equally hold good against the pool of Siloam, the resurrection of Lazarus, several of the sweet and precious discourses of Christ, his miracle of Cana, at Galilee, and very many other blessed relations concerning the Lord Jesus, which are mentioned by none of the other evangelists. But these are childish objections, since we know that one among the many causes for which the gospel according to St. John was added to the other memoirs of the Lord Jesus Christ, was purposely to relate some circumstances, which Matthew, Mark, and Luke, had not done. {See Joh 20:30-31; 21:25}

Some have expressed their surprise that Josephus, the Jewish historian, should have been altogether silent concerning the pool of Bethesda. But not to remark that Josephus was not born at the time the pool was in repute, the well-known hatred he bore to every thing that had respect to the person and glory of the Lord Jesus, might well account for his not even glancing at the Bethesda, which must have connected with it Christ’s miracle there; rendered so memorable as it was, from the cure he wrought, by speaking a word, on the poor man, of a disease of thirty-eight years standing. And surely, no one who reads his history of Israel’s Exodus, and their passage through the Red Sea, can be astonished that he should pass by all notice of the pool of Bethesda.

It is truly blessed to the believer in Christ, that his faith is not founded "in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God." The Holy Ghost hath given his, testimony to the many blessed truths in his servant John’s writings, and of consequence, to the reality and certainty of this pool of Bethesda among the rest. And I humbly conceive, that the pool itself was specially intended, by the mercy of the Lord, to be a standing miracle among his people during their dark estate from the departure of the Spirit of prophecy, which ended with Malaichi to the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ; as is to shew, that the Lord "had not cast away his people whom he foreknew." Here, therefore, was a direction to wait for Christ. And as he was "the fountain to be opened in that day, to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness," the pool of Bethesda might shadow forth his coming. So that when the Lord came and wrought the miracle on the poor man of long infirmity, without the ministry of the pool, this might shew that the intention for which this pool had been appointed was now answered, and the substance being come, the shadow ceased for ever, We hear no more of the pool of Bethesda, after this miracle of Christ in the cloisters of it; and, as is supposed, the efficacy of it was now no more.

I cannot take leave of the subject without first desiring the reader to remark with me, the improvement to be made of it. The Bethesdas of the gospel we still have, in the several ordinances and means of grace. But as then, it was the descent of an angel into the pool which gave efficacy to the waters, so now, it is by the coming of our Lord Jesus, the almighty angel of the covenant, into our midst, that any saving effect can be derived from the purest ordinances, or forms of worship. Where Jesus is not, there is no life-giving stream in any of the waters of ordinances. And it should be remarked, moreover, that our Bethesdas are not like this by the sheep market gate in Jerusalem. It is our mercy that the cure is not, as that was, limited to one poor sufferer, and him the first that came to it. But the gospel invitation in Jesus, is to every one that thirsteth. And the last is sometimes made first. And all that come, the Lord himself saith, "he will in no wise cast out." Yea, more than this still. Our Lord Jesus doth not limit his grace to our Bethesdas, or ordinances, but he worketh without them, (as in the instance of the poor man at the Jewish Bethesda) or with them, as seemeth best to his infinite wisdom, and for the display of his grace. Hail! thou glorious Healer! JEHOVAH Rophe of thy people! {Ex 15:26}


This was a city in Judah. {Jos 17:7} The name means, house of bread; from Beth, house; and lechem, or lehem bread. It was beautifully significant of Christ, who was from everlasting appointed to be born there, {Mic 5:2} and was, and is, and ever will be, the bread of life, and the living bread to his people; of which whosoever eateth shall live for ever! Lord! I would say with the disciples, evermore give me this bread. There was another Bethlehem in Zebulun, though it is but rarely spoken of in Scripture. {Jos 19:15} But this Bethlehem must be ever dear to every follower of Jesus. It was connected with and formed part of Ephratah. Here Jacob buried his beloved Rachel. {Ge 35:19-20} I would have the reader compare what Micah saith concerning this Bethlehem, with an eye to Christ, and look at what Matthew hath observed also on the subject. {Mic 5:2; Mt 2:1-6} The Holy Ghost evidently had Jesus in view in that sweet history of Ruth, when the certain man, Eli-melech, representing our whole nature, left Bethlehem the land of bread, for the Moab of the world; and when with his children Mahlon and Chillon, sickness and disease overtook him and all his posterity. {Ru 1:1} David’s cry for the waters of Bethlehem, {see 2Sa 23:15-17} hath always been considered as typical of the soul’s thirst for Jesus, the bread of life.


See HAWKERS: Baal-Peor. It was a city of Moab. {De 4:46} The house of opening; from Pahar, to open.


A well-known village, mentioned in the gospel, {see Mt 21:1} It should seem to be derived from Pep, opening; and Geeah, valley: the house of the valley. Probably, the opening of the valley at the foot of the mount of Olives. Here it was that Christ fulfilled that remarkable prophecy of Zechariah. (Zec 9:9 with Mt 21:4-5; Mr 11:1; Lu 19:28; Joh 12:14)


A city belonging to the priests in the tribe of Judah. {Jos 15:10} This place is rendered remarkable from the slaughter the Lord made on the men of Beth-shemesh for their curiosity in looking into the ark. {See 1Sa 6:19} An invasion by any into the priest’s office hath been always punished. {See Nu 4:5,15,20} How blessedly the Holy Ghost testifieth of Christ, that he took not upon him the office of High Priest uncalled of JEHOVAH A glorious consideration to all his people. {Heb 5:4-5}


See HAWKERS: Betrothed


This engagement among the Hebrews was made very sacred; and it was in general made early. They considered it a breach of the divine command not to marry; and hence, the betrothing, or being betrothed, was a ceremony long used before the marriage was intended to be consummated: and, indeed, sometimes there was a great lapse of time between the one and the other.

I have thought it worth noticing, in a work of this kind, purposely to observe, upon the act itself, the gracious condescension of our God and Saviour in adopting the term with respect to his marriage with our nature. His was a long betrothing, even before all worlds. But the marriage was only consummated when, in the fulness of time, he took our nature upon him, and became the Husband and Head of his church. And what a beautiful and gracious manner doth the Lord Jesus make use of, in his usual way of unequalled condescension and love, when speaking of his union with our nature, the complacency and delight he took in it, and the everlasting duration of it, he saith, "And I will betroth thee unto me for ever, yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in loving kindness, and in mercies. I will even betroth thee unto me in faithfulness, and thou shalt know the Lord." {Ho 2:19-20}


See HAWKERS: Betrothed


We meet with this word but once in the Bible. {Isa 62:4} It should seem to be derived from Balak, or Baal-meon, lord of the house, or married.


One of the cities of refuge appointed for the manslayer to flee unto, as provided. See {De 4:41, &c.} It lay in the country of the Reuhenites, but became somewhat like a frontier town, both to them, and to Edom and Moab; being near the borders of each. What makes it particularly meriting our attention is, that in the design and appointment of it we see clear traces of its being typical of the Lord Jesus Christ.

These cities of refuge were for the manslayer to flee to for shelter. Now Christ is the only refuge for the manslayer of the soul to flee unto; for every sinner is a soul-murderer: he hath slain his own soul. And if fleeing to Christ when the avenger of blood, that is, the law of God, and the justice of God, is pursuing him, he takes shelter in the Lord Jesus, the Bezer of his people, and the city of refuge for security, before he be overtaken, he is in safety for ever. All the days his High Priest liveth no condemnation can fall upon him; and that is for ever!

That the appointment of those cities (which were six in number), had an eye to Christ cannot be doubted, because a provision for the manslayer, if referring only to temporal things, might have been made in a much easier and more simple way. An express law for the magistrate or priest to have acted upon, in all cases of murder where there was no malice prepense, would have been equally easy in this case, as in every other. But when we see six cities expressly set apart for this one purpose only, and placed in certain situations convenient for the poor murderer to get most easily at; when we read so much as is said concerning it, and call to mind how much the Holy Ghost delighted in shadowing forth Christ, under the Old Testament Scripture, in type and figure; and when we observe, moreover, how very strikingly the things here marked down in the city of refuge point to the Lord Jesus Christ, we cannot hesitate to conclude, that it was thus, among a great variety of other ways, Christ was preached to the people. Christ, indeed, as a sanctuary, infinitely exceeds the type represented by the city of refuge. For though the manslayer, when entered within the suburbs, could not be taken from thence, yet neither could he go abroad; if he did, he died. But in Jesus we are both made safe and free; for "if the Son hath made us free, we shall be free indeed." {Joh 8:36} Moreover, the manslayer among the Jews had freedom only upon the death of the high priest, but our great High Priest giveth freedom both while we live on earth, and hereafter in heaven; and "he himself abideth a priest for ever."

I cannot forbear adding, what hath been always considered, by pious believers, as a farther testimony that these cities of refuge had an eye to Christ, and were plainly typical, namely, that the name given to each became expressive of somewhat significant in relation to the Lord Jesus Christ. Bezer means a strong hold. And such is Christ. Ramoth in Gilead, a place of eminency. And JEHOVAH’S testimony of Jesus is, that "he should be exalted, and extolled, and be very high?" {Isa 52:13} And Golan, in Bashan, carries with it the glory. And is there not joy and peace in believing when the soul abounds in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost? Neither were the other three cities appointed beyond Jordan by Joshua, less striking, when considered in reference to Christ. {Jos 20:7} Kedish, holy. And who is holy but Jesus? Shechem, the shoulder. And Christ’s government is said to be upon his shoulder. {Isa 9:6} And Kirjatharba, or Hebron, the city of fellowship. Into what sweet fellowship and communion doth Jesus bring all his people!

It is a very blessed addition to this merciful design of the Lord, that he so graciously appointed the whole six cities of refuge to suit the different situations of the people, that if they were central in the place where the manslaughter was committed, or at the remote end of their town, at each extremity there were avenues leading to the one or other of the city of refuge. And it was a law in Israel we are told, that one day in every year there were persons sent to repair the roads leading to them, and to remove all stumblingblocks or stones, which might by time have fallen in the way; and to see also, that the posts of direction, which were set up at every corner leading to the city, were carefully preserved, and the name Miklat, (that is, refuge) legible upon them. All these were so many express types of the Lord Jesus Christ. He is our Zoar, Ge 19:20, &c. our Bezer, {Ps 145:18} our city of refuge to flee to. And he is always near at hand. He is also, (as the prophet described him) the repairer of the breach, the restorer of paths to dwell in. {Isa 58:12} And every ordinance and means of grace in the ministry of his word points, like the Miklat of the Jews, unto Jesus, saying, "This is the way, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the right hand, and when ye turn to the left," {Isa 30:21} Blessed Jesus, be thou indeed, "the way, and the truth, and the life!" and surely, "the wayfaring men, though fools, shall not err therein." {Isa 35:8}


This name is given to the Word of God; and no one is at a loss to know what is meant by it when we say, the Bible. But it is not, perhaps, so generally known wherefore the Sacred Scriptures are called the Bible. This is the reason.—The word Bible is taken from the Greek. Biblos, or book; and it is called so by way of eminency and distinction, as if there were no other book (and which is, indeed, strictly and properly speaking, the ease) in the world. So then, by Bible is meant the Book, the Book of God, the only Book of God, including the holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, and no other; for these and these alone, are "able to make wise unto salvation, through the faith which is in Christ Jesus." The Hebrews call their Scriptures Mikra, which means, lesson, instruction, or Scripture.

When I said the Bible includes the holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, and no other, I consider what is called Apocrypha as not included. The very name Apocrypha, (so called by those who first placed those writings in our Bibles) which means hidden, or doubtful, implies as much, for them is nothing which, can be called doubtful in the word of God.

Some pious minds, indeed, have gone farther, and have ceased to call those writings apocryphal, or doubtful, but have decidedly determined against them, and from their own testimony shewn that they are unscriptural and contrary to God’s word. And, indeed, if what they have brought forward in proof be compared with the unalterable standard of God’s own declarations in Scripture, without doubt, they ought not to have place in our Bibles.

It would by far exceed the limits I have laid down for myself in this work, to enter deeply into the subject by way of determining the matter. One or two observations is all I shall offer; leaving the reader to frame his own judgment.

The Book of Ecclesiastics, take it altogether, is by far the best of the whole apocryphal writings. In the prologue, or preface, the writer, or translator, begs pardon for any errors that he may have fallen into in this service; which at once implies his opinion that he had no idea the author wrote it under divine inspiration. In 3:20 he speaks of giving alms as an "atonement for sins;" and 35:3 he declares the forsaking unrighteousness to be a propitiation. Thus much may suffice without enlarging.

I cannot, however, take leave of the subject without first quoting the words of Tertullian, who lived in the second century. He speaks decidedly concerning the Apocrypha, and felt indignant that it should ever have had a place in our Bibles. "The prophet Malachi, (saith Tertullian) is the bound or skirt of Judaism and Christianity. A stake that tells us, that there promising ends, and performing begins; that prophecying concludes, and fulfilling takes place. There is not a span between those two plots of holy ground, the Old and New Testament, for they touch each other. To put the Apocrypha, therefore, between them, is to separate Malachi and Matthew; Law and Gospel. It is to remove the land-mark of the Scriptures, and to be guilty of that breach in divorcing the marriage of the testaments, and what God hath joined together for man to put asunder."

Perhaps it may not be unacceptable to the reader to subjoin, under this article of the Bible, an account of the different copies of the sacred volume which have been handed down in the church through the several successive ages, for it will serve to manifest the Lord’s watchful care over his own precious Word.

The first copy, called the Septuagint, in Greek, so called from the seventy pious men devoted to this service, was produced about two hundred and forty years before the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, including all the sacred books, as we now have them, from Genesis to Malachi.

The second copy consisted of the Old Testament, from Hebrew into Greek by a Jew named Aquila, being converted to the Christian faith, in the time of the Emperor Adrian.

The third translation was about fifty-three years after the former. And to this succeeded a fourth, under the Emperor Severus. Eight years after this, another translation appeared by an unknown hand; and this was called the fifth translation. Afterwards Hieronymus translated it out of the Hebrew into the Latin tongue; this is what is called the sixth copy. And this is what is used in the Latin language to this day. Our first English translation was that of Myles Coverdale, Bishop of Exeter, bearing date 1535, and dedicated to King Henry the Eighth.


I think it proper to stop at this word, as the sense and meaning of it is not so generally understood as it were to be wished; and many of God’s dear children, it is to be apprehended, have their minds much exercised about it, fearing they have committed the unpardonable sin, in blasphemy against the Holy Ghost. It will not be amiss, therefore, to make an humble enquiry concerning it, looking up for the Lord the Spirit to be our Teacher.

The sin of blasphemy is peculiarly applied to those who sin against God by profaning his holy name, and speaking lightly and wantonly of his person, prefections, and attributes. The law under Moses’s dispensation punished such crimes with death. {Le 24:11,16}

This is what may be called blasphemy in general. But added to this, our Lord speaks of a peculiar branch of blasphemy against the person and work of God the Holy Ghost, as being accompanied with aggravated malignity, and in its nature unpardonable. But as if that none of his children might make a mistake concerning it, with that tenderness and grace which distinguished his character, the Lord Jesus mercifully set forth in what the peculiar degree of the sin consisted. He had been casting out devils, and the Scribes and Pharisees, with their usaul malignity, ascribed those gracious acts to the agency of the Evil Spirit. Hence, our Lord thus expressed himself, "Verily, I say unto you, all sin shall be for given unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they should blaspheme. But he that should blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation." And then it is added, as an explanation of the whole, and to shew in what the unpardonable sin consisted, "because they said, he hath an unclean spirit." {Mr 3:28, &c.} Here was the blasphemy, in ascribing the works of Jesus, wrought evidently the Spirit of JEHOVAH, to the agency of Satan; was blasphemy with a vengeance, and from its peculiar malignity unpardonable. And who are the persons that commit it? Surely, not they who desire to love Jesus, and to feel the gracious influences of the Holy Ghost. Their distresses and their fears are, lest they should come short of the grace of God. They are too well convinced that the Lord Jesus wrought all his miracles by his own almighty power, even to call it in question; so that in this sense, it is impossible for them to commit this unpardonable sin. They would shudder even to hear such blasphemy from the lips of others; and how then should it come from their own?

Who then were the persons to whom the Lord Jesus alluded when he thus expressed himself? Most evidently and plainly, the Scribes and Pharisees then before him. They had charged Christ with having an evil spirit, by whose influence he wrought miracles, and hence Jesus declared the sin, and shewed, at the same time, that it was totally unpardonable.

And what confirmed it more, and manifested that they were given up to a reprobate mind, was, that hardness and insensibility both of their sin and their danger. Here is another sweet and precious testimony to the timid and fearful child of God, if he would but attend to it as it really is. Your very softness of heart proves the reverse of those obdurate Pharisees. They had commited it, and were insensible and unconcerned. Your sorrow and apprehension most decidedly manifest that you have not so sinned, neither can have committed such an evil. The very different state of the different characters draws the line of distinction, and shews who are the blasphemers of the Holy Ghost, and who are not. The Lord be the teacher of his people.


To bless in the language of Scripture, hath many different significations. When spoken of in reference to the Lord’s blessing his people, it means bestowing upon them his loving kindness, and grace, and favour, as manifested in a way of temporal, spiritual, or eternal blessings. But when it is spoken of in respect to our blessing the Lord, or blessing one another, it is evident that the sense of it differs very widely. I cannot omit mentioning, under this article, a peculiarity concerning blessings in general, as they relate to the Lord’s mercies in this way to his people, and because I do not believe that the subject is generally understood. All blessings are in Christ. This is the bottom of all our mercies; for Where Christ is not, there can be nothing truly blessed. "Men shall be blessed in him." {Ps 72:17} But while the church are supposed to know this, and to look for no blessings but in him, believers do not so fully as they ought consider that Christ himself is their blessedness. There is a nice distinction in this view of the subject. It is not enough to see Christ’s hand and Christ’s blessing in the mercy he bestows upon me, in order to make that blessing sweet; but Christ himself must be the blessing to crown all. It is not enough that Jesus gives me life and salvation; but he himself must be my life and salvation. So the Psalmist, speaking in the person of Christ, saith of him, as the head of his church and people, Ps 27:1. And so the prophet also, speaking in the person of his Lord, for the same purpose, Isa 12:2. And so must all the church say concerning their glorious Head. And hence, the psalmist, when at any time speaking in the person of Christ, or of the person of Christ, doth not simply say, Blessed is the man (that is, the man Christ Jesus,) but, Blessedness is the man, using the word in the plural number, to intimate all blessings in him. For Christ is not a single blessing, but all; and the blessedness he gives, and is to his people, doth not consist in one thing, but in all. I hope the reader will understand my meaning. The first word of Ps 1 Ps 32 and Ps 41 (to mention no more,) which all speak of Christ, is on this account in the plural, and all ascribe blessedness to him for this express purpose.


The Scripture very frequently makes use of this word, by way of expressing the blindness of the soul while in an unawakened unregenerate state. Persons of this description are said to "have eyes, and see not;" and "ears, and hear not." And such, indeed, is the case of every man by nature. They see not their own corruption; they have no apprehension of their want of Christ; they see no beauty in Christ. So awful a state is this, that the Holy Ghost no less than seven times, in his blessed word, speaks of it in the same strong figures. {See Isa 6:9; Mt 13:14; Mr 4:12; Lu 8:10; Joh 12:40; Ac 28:26; Ro 11:8} It is a blessed testimony that Jesus hath opened our eyes to say, with the poor man at the pool of Siloam, "One thing I know, that whereas I was blind, now I see." {Joh 9:25}


Very important, in Scripture language, is the mention made of blood. So much so, indeed, that perhaps the perfect apprehension of it is not known. From the beginning of the creation of God, the Lord himself pointed to the blood as the life of the creature. And in a peculiar and special manner, the Lord intimated somewhat of an high nature in the blood, when speaking to Cain concerning the blood of his brother Abel, which he had shed; the Lord said, "What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto me from the ground." In the margin of the Bible, the word is rendered bloods, in the plural number. {Ge 4:10} In De 12:23, the prohibition of eating blood is mentioned with peculiar emphasis, and the reason assigned; "because it is the life." And it is again and again forbidden. There can be no question but that much of the Lord Jesus, and his precious blood-shedding, was veiled under it; though the subject is too mysterious to explain.

It is, no doubt, a wonderful dispensation from beginning to end, that of redemption by the blood of Christ. That blood should be an appointed laver for uncleanness, so that, "without shedding of blood there is no remission;" and that "the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth from all sin," {1Jo 1:7} whereas according to all our natural ideas of blood, it defiles. Yea, the Lord himself, speaking of defilements in his people Israel, he expresseth their uncleanness under this figure: "Your hands are full of blood;" and instantly adds, "wash you, make you clean: put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes." {Isa 1:15-16} But here we stop; the subject is mysterious, and beyond our scanty line of knowledge to fathom. It is enough for us to know that that blood which Christ shed, as a sacrifice for sin, is, the only "fountain opened to the house of David, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for all uncleanness." In this the church on earth are beheld clean; and in this the church in heaven are accepted before God, having "washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb." {Re 7:14} And hence, those strong expressions we every where meet with in the Scripture, "of the blood of the covenant, the blood of sprinkling, and the like." {Zec 9:11; Heb 12:24}

Blot out

This expression is used in Scripture both in a way of mercy and of judgment. The Lord saith, that he hath so completely blotted out the sins of his people, "that the iniquity of Israel should be sought for, and there should be none; and the sins of Judah, and they should not be found." {Jer 50:20} And elsewhere, the Lord describes the same thing, under the image of blotting out the sins of his people as a cloud, and as a thick cloud. {Isa 42:25; 44:22} In other parts of scripture, blotting out is spoken of as an awful judgment. {De 9:14; 25:19; Ps 69:28}


The meaning of this name is explained to us, as given by Jesus himself, {Mr 3:17} "the Sons of thunder." Perhaps the word is a compound, from Bini, son; Regem, thunder, or tempest; intimating, perhaps, that those sons of Zebedee would be powerful preachers under the Lord.


The son of Salmon and Rahab, and the father of Obed, by Ruth; of whom, by descent, after the flesh, sprung Christ. {See Mt 1:5-6} I beg the reader not to overlook the grace of the Lord Jesus in this wonderful relation. Jesus will not only take our nature for the purpose of redemption, but he will take it from the lowest order of the people. Rahab was an harlot of the city of Jericho, cursed by Joshua, {Jos 6:26} though famous for her faith in the Lord God of Israel; and Ruth a poor outcast of Moab. Both Gentiles, and yet brought into the genealogy of the Lord Jesus Christ. Was it to shew the astonishing condescension of Jesus? And was it not to shew also, that long before the great events of redemption were to be accomplished, the Jew and Gentile church were both in Christ? {Ga 3:28-29}

See HAWKERS: Harlot

Boaz (2)

One of the pillars in the porch of Solomon’s temple, {1Ki 7:21} It was on the left hand, as Jachin, the other pillar corresponding to it, was placed on the right. The names of both were significant. Jachin means, he that strengthens and makes steadfast. Boaz means, in it is strength and firmness. No doubt, they both were figurative of Him who condescends to call himself the Door; in whom, and by whom, unless an entrance be made into the temple, the same is "a thief and a robber." {Joh 10:8}

We are told these pillars were eighteen cubits high each of them, and twelve in circumference, 1Ki 7:15. And from their magnificence, they formed no unapt resemblance of Him "who is the pillar and ground of the truth." {1Ti 3:15}


We meet with this name, Jg 2:1,5. It was given in consequence of the message of an angel which caused the people to weep. Hence Bochim means a place of weeping, or the weepers. And so the margin of the Bible renders it. Some make the Word the plural of Baca, or Bocha, mulberry-tree; and so it might be a place of mulberries, and called Bochim, where the people received tidings from the angel, and wept. See Baca; see Mourning; see also Mulberry-tree.


In the language of Scripture, somewhat more is meant than the mere animal life, when speaking of the body. The whole church of Christ is his body. And the Holy Ghost, by his servant the apostle Paul, saith, "There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body." {1Co 15:44} So that the term is variously used.

But I should not have thought it necessary on this account to have made any pause at the word body, it not been in reference to a subject of an infinitely higher nature; I mean, in relation to the body of our Lord Jesus Christ. The wonderful condescension of the Son of God in taking upon him our nature, and assuming a body, such as ours, in all points like as we are, yet without sin; makes it a most interesting subject, and comes home recommended to our tenderest affections, that it is impossible ever to pass by it, or to regard it with coolness and indifference. I would beg the reader’s indulgence for a few moments on the occasion.

The Scripture account of this mysterious work is not more marvellous than it is endearing. It became necessary, it seems, in the accomplishment of redemption, that the great and almighty Author of it should be man, yea, perfect man, as well as perfect God. The relation which God the Holy Ghost hath given, concerning the Son of God becoming incarnate, is said to the church in so many sweet and blessed words, that the soul of the believer, methinks, would chime upon them for ever. "Wherefore (he saith) in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people." Hence, therefore, the Son of God passed by the nature of angels, for an angel’s nature would not have suited his purpose, nor ours. He was to be in all points like those he redeemed, sin only excepted; and, therefore, a body he assumes for the accomplishment of this great end. (See Heb ii throughout, but particularly Heb 2:14-18.)

This, therefore, being determined on in the council of peace, that He who undertook to redeem our nature, should partake of the same nature as those he redeemed; the next enquiry is, What saith the Scripture concerning the Son of God resuming our nature, and how was it wrought?

The Scriptures, with matchless grace and condescension, have shewn this, and in a way, considering the dulness of our faculties in apprehension, so plain and circumstantial, that under the blessed Spirit teaching, the humblest follower of the Lord, taught by the Holy Ghost, can clearly apprehend the wonderful subject. Under the spirit of prophecy, Jesus declared, ages before his incarnation, JEHOVAH had provided a body for his assumption. "Sacrifice and offering (said the Lord,) thou wouldst not, but a body hast thou prepared me." (See Ps 40:6 with Heb 10:5, &c.) But how was the Son of God to assume this body? The Holy Ghost takes up the blessed subject, and by his servant the Evangelist Luke, records the whole particular’s of a conference which took place between an angel and a Virgin Called Mary, whose womb, by his miraculous impregnation, and without the intervention of a human father, was to bring forth this glorious Holy One, as the great Saviour of his people. The Holy Ghost (said the angel to Mary,)"shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore, also that Holy thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God." I beg the reader to turn to the wonderful account, and read the whole. {Lu 1:26-53} And I would farther beg him to turn to the Scriptures of the prophets, who, with one voice, pointed to this great event in all their ministrations, {Isa 7:14; 9:6; Mic 5:2} And when the reader hath gone over all these Scriptures of the Old Testament, I request him to finish the enquiry in reading the history of the facts themselves, as they are recorded in the New, and bless God for his grace and condescension in bringing the church acquainted with such an event, in the interest of which our present and everlasting happiness is so intimately concerned.

In speaking, therefore, or having a right conception of the body of the Lord Jesus Christ; this is the point of view in which the Scriptures of God teach us to regard that holy body. The Son of God as God, assuming this holy thing, so expressly called by the angel, underived from our fallen nature, and as to any shadow of imperfection, unconnected with it; becomes a suited Saviour for all the purposes of redemption, and being by this sacred and mysterious union, God and man in one person, formed one Christ: he, and he only, becomes the proper Redeemer and Mediator, the God-man Christ Jesus. And hence the plain and obvious meaning of all these Scriptures. God in Christ. "In him dwelleth all the fulness of the GODHEAD bodily." {2Co 5:19; Col 2:9; 1Ti 3:16; Joh 1:14} and Joh 17 throughout.

I must not enlarge. Neither ought I to dismiss the subject without first adding, to what I have said, one observation more; that by virtue of this union of our nature with the Son of God, his church is brought into an intimate union and oneness with him. And while we are taught to behold Christ as taking upon him our nature, we are no less taught, to consider every regenerated believer as a "member of his body, his flesh, and his bones." {Eph 5:23-33.} And it is a matter of holy joy and rapture, never to be lost sight of by the humblest and poorest of his redeemed people, that the hand of God the Father is in all these glorious concerns, "who gave his dear Son to be the Head over all things to the church, which is his body, the fulness of Him that filleth all in all." {Eph 1:22-23}



This is a word in Scripture of strong meaning. It is not unfrequently made use of for the whole of spiritual slavery, in those who are under a covenant of works. They are said to be in bondage to sin, to Satan, to their own consciences, to the law of God, to the justice of God, to the fear of death, and eternal judgment. Whereas, those that are brought into the liberty of the gospel, are said to be delivered "from the bondage of corruption, into the glorious liberty of the sons of God." Hence the Lord Jesus, in allusion to this blessed change, saith, {Joh 8:36} "If the Son shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed." The Holy Ghost by his servant the apostle Paul, {Ga 4:22-31,} hath exemplified both these doctrines in a beautiful allegory, in the instances of Sarah and Hagar.


See HAWKERS: Bible.

And in addition to what is there said, I would beg to remark, that the Hebrews had several names for distinguishing their several books; such as "the book of the covenant," {Ex 24:7; 2Ki 23:21} "the book of the law." De 30:10 and De 31:26. Their general term for a book was Sepher. In the New Testament, we read of "the book of life." {Php 4:3; Re 20:12} It is our happiness to have all that it behoves us to know, concerning the book of life, in the copy of it of the Bible, which becomes indeed, in the proclamation of grace it contains, "the book of life." Here we find the characters of those whose names are written in heaven fully drawn out, and they altogether correspond to those for whom JEHOVAH gave Christ as a covenant. See Isa 42:6-7; Lu 4:18. See also Da 7:10 and Da 12:1; Re 5:1-3; Ps 2:7


We do not meet with this word very often in Scripture, nevertheless, seldom as it is used, it is not always used in the same sense. From that memorable passage in Scripture, Ex 3:22, where the Lord commanded Moses, that the people should borrow of their neighbours, on their departure from Egypt, jewels of gold and of silver, the idea hath arisen in many minds, that as the things then borrowed were never afterwards returned, there was intended, and committed, a real fraud. But it is to be observed, that the word borrow, from the same root, is differently rendered in the case of Hannah, when asking the Lord for a son. Had the root been regarded in her instance, from whence the word Hannah used it, and from whence it was taken, it would have been, she borrowed of the Lord a son. Whereas, there it is rendered she called his name Samuel, which (as the margin of the Bible renders it,) is asked of God; "for she said, I have asked him of God." {1Sa 1:20} Now, here we find the word, though the same, from the same root is not to borrow, but to beg as a favour. And the subject is farther explained in the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth verses of the same chapter. For when she brought Samuel to the temple, she tells Eli, for this child (said she) I prayed, and the Lord "hath given me my petition which I asked of him;" therefore also, I have lent him to the Lord; as long as he liveth he shall be lent to the Lord. In the margin it is, I have returned him, whom I have received by petition, to the Lord; or, he whom I have received by petition shall be returned. Hence, therefore, the original word is not, in the strict sense of it, to borrow as a loan; but may be rendered, to ask or request, or beg and crave. And so I find the verb, or root, rendered in Mr. Parkhurst’s Lexicon, page 656.

I have thought it proper, in a work of this kind, to notice the above. But I beg that it may be considered, at the same time, that if the word be still accepted, as our translators have rendered it to borrow, Ex 3:22, there will not attach to it the least matter of fraud. Let it be remembered, that when the children of Israel, under the first Pharaoh, went down into Egypt, they were commanded by the king not "to regard their stuff; for the good of all the land of Egypt was to be theirs." {Ge 45:16-20} But it appears from their history, that when Jacob and his family went down to sojourn in "Egypt, they took their cattle and their goods with them." {Ge 46:1-7} It becomes an important question in the subject, to ask, What became of this property, improved and increased, as we may reasonably suppose it to have been, when another king arose, who knew not Joseph? Moreover, we are told, that the children, when in bondage, built treasure cities for Pharaoh, Ex 1:8. And what wages did the tyrant give them for those labours? We are told, indeed, that they made their lives bitter to them with their cruel bondage; "and that they cast out their children, to the end they might not live." {Ac 7:19} When, therefore, the Lord had turned their tables upon them, and by the plagues upon Pharaoh, and all his people, had made a way for the Exodus, of his chosen, no doubt, under the remorse of their minds, and their sorrow of heart, the Egyptians were glad to part with the Israelites at any rate, and therefore lent them, or gave them such things as they asked.

I only beg to add, under this view of the subject, that as the tabernacle in the wilderness was afterwards adorned with the gold and silver the Israelites brought with them from Egypt, it is plain that the Lord approved of the conduct of his servants in asking from their neighbours such things as they needed, and as the Lord himself had commanded. {Ex 3:22}

And might there not be somewhat typical in the thing itself, in reference to the future call (as was all along intended) of the Gentile church? I beg the reader to read that sweet passage of the prophet Isa 19:18-25; and see the rich promises of the call of Egypt with Assyria, when the Lord shall set up the New Testament altar, even the Lord Jesus Christ, in the midst of the land of Egypt; and five cities shall speak the language of Canaan, even the gospel language of salvation by the blood and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ. And I would ask, Is not that day, yea, that very day, at hand? Hath not the Lord, even now, been planting the gospel in Egypt? Hath not our God, when working by terrible things in righteousness, as he doth in the present awful war, caused even the Musselmen and inhabitants of Egypt to look on the congregations and prayer meetings of some of our pious soldiers who have been there? The writer of this hath himself received testimony to this striking providence of our God from a faithful soldier of the Lord Jesus Christ, as well as a faithful servant of his king and country, who was there, and an eye-witness to such characters looking in upon them, when he and a few of his devout comrades met together to read the Scriptures, and pray, and sing praises to the Lord. And who shall say what eventual blessed consequences may arise out of it? Who knows, but from this may spring up, as from a grain of mustard seed, a glorious harvest to our God? Oh! for that happy period when, according to this sweet prophecy, "the Lord of hosts himself shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hand, and Israel mine inheritance."


Before the invention of glass, bottles were made, for the most part, of skins. It is proper to keep this in remembrance when reading the Bible, both of the Old Testament and of the New; for the knowledge and use of glass is of modern date. Hence, when it is said, {Ge 21:14} that Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, we may suppose, that this was not only a large skin for a bottle, but as it was put on her shoulder, it was somewhat cumbersome and heavy.

When the men of Gibeon acted wisely with Joshua, as if coming from afar country, we are told, that they not only produced their bread mouldy, but their bottles rent, and patched together, which they said, were new when they left their own country. Bottles rent would be useless if made of glass. {Jos 9:4, &c.} Modern travelers relate that, even now, large skins of oxen are made use of for containing liquor; though vessels made of earth are also known. But for large quantities, they tell us, that still the skins of beasts are in use.

In the days of our Lord, it is certain that stone, as well as earthen vessels, were known, for we read of such at the marriage in Cana of Galilee. {Joh 2:6} But skins were also used; for the Lord speaks of using caution, not to put new (fermenting) wine into old dried bottles. {Mt 9:17} A beautiful figure this, of the precious wine of the gospel, which must not be put into the old skin of our dried nature, but into the new heart of grace. Both must be new, and both are then preserved. {Re 21:5; 2Co 5:17}


The bow, in Scripture language meaneth much more than the instrument called the bow, used in war. Hence, the dying patriarch, when blessing Joseph, speaks of "his bow abiding in strength, because his arms were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob. From thence (said the patriarch), is the shepherd the stone of Israel." {Ge 49:24} And the Redeemer himself is represented as having "a bow, when a crown was given unto him, and he went forth conquering and to conquer." {Re 6:2} And there can be no doubt, but that the bow mentioned by the dying patriarch referred to Christ. Hence, in allusion to the same, JEHOVAH saith, "I do set my bow in the cloud." {Ge 9:13} And hence John, when he saw heaven opened, beheld "a rainbow round about 1he throne." {Re 4:3} And the mighty angel he saw "clothed with a cloud, had a rainbow upon his head." {Re 10:1} It is blessed to view Jesus thus constantly typified.


I should not have thought it necessary to have offered a single observation on this word, considered in the general acceptation of it, for every one cannot but know its obvious meaning. But it may be proper, notwithstanding, to observe, that as in its literal sense, the bowels mean the entrails, so when used figuratively, it refers to the heart and the affections. Hence, it is said of the patriarch Joseph, that at beholding his brother, "his bowels did yearn upon him." {Ge 43:30} And the Lord himself is represented as expressing his tenderness for Ephraim raider the same similitude; "Is Ephraim my dear son? is he a pleasant child? for since I spake against him, I do earnestly remember him still; therefore, my bowels are troubled for him. I will surely have mercy upon him, saith the Lord." {Jer 31:20}

But when the word is spoken in reference to the person of Christ in his human nature, here it is not figuratively used, but literally; and the meaning of it is uncommonly blessed and sweet. If the reader will turn to Ps 40:8, he will find Jesus thus speaking by the spirit of prophecy, "I delight to do thy will, O my God! yea, thy law is within my heart." The margin of the Bible renders it, within my bowels, meaning, that so perfectly holy and pure was the human nature of Christ, that the law of his Father was incorporated in his very being; an inwrought holiness mixed up and becoming his person and his existence. What a precious blessed view doth it afford of the Lord Jesus!

And what I beg the reader also particularly to remark, this purity, this holiness of the Lord Jesus in our nature, is, to all intents and purposes, that holiness in which JEHOVAH beholds his church in Jesus. This, I believe, is not so generally understood nor considered by the faithful as it ought; but it is what the Scriptures of God, in every part, warrant. Jesus becoming our Surety is expressly said to have been made both sin and a curse for his redeemed, that "they might be made the righteousness God in him." {2Co 5:21; Ga 3:13} And what a blessedness is there contained in this one view of the completeness of the church in Jesus? So that, in the very moment that the child of God feels the workings of corruption within him, and is groaning under a body of sin and death, which he carries about with him, though he sees nothing in himself but sin and imperfection, yea, sometimes, as it appears to him, growing imperfections, yet looking to the Lord Jesus as his Surety, and considering the Redeemers holiness, and not any thing in himself, as the standard of justification, here he rests his well-founded hope. This was blessedly set forth by the Holy Ghost: {Isa 45:24} "Surely, shall one say, In the Lord have I righteousness and strength; even to him shall men come, and all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed."


From the vast importance of this word in Scripture, as it refers to the Lord Jesus Christ, it is marked by the prophet Zechariah in capitals. It seems, therefore, to demand our more particular attention. We find Christ spoken of, under the spirit of prophecy, by the Lord JEHOVAH, in this character by three of the prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Zechariah. It will be profitable for the reader to consult the several passages. (Isa 4:2 and Isa 11:1; Jer 23:5 and Isa 33:15; Zec 3:8) The word Branch in the original is Netzer, which signifies, a city of plants. And to shew the correspondence to Christ, the Netzer, or Nazareth, where Jesus dwelt, was named from the same root. {See Mt 2:23} The parallel passage in Zec 6:12 is to the same effect. Ezekiel, in allusion to the Lord Jesus, speaks of him under the similitude of the plants, like Nazareth, but describes him "as a plant of renown." {Eze 34:24-29}


This word is sometimes used figuratively, to express power, durableness, and hardness. Thus in relation to Christ, John saith, when he saw him in that glorious vision, {Re 1:15} "his feet were like unto fine brass, as if burning in a furnace;" denoting the glory and everlasting nature of his person and kingdom. We read also of mountains of brass in reference to the everlasting establishment of JEHOVAH’S purposes, Zec 6:1. Sometimes the word brass is made use of to set forth the impudence of hardened sinners; "Thy neck is an iron sinew, and thy brow brass." {Isa 48:4} And sometimes the Lord gives some sweet and precious promises to his people under this figure, "Arise, and thresh, O daughter of Zion! for I will make thine horn iron, and I will make thy hoofs brass." {Mic 4:13}


Sometimes bread is spoken of in Scripture in the common acceptation of it, as the staff of natural life, but more frequently it is used in figure, by way of allusion to the Lord Jesus and the life in him. Jesus calls himself "the living bread, and the bread of God;" to intimate, that as the natural man is sustained day by day, life kept up and preserved by receiving the common bread for the body, so the spiritual life in Jesus is wholly supported by communications from Jesus, and life in Jesus. "Whosoever eateth of him shall live for ever." {Joh 6:32-58}

The shew bread of the Old Testament was of Christ. It consisted of twelve loaves made without leaven, to intimate that there is nothing leavened in Christ. The shew bread was placed new upon the golden altar. Christ is our New Testament altar; and all offerings must be offered upon the golden altar of his mediatorial nature. The shew bread was placed there every Sabbath. Christ is our Sabbath, and the rest the wherewith the Lord causeth "the weary to rest, and their refreshing." {See Ex 25:30; Isa 28:12; Ps 116:7; Mt 11:28} It may not be improper to add, that the term shew bread meant the bread of faces; and, probably, it was so called, because offered in the presence of the Lord, and placed before him on the table. The Israelites called all their loaves by the name of Huggath.

The unleavened bread of the passover, there is particular mention made of it, Ex 12:8. And concerning leavened bread, with which the blood of the sacrifice was never to be offered, what a beautiful type was this of the untainted, pure offering of the body of Jesus Christ, once for all. No altar but that of earth, (because the earth is the Lord’s,) was to be made for offering. If but a tool was lifted up upon the altar of earth, or stone, the whole was polluted. {Ex 23:18; 20:24-25} And is it not the same now in the believer’s offerings in Jesus? When in commemoration of the Lord’s supper we partake of the bread and wine, as tokens of the body and blood of Christ, would it not be a pollution to leaven this solemn service with any thing of ours? Is not Christ all and in all?


This was a part of the high priest’s dress, which he wore when performing his office in the temple service. On this breastplate were engraved the names of the twelve tribes of Israel, and it was called, "the breastplate of judgment." {Ex 28:15} The design of it seems to have been to typify the Lord Jesus Christ, the great and almighty High Priest of his redeemed, who going in before JEHOVAH, bears the names, and persons, and concerns of all his people. Hence, the church so vehemently desired the Lord that she might be set "as a seal upon his heart, and a seal upon his arm." The former the tenderest, and the latter the strongest part in Jesus’s affection. {Song 8:6} And hence, in allusion to the same, the apostle exhorts the church to put on "the breastplate of faith and love;" meaning, a steadfast looking unto Christ in the exercise of those graces, by relying wholly on him for mercy and salvation. {1Th 5:8}


This word is sometimes made use of in Scripture in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ. For as the breath of the body is the life of the body, so Christ is the breath or life of the soul. Hence, the prophet Jeremiah, in reference to Christ, saith, "the breath of our nostrils, the Anointed of the Lord was taken in their pits." {La 4:20} And hence, when the Lord Jesus, after his resurrection, imparted to his disciples the gracious influences of his Spirit, it is said, that "he breathed on them, and said, Receive ye the Holy Ghost." {Joh 20:22}


See HAWKERS: Brother


This is a well known name in common life. It is very highly endeared to our affection when applied by Jesus himself to his church. If the reader wishes to see some beautiful instances, in which the whole church as one collective body is called the Lamb’s wife, I refer him to the Songs of Solomon, and to the book of the Revelation at large. {Re 21:2-9; Joh 3:29; Isa 62:3-5}

See HAWKERS: Church, HAWKERS: Spouse, HAWKERS: Wife.


This, as a corresponding name to the former, is frequently in the Scriptures applied to Christ. John the Baptist beautifully describes Jesus under this character, Joh 3:28, &c. And Christ himself, Mt 9:5; Mr 2:19-20.

See HAWKERS: Husband


See HAWKERS: Cedron


Holy Scripture hath several distinct meanings for this term, and of very different significations from each other. To be of the same nature, or disposition, to be of the same town, or country, or occupation in trade, is sometimes made the cause for calling men brethren. And in Scripture to be of the same stock, or family, though not of the same parents, constitutes a brother. Thus, as in the instance of our Lord Jesus Christ after the flesh, James and Joses were called the brethren of Christ, but in fact, were not so, but only relations of that tribe to which Jesus belonged. For Mary, the mother of James and Joses, was the wife of Cleophas, and not the Virgin Mary. {Mt 27:56; Joh 19:25} And sometimes the name of brother is used to describe men of like character, in idleness, or iniquity. Thus Solomon saith, "He that is slothful in his work, is brother to him that is a great waster." {Pr 18:9}

But when the reader hath carefully marked the application of the name brother to these and the like characters, there is a view of the subject perfectly foreign to every other, and above all, in which when the name of brother is considered as applied to the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our relationship in him, it forms the sweetest of all thoughts. Hence the church, before Christ’s open manifestation in the flesh, so passionately longed for his coming. "O (said she) that thou wert as my brother that sucked the breasts of my mother! when I should find thee without I would kiss thee; yea, I should not be despised." {Song 8:1} And, indeed, Jesus in his human nature is the nearest and dearest of all brothers; and in his person is centered a comprehension of all relations. Brethren in Christ are all brethren by the Father’s side, for they have all one father, "even the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named." {Eph 3:14-15} And they are all brethren by the mother’s side, for they have all lain together in the same womb of the divine counsels and purposes of JEHOVAH, and that from all eternity. {Isa 49:1; Tit 1:2} And they are all brethren by Jesus’s side himself, for he is their elder brother, and the "first born among many brethren." {Ro 8:29} And they are "bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh." {Eph 5:20}

I must beg the reader’s attention a little farther to a subject so infinitely interesting. Evident it is, that from all eternity this relationship of Jesus with our nature began, even before that nature of ours was called into being. And hence, what we read in the Old Testament Scripture of the Jewish brother, and the precepts so frequently given of regarding him, had a special reference to Jesus. We lose the whole beauty of the Scripture if Christ be not first beheld in this subject. As for example.—When the law enjoined tenderness, and the relief to the brother waxen poor, here we behold the law of JEHOVAH, and Jesus the law fulfiller blessedly obeying it among his brethren, "If thy brother be waxen poor, and hath sold away some of his possession, and if any of his kin come to redeem it, then shall he redeem that which his brother sold." So again, "If thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen into decay with thee, then thou shalt relieve him; yea, though he be a stranger or a sojourner, that he may live with thee." {Le 25:25-35}

Who is the brother waxen poor, having fallen into decay, and sold away some of his possession, but our poor ruined nature; ruined by the fall, and by sin, having sold away our possession? And who is the brother to whom the precept is given, and by whom it hath been fulfilled, and is fulfilling, but the Lord Jesus Christ? Who but him could redeem our mortgaged inheritance? Who but him had a right so to do, as the nearest of all kin, and the most compassionate of all relations? And do observe in those gracious precepts how blessedly provision is made, in this almighty Brother’s obedience to this precept, for all the relations of Jesus, both Jew and Gentile; "Yea, (saith the command of JEHOVAH,) though he be a stranger, or a sojourner, that he may live with thee." Live with Jesus! what a precious consideration to my poor heart in the moment of writing, who am by nature a Gentile born, and at that time "an alien to the commonwealth of Israel." {Eph 2:11-12} Blessed for ever be the almighty Lawgiver for enjoining those precepts! And, blessed for ever be the almighty Law fulfiller for his complete obedience to them! And blessed for ever be the almighty Author of Scripture for recording these things, and both bringing my soul acquainted with them, and causing me to believe them, to the divine glory and my soul’s joy! And ought it not to be added, by way of rich consolation to every believer’s heart, that Jesus our Brother is still carrying on the same blessed purposes, and fulfilling the precept even now in heaven? Jesus is still the Brother; for though his state is changed, yet not his nature. And amidst all the decays and poverty of his poor brethren on earth, Jesus is looking with the same compassion as ever on them; and they are authorized to look up for every needed relief unto him. He must redeem, yea, he hath in every individual instance of his people redeemed their lost possession. He must "open his hand wide to his poor and to his needy in the land." {De 15:7-8} He must bring every one of them home to live with him; for so the precept is. All the poor brethren of Jesus form one great body, of which Jesus is the Head. And surely, the Head and members being one, ought to be, and certainly will be, eternally united.

I cannot forego adding one sweet and interesting thought more, by way of finishing our present view of Jesus as our Brother; namely, that as Jesus hath thus condescended to become our brother, we ought to take great delight in looking up to him in this tender character. Is it said, that he is not ashamed to call us brethren; and shall we be ashamed of the relationship? Are the great ones of the earth in their carnal alliances, so proud to have their connections known, which are but for a day, and that a day of sin and vanity; and shall we, that are brethren to the Prince of the kings of the earth, and the almighty Lord of heaven, feel no joy in such an union, and which is to last for ever?

I do beg the reader to ponder well the soul-comforting subject, and to be more glad of it than of all the riches and grandeur of the world. And I mention this, the rather, because it is to be feared that some of the Lord’s hidden ones are not sensible of their high birth, and relationship in Jesus; or at least, do not make that use of it which they ought. Would any man be shy of going to an earthly court if the king of that court was his brother? Nay, would he not be often going there; often telling of it to ever one around him; and delighting to have it known that he had access, at all times, to the person of the king his brother, and might have whatever he asked of him? But what are these privileges, or what great cause for taking pride and consequence in these transitory dignities, compared to that real unfading honour in a consciousness of not only coming to Jesus, the King of kings, and Lord of lords, as to a brother, but who hath made all his redeemed kings and priests to God and the Father, and "they shall reign with him for ever and ever!" {Re 1:6; 22:5}

Suffer me yet farther to add, that the Scriptures of our God have made this subject of Christ’s brotherhood, so peculiarly endearing to the church, that the gracious design of our Lord Jesus, in the assuming of our manhood, is not answered when his church "makes no use of it. Let the reader recollect that this astonishing condescension of Christ is altogether personal. It was the Son of God alone, and not either of the other persons of the GODHEAD which be came our Brother. For, although, all the glorious persons of JEHOVAH took part in our redemption, yet to neither can we look up as brother but to the Lord Jesus Christ. And is not this personal love and grace of Jesus intended to excite and call up personal affections towards him? Doth he not seem thereby as if to bid us approach him, in a peculiar manner, under this sweet character? Yea, doth he not say in language similar to his illustrious type, the patriarch"Joseph, to his brethren, when under a conscious sense of their crimes in having sold him for a slave they feared to approach him; doth not our Almighty Joseph say to us, under all our tremblings, and fears, and misgivings, in having nailed him to the cross by our sins: "Come near to me I pray you, I am Jesus your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt?" {Ge 45:3-4} Oh! thou glorious, gracious, all-lovely, and all-loving Brother! thou art a brother indeed, born for adversity; a friend that loveth at a11 times; one that sticketh closer than a brother. Thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise; thine hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; and all thy Father’s children shall bow down before thee. {Ge 49:8}


We find the greatest attention paid by the Hebrews, from the earliest ages, to the depositing of the remains of their friends in sepulchres. Perhaps, in all the compass of language, and in all the refinements of courts, there is nothing to be found in history equal to the manners and address of the patriarch Abraham, when standing up before his people to ask a place for the burial of his beloved Sarah from the children of Heth.

Would men wish to behold a portrait of the most unaffected dignity with politeness, they must look for it in the twenty-third chapter of Genesis, where, I venture to say, is discovered every thing that can be truly called elegant, dignified, and venerable in the character of the great Father of the faithful. Surely, the patriarch here appears the most accomplished and finished gentleman the world ever beheld. In proof, I hope that I shall be pardoned if I recite a few words from that interesting chapter.

"And Sarah died in Kirjath-arba, the same is Hebron, in the land of Canaan. And Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her. And Abraham stood up from before his dead, and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying, I am a stranger and a sojourner with you; give me a possession of a burying-place with you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight."

And the children of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him, "Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us: in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead. None of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mightest bury thy dead. And Abraham stood up and bowed himself to the people of the land, even to the children of Heth."

What a very interesting view doth this afford of the conduct of Abraham on this occasion. And when in the after conversation, the children of Heth proposed giving the spot of ground the patriarch fixed on for a sepulchre for his beloved Sarah, with what grace and dignity did he decline it as a gift; but requested that he might have it by purchase. And during the transaction of this business, we are told, that Abraham again bowed down himself before the people of the land.

Last offices to the dead were among the first in the concern of the living. Probably, though it was reserved for the gospel dispensation to bring life and immortality to light, yet among those who, like of Christ afar off, they were not wholly untaught concerning the doctrine of the resurrection in Jesus. But be this as it may, certain it is, that the greatest regard was had in the burial of the dead among the early followers of our Lord; and to be without a burial place, was considered among the severest calamities. Hence Jacob, when a-dying, charged his children to bury him with his fathers. "There" (said he), "they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah." {Ge 49:29} And hence, Joseph also gave commandment "concerning his bones?" {Ge 1:25} And it is spoken of in Scripture, by the Lord himself, as the marked punishment of Ithoiakim, that he should have no burial place, but be cast forth as an ass without the gates of Jerusalem. {Jer 22:18-19} And what is it now? Believers in Jesus still feel some degree of concern, that the ashes of their friends may be deposited with decent solemnity in the grave. And when we consider what the blessed Scriptures have said, that the bodies of Christ’s people are the temples of the Holy Ghost, there seems to be a manifest propriety, though void of all idle parade and ostentation, to commit the remains of those who die in the Lord to the bowels of the earth, in sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life in him, and through him, and by him, who is himself the resurrection and the life. How blessedly the apostle Paul speaks on this subject, under the influence of the Holy Ghost, in his epistle to the church. "I would not (saith he) have you to he ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not even as others which have no hope. For if we believe, that Jesus died, and rose again, even so them also, which sleep in Jesus, will God bring with him. For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall not prevent them which are asleep. For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise first. Then we which are alive and remain, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air; and so shall we be ever with the Lord. Wherefore, comfort one another with these words." {1Th 4:13, &c.}

Burnt Incense

See HAWKERS: Incense

Burnt Offerings

See HAWKERS: Offerings


An Hebrew measure, containing about three pints in wine measure, and two pints of corn measure. This serves to explain the miseries of the famine in Samaria, when the fourth part of a cab of doves dung sold for five pieces of silver. {2Ki 6:25}


So Hiram called the twenty cities Solomon gave him for his aid, in the materials he furnished him with for the building of the temple. {1Ki 9:13} The word signifies, unpleasant. Probably, it was one of those cities mentioned Jos 19:27.


Perhaps the reader doth not know, or recollect, that this name was used by all the Roman Emperors, whatever their other name might be. Thus Tiberius was the Emperor in the days of our Lord. {See Lu 3:1} But our Lord only called him Caesar. {See Mt 22:21} And Paul the apostle, when compelled to appeal against the injustice of Festus, said, I appeal unto Caesar; whereas, Nero was at that time the Emperor. {See Ac 25:10-11}


There are two places of this name spoken of in Scripture. Caesarea Philippi, supposed to have been built by Philip, no great distance from Zidon. This place is rendered memorable in the gospel, from Jesus passing near the coasts of it when Peter gave so blessed a testimony to the GODHEAD of his master. See Mt 16:13, &c The other Caesarea was in Palestine. Here lived Cornelius the Centurion. {Ac 10}


A name and person, memorable in Scripture from being overruled by God the Ho1y Ghost to deliver a prophecy the very reverse of his own wishes, and like another Balaam, to pronounce good when he intended evil. {See Joh 11:49-52}


The first born of Adam and Eve. His name is derived form Hanah, to possess. Hence Cain means, possession. And this agrees to Eve’s name of her son, for she said, I have gotten a man from the Lord; or as it might be read, the man (that is the very one promised), from the Lord. {Ge 4:1} Alas! how little did our poor mistaken mother know, what miseries among thousands and millions of her children would be induced, before He should arise to do away the evil of her transgression, by the sacrifice of himself!

See HAWKERS: Abel.


There were two of this name in the first ages of the world. Cainan, the son of Enos, Ge 5:9 and Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, Lu 3:36. His name is derived from Canah, to possess. Hence Cainan means, possessor.


Son of Jephunneh, of whom honorable testimony is given, Nu 13:2. His name is somewhat singular; if it be derived, as it is supposed to be, from Keleb, dog. But some suppose it is a compound of Ke, and Lebab, the heart.


Golden calf, which it is said Aaron made, Ex 32:1-4, It is remarkable, that though it is expressly said, that this was but one idol, yet the children of Israel addressed it as in the plural, and said, "These are thy gods, O Israel!" Did the Israelites, in direct defiance of the divine law, make this idol to resemble, according to their gross conceptions, the true God? Wherefore, do they otherwise call it gods? Certainly, there is somewhat mysterious in it. Jeroboam, in his days, made two calves, {See 1Ki 12:26-28}


Ever memorable and dear to the believer. It was near Jerusalem; and, probably, long before Christ, it was the place devoted, for the execution of criminals. Here the meditation of the follower of Jesus should frequently take wing, and view in faith that wonderful mount, from whence redemption came!

See HAWKERS: Gethsemane and HAWKERS: Golgotha


In Galilee. A small village near Nazareth. This place is rendered memorable in the gospel, being honoured with our Lord’s presence at a marriage. and first miracle that he wrought of turning water into wine. {Joh 2}


The son of Ham, Noah’s son. From him sprang the Canaanites. {Ge 9:18}

Canaan 2

The land of promise; the glory of all lands. {Eze 20:6} So called, not only on account of its fertility and loveliness in point of situation, but more eminently, in having the special presence of the Lord and his ordinances. And as the temple, and all the services of the temple, were so many types of the Lord Jesus, Canaan might well be called the land of promise, with an eye to Him.

It is well worthy our observation, that while, among all the early writers, both sacred and profane, the very blessed state of Palestine, or Canaan, for we name it by either, extending both the sacred river Jordan as a country, is continually described; later travellers speak of it as a dry, and inhospitable place. Moses, and all patriarchs, Ezekiel; and all the prophets, are praises of Canaan, and all describe it as a land "flowing with milk and honey." A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates. A land of oil, olive and honey; of brooks, and fountains, and depths, that spring out of valleys and hills. "A land" (said Moses) "whose very stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass." See De 8:7-9, &c. Eze 20:6,15.

And among profane historians of antiquity we find the like testimonies to those of Holy Writ. Hecat‘us, who lived at the time of Alexander the Great, and who wrote in the reign of Ptolemy, describes Palestine as a most fruitful province. And Pliny speaks of it in a degree of enthusiasm. Jordan was to his view a beautiful river, and the banks of it fruitful to an excess. He describes the palm trees, and the balm of Judah, and the city of Jerusalem, as most lovely indeed!

Modern travellers, however, have given a very different account. The provinces are said by most of them to be barren and unfruitful, and Jerusalem itself to be but a poor city. From these different statements the pious reader will, without my suggestion, feel his mind, I should hope, led to that beautiful observation of the Psalmist, and indeed, to the whole of the many blessed things to the same amount, as are said in that Psalm; "A fruitful land the Lord turneth into barrenness, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein." {Ps 107:43}


See HAWKERS: Golden Candlesticks


A well known place in the gospel of Christ, where the Lord Jesus principally abode during his ministry. It was on the borders of Genesareth. The awful woe which Christ denounced upon the men of this city, in having seen his person, but despised his doctrine, still hangs in equal, or rather increased, terror, over all the Christ despisers of every generation. {Mt 11:23}


We meet this title in one passage of the word of God, and but one, as far as my memory chargeth me, applied to the Lord Jesus Christ; and that is in the second chapter of Hebrews, and the tenth verse. And very sweetly and eminently so, must we consider the name in reference to him. For he it was, most probably, that Joshua saw in vision, long before his incarnation, before the walls of Jericho, as captain of the Lord’s host, and before whom Joshua fell on his face. {Jos 5:13-15} It is very blessed to see and know the Lord Jesus under this character, and to fight under his banner.


There are two different places of this name in Scripture; Mount Carmel, near the brook Kishon; and Carmel, a city of Judah, where Nabal dwelt. Some read it Carmul, as if composed of Kar, lamb; and Mul, circumcised. But others, with more probability of being right, render it Carmel, vineyard, or harvest; as being full of vines and corn.

Cedar Tree

The cedar tree of Lebanon, forms an interesting object in holy Scripture, and merits attention. The tree itself seems, for majesty and beauty, to take place of every other among the trees of the forest. Its branches are wide and spreading. They begin to form themselves nearly from the ground, and stretch forth on each side. The tree itself is an evergreen, and sheds forth a gummy substance, which is said to contain many salutary qualities. The wood of it formed a part in the service of the cleansing of the leper. {See Le 14:4} One of the kings of Israel called himself by the name of the Cedar of Lebanon, 2Ki 14:9. The church, or Christ for the church, when celebrating the beauties and glories of their habitation, compares the beams of it to cedar. {Song 1:17} And the state of individual believers in the church is more than once spoken of, as resembled by the flourishing nature of the cedar of Lebanon. {Ps 92:12; 104:16} The Hebrews called it Tashur, which the Septuagint rendered cedar. There is somewhat very interesting in such representations of the Lord’s inheritance, when by figure and similitude we are sent, by God the Holy Ghost, to the loveliest objects in nature to form our views of the Lord’s pleasure and delight, which he taketh in his people. Taught by such an infallible Teacher methinks I would never read of the Cedar of Lebanon, without connecting with it some sweet resemblance to be discovered in his people, which he saith himself are the branch of his planting, and which are so, that they might be called trees of righteousness, "the planting of the Lord, that he might be glorified." {Isa 60:21; 61:3} And if Jesus himself, be in the view of JEHOVAH, and in his church’s view, "the plant of renown," {Eze 34:29} surely, it is blessed to know, that the church is in Jesus’s view, the Cedar of Lebanon. And in how many ways do they bear resemblance to the glory of Lebanon, when made comely, from the comliness Jesus puts upon them! Is there any tree of the wood so graceful, or so lovely, as the Cedar of Lebanon? Neither is there any lily among the thorns so fair, and white, and fragrant, as Jesus’s love is among the daughters. {Song 2:2} Do any trees out-top the Cedar of Lebanon, spread wider, or cast their branches with more luxuriancy farther than this fair one? Neither do any grow more upright, extend their usefulness in equal direction for general good, as the disciples of the Lord. For though they are poor and mean in man’s opinion, yet do they stand high in the esteem of Christ Jesus; and in the grace of the Lord, like the branches of the cedar, they spread forth, by faith, in every direction, and by rich experience in the divine life, manifest forth the loveliness of their high calling all around. And as the Cedar of Lebanon is deep-rooted, ever-green, and ever-fragrant, so believers in Christ are deep-rooted in him, always flourishing in him, however unprofitable in themselves; and as the prophet describes the church, "their branches shall spread, and their beauty be as the olive tree, and their smell like Lebanon." {Ho 14:6} Such, and many more of the like nature, open to our view, while considering the church in Jesus’s esteem, as the Cedar of Lebanon. (See a lovely account of this, Ps 92:13-15)


So called from Kedar, black, dark, gloomy. This was the memorable brook over which the great Redeemer passed, to enter the garden of Gethsemane, the night before his sufferings and death. Here, indeed, Jesus often walked, for he loved the sacred haunts of that hallowed ground, where he knew his last agony, in the conflicts with Satan, was to take place. {Joh 18:1-2} The brook itself lay in a valley to the east of the city, between Jerusalem and the mount of Olives; and it emptied itself in the dead Sea. Into this black and foul brook ran all the filth of the sacrifices from the temple; and most probably, like other sinks, for the most part, what was conveyed thither from the temple remained stagnant until the swelling rain carried off the contents. This was the ever to be remembered brook Cedron, concerning which it was prophesied of the Lord Jesus, a thousand years before his incarnation, that "he should drink of the brook in the way." {Ps 110:7} Some, in reading that and connecting with it in the mind, the hot country of Palestine, might conceive it to have a pleasant thing to a dry thirsty traveller to drink of the brook in his way. And no doubt, of all earthly delights, the cooling streams in a sultry desert is the most grateful. But Cedron was no cooling, limpid, pure stream; but dark, and black, and filthy. When Jesus, therefore, is said to drink of it, the meaning is, that all our uncleanness was put on him. Here Jesus passed through all that torrent of divine wrath against sin, when "he that knew no sin, became sin and a curse for us, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him." {2Co 5:21} Here it was, that all the waves and billows of JEHOVAH’S just anger, for his broken law, went over the head of Christ, as the Surety and Representative of his people; and which brought forth those cries of the Glory-man, Christ Jesus, which, by the Spirit of prophecy, was recorded of him. (Ps 22 and Ps 69) Such was Cedron. And this brook was rendered memorable in allusion to Christ, when David, as a type of Jesus, passed it in his ascent to the mount of Olives, when fleeing from his kingdom with his followers barefoot, his head covered, and weeping, and sorrowing, at the instance of Absalom, his unnatural son. {2Sa 15:30} Thus Jesus passed Cedron under the deepest of all possible sorrows, when, with his few faithful disciples, he entered the garden from the foul conspiracy of Judas, and the high priest, and elders of his people. And God the Holy Ghost was graciously pleased to make Cedron again memorable, as typical of the Lord Jesus Christ, when Asa, Hezekiah, and Josiah, burnt and destroyed the idols of the land, and cast the accursed things of the groves into this brook. As if to shew, by type, that the brook Jesus, in after ages, was to drink of, should be the common receiver of all our idols, and all our uncleanness, when, by his gracious undertaking, that blessed promise of a covenant God in Christ was to be fulfilled: "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean from all your filthiness, and from all your idols." (Eze 36:25. See also 2Ch 15:16; 30:14 and 2Ki 23:4-6) Such then was, and is, Cedron. Oh! the blessedness of beholding it thus explained to us by God the Holy Ghost, in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ! Here would my soul take frequent wing, and by faith, alight near the hallowed spot. And if Jesus oftimes resorted thither with his disciples, here, methinks, would my soul delight to roam, and see the place, and the memorable brook Jesus drank of by the way, See HAWKERS: Gethsemane.


This is a word often met with in the gospel; and the meaning is, that the man who was a Centurion, commanded, or governed, an hundred soldiers.


The word certain, when applied to man, hath a very special and particular meaning. It is not unlike, for importance, the phrase of a man of God, to distinguish from a man of the world; or the natural man, to distinguish from the spiritual and the inward man of the heart, to denote somewhat from that which is merely outward. So, in like manner, when in Scripture, at any time, it is said, a certain man, there is somewhat striking affixed to the expression; such as in that instance, when It is said, a certain man drew a bow at a venture, and smote the king, {1Ki 22:34} the meaning is the arrow was directed by the Lord. So again, when it is said in the gospel, a certain man had two sons, {Lu 15:11} a Certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, {Lu 13:6} a certain man made a great supper, and bade many, {Lu 14:6} all these, and the like, directly refer to the Lord. So again, when it is said, (as in Ru 1) a certain man of Bethlehem-judah went to sojourn in the country of Moab. And again, in the gospel, {Lu 10:30} a certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves. Both these cases, as well as others of a similar kind, are designed to represent our nature universally. All men, from our first father, have left Bethlehem-judah, the land of bread, for so the name means; and Jerusalem, the holy city; and by going down to the Moabs and the Jerichos of the world, have fallen among thieves, and been left more than half dead by the great enemy of souls.


In the general sense of the word, chaff is the husk of wheat; in itself useless, and only intended to form a covering for the pure seed. But in Scripture language, it is used figuratively, to denote the uselessness and folly of a name to live, while virtually dead before God. Hence the Lord, speaking of the preciousness of his word to that of the invention of men, thus expresseth "What is the chaff to the wheat, saith the Lord?" {Jer 23:28} And the sacred writers, under the same Almighty authority, describe the wicked as chaff, which the wind scattereth, and the storm carrieth away; and which the Lord will burn up in the end, with unquenchable fire. {See Job 21:18; Ps 1:4; Ho 13:3; Mt 3:12}


See HAWKERS: Chains


In Scripture those expressions are frequently made use of to denote the constraining love of Christ. Thus Christ speaks of his church; {Song 1:10; 4:9} and again, by way of shewing Christ’s property in his church, "I put bracelets upon thine hands, and a chain on thy neck." {Eze 16:11} And Paul, the apostle, delighted to call himself the Lord’s prisoner. "For the hope of Israel (said he,) I am bound with this chain." {Ac 28:20} "Be not thou, therefore, ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, of me his prisoner." {2Ti 1:8}


See HAWKERS: Babylon


Chamber and Chambers

These words we meet in Scripture upon various occasions. We read of "the chambers of the south," in relation to the heavenly bodies. {Job 9:9} "The upper chambers" of Solomon’s temple, respecting the services and ordinances; {2Ch 3:9} and inner chambers of the Old Testament; and the guest-chambers of the New. {2Ki 9:2; Mr 14} But the sweetest sense of the word chambers, in Scripture language, is in reference to those endearing views of Jesus, when he brings his church into the chambers of his grace, to make himself known unto them, otherwise than he doeth unto the world. Thus the church saith, {Song 1:4} "The King hath brought me into his chambers." probably, it might mean into the knowledge of covenant of redemption, the doctrines of his gospel, which Jesus calls "the mysteries of his kingdom," and of which he saith to his disciples, "It is given unto you to know, but to others in parables." {Mt 13:10-11} But still more perhaps, chambers is meant, the sweet and intimate communion into which Jesus brings his people, and of which no eye sees, no heart is privy, but him to whom the Lord gives that bread in secret.

And it should seem, that this is the chief sense of the word, because it was the custom among Jews, to unfold the secrets of their religion in this way. Hence, the guest-chamber, where Christ held his last supper, was of this kind. And the same, where the disciples met after our Lord’s resurrection, for fear of the Jews. Seen in this point of view, we can discover a great beauty in that lovely invitation by the prophet: "Come, my people, enter thou into thy chambers." {Isa 26:20-21} What a gracious acknowledgment is this, on the Lord’s part, of being his people, when, from having taken our nature, Jesus claims the church for his own, and leads her, as the husband the wife, into his chambers, unveils all his glories to her, and gives her interest, and right, and possession, of himself, and all that belongs to him, as the great Head and Mediator of his body, the church, "the fulness of Him that filleth all in all."


See HAWKERS: Chamber


The word is used repeatedly in Scripture, both as a real representation of the thing itself, and also figuratively. Very terrible were the war chariots, with which men fought in battle. Jabin, king of Canaan, it is said, had nine hundred chariots of iron, and mightily oppressed the children of Israel. {Jg 4:3} But when the term of chariot is applied to express spiritual things, the matter becomes more interesting. Thus Elijah’s chariot, by which he went up into heaven; is called, the chariots of Israel, and the horsemen thereof; by which is meant, the ascension of Elijah’s fervent prayers for Israel, were more powerful and prevailing than all the chariots of Israel in their defence. And doubtless, as the prophet in this instance became a type of Christ, in his priestly and regal office, the whole is abundantly plain and evident. {2Ki 2:12} So again, in the book of the Songs, {Song 3:9} Solomon is said to have made a chariot of the wood of Lebanon; the pillars silver, the bottom of gold, the covering purple, and the midst thereof paved with love, for the daughters of Jerusalem."There can be no doubt, but that this is designed to speak of the Lord Jesus Christ, whose chariot of love, founded in himself, both in his GODHEAD and manhood, whose acts of grace, are richer than gold and silver, and whose whole heart is full of love to his beloved Jerusalem. Hence, the church in return, feeling all her affections awakened by grace, to the love of Jesus, cries out in an holy rapture of joy and delight," Or ever I was aware, my soul made me like the chariots of Ammi-nadib?’ {Song 6:12}

See HAWKERS: Amminadib


See HAWKERS: Chariot


A river of Assyria, made memorable by the church, when in the captivity of Babylon, being placed there. That beautiful, though pathetic poem (as it may well be called of Hebrew poetry), we have in the hundred and thirty-seventh Psalm, is supposed to have been written on the banks of Chebar. {See Eze 1:1}


See HAWKERS: Cherubim


Cherubim, Cherub 

We meet with an account of these so frequently in the word of God, that it forms an important duty to seek, under the Spirit’s teaching, for the clearest apprehension of their meaning. At the entrance of the garden of Eden, after the fall, we find the cherubim and a flaming sword placed. {Ge 3:24} And during the church’s continuance in the wilderness, several relations are made of the cherubim. {Ex 25:18; 26:1; 37:7-8} Solomon’s temple also, was adorned with the representation of them. {1Ki 6:23, &c.} But more particularly, in the visional prophecy of Ezekiel. (See Eze 9 and Eze 10 throughout.) The general representation of the cherubim was under the similitude of four living creatures: the face of a man; the face of a lion; the face of an ox, or calf; and the face of an eagle. That these figures were emblems of somewhat more important and higher than themselves, hath been the universal opinion, both in the Jewish and Christian church, through all ages. Some have considered them as representing angels. But there seems, in the first view of the subject, a total contradiction to this, because, no one reason upon earth can be shown, why angels should be represented with four faces. Neither could there be any necessity for any other representation of an angel, but as an angel. We meet with continued instances of angels appearing, in the word of God, to God’s people without any danger of JEHOVAH himself only can it be said, "Thou canst not see my face and live." {Ex 33:20} Moreover, before the cherubim was sprinkled, on the great day of atonement, the blood of the sacrifice, which we all know was typical of Christ, and represented the one offering of the Redeemer. Now, to have this set forth before angels would have been contrary to the whole sense of Scripture. (See Ex 37:9; Le 16:14 compared with Heb 9:7,12) Evidently, therefore, the cherubim could not be intended to prefigure angels.

The question is then, What, or whom, did they represent? I would very humbly say in answer, that I am inclined to think, with several who have gone before me in the study of this solemn and mysterious subject, that the cherubim were emblematical of the glorious persons of the GODHEAD, in their covenant engagements to redeem our fallen nature, as represented in those characters united with the manhood of Christ. And the foundation of this belief, I humbly beg to subjoin.

And first, to begin with the earliest representation at the gate of Paradise, we are told, {Ge 3:24} that the Lord himself placed those cherubim there, which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. By which I apprehend, the sense of the expression is, not to keep from, but to keep to, the way of the tree of life; meaning, that poor fallen man now had no access but by this way. And as we well know, from our Lord’s own authority, that Jesus is "the way, and the truth, and the life; and no man cometh to the Father, but by him." {Joh 14:6} Hence it should seem, that by these cherubic figures, among which the face of a man formed a part, immediately at the fall, redemption through Christ was set up by those emblems, as manifested to the church.

Secondly, Those cherubim were eminently displayed in the Holy of Holies, over and upon the mercy seat. (See Ex 25:17-22, compared with Heb 11:1-24) Now, as from the authority of those Scriptures, we have full licence to conclude, that the mercy-seat itself was an emblem of Christ, and the High Priest going into the Holy of Holies once in a year, with blood, a lively type of the Lord Jesus going in with his own blood into heaven itself, there to appear in the presence of God for us, we cannot for a moment suppose, but that these cherubim must have been designed to represent the holy and undivided Three persons in the one eternal JEHOVAH, before whom only, and to whom only, Christ, in his divine and nature united, made the one sacrifice of by which he hath prefected for ever them that are sanctified. The song of heaven declared, that the redemption by Christ was from God, as the first cause, and to God, as the final end. {Re 5:9} To have set forth, therefore, these solemn representations, by type and figure, in the Jewish church, before any but JEHOVAH himself, would have been little short of blasphemy, and consequently cherubim, before which every great day of the same was regularly observed, could emblematical only of the glorious persons of the GODHEAD.

If it be objected, that in the vision of Isaiah, chap. so again, in the vision of John, Re 8 where in both Scriptures, we find the seraphim, or cherubim, (for they mean one and the same), are represented as worshipping God, and hence it be said, is there not a contradiction in supposing JEHOVAH worshipping JEHOVAH? I answer, certainly there would be, if this were in reality the case. But the fact is, that it is not so. Let it be remembered, that these cherubim are emblems, and not the very persons they represent. The representatives of another my join in any acts with others, to proclaim with them the worth, or praises, of those whom they represent. As the ambassador of an earthly king, though he represents his master, may, at the same time, join his fellow subjects in proclaiming with them his master’s honour. This objection, therefore, falls to the ground. And though I do not presume, on a subject so mysterious and sublime, to speak decidedly, yet I cannot but think, that the cherubim of Scripture, are intended to represent the glorious persons of the GODHEAD, with the human nature united to the person of the Son of God, and by no means intended to represent angels.



These are variously used in Scripture, to denote one and the same. All the race of Israel are called the children of Israel. And in like manner, the children of God in Christ are called, children of the kingdom. But these things are so obvious and plain, that I should not have thought it necessary, in a work of this kind, purposely contracted into the narrowest compass, to have noticed the word Child, but for the introducing a short observation on the term itself, as applied to the Lord Jesus Christ. On his account I think it important, and the reader will, I hope, forgive me.

We meet with the word Child, in relation to Jesus, several times in Scripture; but there are two places where it occurs, with a peculiar emphasis of expression, and where the word holy is prefixed, as if to give it an endearedness to the believer’s heart. The passages I refer to are in the prayer of the church, on that memorable occasion when the Lord answered, by an immediate shaking of the place where they were assembled. {Ac 4:27-30} "Of a truth, Lord, against thy holy child Jesus, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel were gathered together. And now, Lord, grant that signs and wonders may be done by the name of thy holy child Jesus." I know not whether the reader enters with me into an apprehension of the very great loveliness, as well as importance, of the expression, in respect to the holy child Jesus; but I cannot but think, that the church, in this prayer, laid the whole stress, for their prayers being answered, upon the person of Jesus, in the holiness of that nature; which nature the church considered as its own. And for the complete justification of the church, the Lord Jesus took that nature in its perfect holiness. So that as the church then did, so may, and so ought, all believers now to rest the whole hope and expectation of an answer to all their prayers before the throne, upon the sole ground of the same sweet and lovely expression, sent up to God Father, "by the name of thy holy child Jesus." Nothing, among the Hebrews was a more afflictive providence, than to no children; probably with an eye to the promised seed. Hence Abraham, the great father the faithful, when the Lord promised, that he himself would be his shield, and his exceeding reward, said, Lord God, "what wilt thou give me seeing I go childless?" {Ge 15:1-2} And the punishment the Lord appointed to unnatural alliances, was to bear their sins in dying childless. {Le 20:20} And in the case of Coniah, the Lord said, "Write this man childless," {Jer 22:30} It were well among Christians, if this was well understood. How many consider a large family the reverse, and overlook that Scripture, which declares the man "happy, that hath his quiver full of children!" {Ps 127:5}


See HAWKERS: Child


See HAWKERS: Mahlon

Chosen of God

We find this, act of special grace in JEHOVAH, as it concerns the person of Christ and his people in him, so often in the Scripture, and as it is so important, I have thought a reference to some of the more prominent texts would not be unacceptable, in a work of this kind. Concerning the person of the Lord Jesus Christ as chosen, and set apart from all eternity, the glorious Head and Mediator of his people, these portions are some among the many. Isa 41:8-9; 43:10. compared with Mt 12:18; Ne 9:7; Nu 16:5,7; Ps 47:4; Isa 49:7; Ps 89:3,19; Isa 48:10; Lu 23:35; 1Pe 2:4 &c. And concerning the children of Christ chosen in him, and sanctified in him, the following are among the many with which the word of God abounds to the same doctrine. Eph 1:4; Isa 14:1; De 7:6; Ps 105:5,43; 1Ch 16:13; Ps 106:5; Isa 43:20; 65:15; Mt 20:16; Mr 13:20; Joh 13:18; 15:16,19; Ac 22:14; 9:15; 1Co 1:27; Ro 16:13; Jas 2:5; 1Pe 2:9; Re 17:14 &c.


One of the adorable names of the Lord Jesus, and signifying the Anointed of JEHOVAH. It is precisely the same word as Messiah in the original Hebrew. The name Christ, specially and particularly, means the union of both natures in the person of the Lord Jesus, both divine and human; and as such becoming the Christ of God. The Scriptures are express and clear, in a great variety of instances, in proof of his eternal power and GODHEAD, being "one with the Father over all, God blessed for ever." {Ro 9:5; Joh 1:1; Mt 3:17} And no less in testimony of his human nature. {Joh 1:14; Heb 2:9-18} But when we speak of Christ, we neither mean Son of God only, nor Man only, but include both natures, constituting one person, the glorious Head of his body the church, "the fulness of Him that filleth all in all." {Eph 1:22-23}

As the clear apprehension of the person of our Lord Jesus Christ is not only among the first things to be rightly impressed upon the mind, but the very first and most essential of all others, for the full enjoyment of our interest in him, I hope that I shall be forgiven, if I somewhat exceed the ordinary limits I have hitherto observed, under the several articles. Before I enter upon the subject, I beg first to remark, that the general errors we have run into concerning the forming of a proper apprehension of the person of Christ, hath arisen from misinterpreting Scripture on this point. Some parts of the word of God speak wholly of Christ’s GODHEAD, and some of his manhood. And in those we cannot err. But the error ariseth from making application of those passages which refer to Christ, under both as God-man Mediator, and concluding that they speak of him are holding him forth as Christ only, that is, God and man in one person. To this one cause must be ascribed the origin of all the Arian, Socinian, and Unitarian heresy. A small attention to the Scriptures, with this discrimination, will be sufficient to explain, and, I hope, set this important subject in a clear light.

Among many portions of God’s word, which might be brought forward in proof, by way of illustration, I beg to refer to those two memorable passages in the first chapter of Paul’s Epistle to the Colossians (Col 1), and his Epistle to the Hebrews. When, as in the former, the apostle saith, "he is the Image of the invisible God, the first born of every creature; for by him were all things created that are in heaven, and that are in earth;" nothing can be more plain, than that this could never be said of the Son of God, as the Son of God only, for in his GODHEAD, he could never be said to be "the first born of every creature;" neither could it be of the Lord Jesus as man only, for then, how could "all things be created by him that are in heaven, and in earth?" But if we read the whole passage, as the apostle evidently meant it, with an eye to Christ, as the Christ of God, that is, God and man in one person, constituting God-man Mediator; in this sense every, difficulty vanisheth. For then Christ is, indeed, in his human nature, "the image of the invisible God," set up as the covenant Head of his church from everlasting. And though not openly manifested until the fulness of time, yet secretly, and as "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world." {Re 13:8} And no less Christ in his divine nature, he is here represented as testified in those acts of the GODHEAD; for creation can belong to none but God. And by the union of both God and man in one person he is the Christ of God, "by whom all things were created, and by whom all things consist." For as God only, there was nothing created that could stand in union with him. And as man only, neither of those acts could have been exercised and carried on, but in the union and junction of both; his GODHEAD gives power to the whole of what is here ascribed to him, and his manhood united to the GODHEAD, renders him the suited Head of all creation, and upholder of all, that "in all things he might have the pre-eminence."

Similar to the same plain and obvious truths, is that memorable passage also of Paul’s first chapter to the Hebrews. "God (saith the apostle), who at sundry times, and in divers manners, spake in time past to the fathers by the prophets, hath, in these last days, spoken unto us by his Son."Then follows the office-character of Christ, as Christ, in the Son of God assuming our nature, and taking it into union with the GODHEAD, thereby becoming Christ. "Whom he hath appointed heir of all things." How appointed? Not surely, as God only, for in this case the appointment was not only unnecessary, but impossible, for the Son of God, as God, possessed in common with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, the absolute inheritance of all things from all eternity. He could receive nothing in this sense, being "one with the Father over all, God blessed for ever." {Ro 9:5} But if considered as Christ, that is, God-man Mediator, he then receives the appointment, as heir of all things, and Lord of all things, and in whom all things might be gathered. {Eph 1:10,22-23}

Read, in this point of view, the whole chapter is as plain and intelligible as words can render it: "Who being the brightness of his Father’s glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high," &c. Who was it purged our sins? Not the Son of God as God only. Not the Son of man as man only. But Christ as Christ; that is, God and man in one person. It was essential to salvation, that Christ should offer himself for a sacrifice, for "without shedding of blood there is no remission." {Heb 9:22} Hence, the Son of God is introduced, under the spirit of prophecy, (Ps 40 and explained by Heb 10) as saying, "A body hast thou prepared me." But that that sacrifice might possess an infinite dignity and value, it must be united to the GODHEAD. And hence, in the union of both, there is an everlasting efficacy and glory in Christ’s once offering of himself; once offered, not only to take away the sins of the whole world, but to bring in a redundancy of glory to JEHOVAH, which will continue for ever and ever. When, therefore, Christ, as Christ, had by himself purged our sins, He, the Christ of God, God-man in one person, "sat down on the right hand of the majesty on high." And who was it that the apostle saith, in this same chapter, was anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows? Whom are the angels commanded to worship, when JEHOVAH brings in this first begotten into the world? Not surely, the Son of God as God only, neither the Son of man as man only; for of either, separately, these things could never be spoken. But it is of Christ, as Christ, the Christ of God, both natures united, and forming one glorious Mediator, suited to make up (and which, to the praise of the riches of his grace, he hath most completely done), the deadly breach which sin had made between God and man. And now having accomplished redemption by his blood, he is, and ever will be, the One glorious object of adoration, love, and praise, to all the creation of God, angels, and men, to all eternity. Such then is Christ.

It will be proper, for the better apprehension of Christ, as Christ, having thus explained the scriptural account of his person, to add to this account what the word of God hath revealed of his office, and character, and relation. In his office, we behold him undertaking and finishing the whole work of redemption. In his character, he stands forth as the great representative of his people. And in his relation to us, he comes home endeared to our warmest affection, not only in what he hath done for us, but for the nearness of affinity in which he is united to us; seeing that he fills all relations, for he is, in one and the same moment, our ever lasting Father, our Husband, Brother, Friend.

Moreover, to these views of Christ must be added, that He is the One great and glorious object of which the whole law, types, prophecies, and revelations point; and in whom they all, like rays of light converging to one centre, find their end and termination. He is the great sum and substance of all the promises of the Bible. Without him they are void of meaning, and never to be fulfilled; but in him they are all yea, and amen. In a word, Christ is the one glorious repository of all things in heaven and in earth, the fulness that filleth all in all. The church upon earth hath no resource for life and grace, but in him; neither hath the church in heaven to derive glory from, but the Lord Jesus.

It will form no improper conclusion to this account of Christ, if we add to it the names by which Christ is revealed in his sacred word, under the several views there given of him as God, as man, and as God-man Mediator. Distinct views of him under each, after what hath been said, will, it is hoped, be very acceptable to the gracious mind, and be owned and blessed of the Lord. - And first as God...

He is the Alpha and Omega, Re 1:8,11.
He is the blessed and only Potentate, King of kings, and Lord of lords, 1Ti 6:15; Re 17:14.
The brightness of his Father’s glory,
Heb 1:3.
The Creator of Israel,
Isa 43:15.
Emmanuel, God with us,
Isa 7:14; Mt 1:23.
Eternal life,
1Jo 5:20.
The Everlasting Father,
Isa 9:6.
The faithful witness,
Re 1:5; 1Jo 5:7.
The first and the last,
Re 1:17; 2:8.
God in common with the Father and the Holy Ghost,
Joh 1:1; Ro 9:5; 1Ti 3:16; 1Jo 5:20; Jude 25.
Heir of all things,
Heb 1:2.
Most Highest,
Ps 18:13; Lu 1:32.
Most high,
Lu 8:28.
The Holy One of God,
Mr 1:24.
The Holy One of Israel,
Isa 41:14.
Ex 3:14; Joh 8:58.
Ps 68:4; De 33:26.
Jer 23:6.
The King, Eternal, Immortal, Invisible, the only wise God,
1Ti 1:17.
Isa 33:22; Jas 4:12.
Joh 1:9; 8:12; 12:46.
Living God,
1Ti 3:15.
Joh 14:6.
Lord, and Lord of lords,
Ps 110; Ro 1:3; Re 17:14.
Son of God,
Mt 4:13. &c.

Next let us attend to the names given to Christ, in Scripture, in testimony of his manhood. Christ is called.

Adam, 1Co 15:45.
Lu 2:16.
Isa 9:6; Ac 4:30.
Ps 89:3; Jer 30:9.
Joh 1:14.
Friend of sinners,
Mt 11:19.
Isa 54:5; Jer 31:32.
Heb 2:11.
Jacob, and Israel, and Judah,
Isa 41:8; 44:1,5; Re 5:5.
Ac 17:31; 1Ti 2:5.
Seed of the woman,
Ge 3:15.
Seed of Abraham,
Ga 3:19.
Seed of David,
2Ti 2:8.
Son of man,
Mt 8:20.

Thirdly, Let us take a view of some of the names and characters by which Christ is known in the Holy Scripture, considered in the union of both God and man in one person, thus constituted as one Christ. I say some of the names, for to enumerate the whole would swell our Poor man’s Concordance beyond the limits necessary to be observed, in a work of this kind. Christ in his twofold nature of God and man in one person, is known and distinguished in the sacred word, as.

An Advocate with the Father, 1Jo 2:1.
The Angel of the Covenant,
Mal 3:1.
The Ancient of days,
Da 7:22.
The Anointed of the Father,
Ps 2:2; Heb 1:9; Ps 45:7.
The Apostle and High Priest of our profession,
Heb 3:1.
The Author and Finisher of faith,
Heb 12:2.
The Beginning of the creation of God,
Re 3:14.
The Beloved in whom the church is accepted,
Eph 1:6.
The Bishop of our souls.
1Pe 2:25.
The Bread of life and living Bread,
Joh 6:48,51.
The Branch of righteousness,
Zec 3:8.
The man whose name is the BRANCH,
Zec 6:12.
The Bridegroom of his church,
Joh 3:29.
The Bright and Morning Star,
Re 22:16.
The Captain of our salvation,
Heb 2:10.
The One chosen of the people,
Ps 89:19.
The Consolation of Israel,
Lu 2:25.
The Corner Stone, and Foundation Stone which God hath laid in Zion,
Isa 28:16; Eph 2:20; 1Pe 4:6.
The Covenant of the people,
Isa 42:6; 49:8.
The Wonderful Councillor,
Isa 9:6.
The Hiding Place and Covert from the storm,
Isa 32:2; Ps 32:7.
The Day’s man,
Job 9:33.
The Day dawn, and Day Star in the heart,
2Pe 1:19.
The Desire of all nations,
Hag 2:7.
The Deliverer that shall come out of Zion,
Isa 59:20; Ro 11:26.
He that promiseth to be as the Dew unto Israel,
Ho 14:5.
The Diadem in JEHOVAH’S hand,
Isa 62:3.
The Door of his sheepfold,
Joh 10:7.
The Elect in whom JEHOVAH’S soul delighteth,
Isa 42:1.
The Ensign JEHOVAH hath set up to the people,
Isa 11:10.
The Express Image of the Father’s person,
Heb 1:3.
The first begotten of the dead,
Re 1:5.
The first-fruits,
1Co 15:23.
The Fountain opened to the house of David, &c.
Zec 13:1.
The Forerunner,
Heb 6:20.
The Unspeakable Gift of God, the Power of God,
2Co 9:15; Col 1:24.
The Wisdom of God, the Glory of God, the Sent of God, the Lamb of
God, &c.
Isa 40:5; 1Jo 4:14; Joh 1:29.
The Head of his body the church,
Eph 1:22-23; Col 1:18.
The High Priest, the Prophet, and the King of his people,
Heb 5:1; Lu 4:24; Mt 21:5.
The Hope of Israel, and the Saviour thereof,
Jer 14:8; Ac 28:20.
Mt 1:21; 1Th 1:10.
Isa 7:14; Mt 1:23.
Isa 33:22; Mic 5:1; Ac 10:42.
A Leader to the people,
Isa 55:4.
Christ is peculiarly called Master,
Mt 23:8,10.
The One Mediator,
1Ti 2:5.
Heb 7:1.
Da 9:25; Joh 1:41.
Da 12:1; Re 12:7.
The Morning Star,
Re 2:28; 22:16.
Christ our Passover,
1Co 5:7.
Prince, and Prince of peace, and of life,
Isa 9:6; Ac 5:31; 3:15.
Isa 59:20; 60:16.
Joh 11:25.
Mal 3:3.
De 32:15; 1Co 10:4.
Root and Offspring of David,
Re 22:16.
Eph 5:2
Isa 49:6; Lu 2:30.
The Sanctification of his people,
1Co 1:30.
Isa 8:14.
The One Shepherd, the Good Shepherd,
Eze 34:23; Joh 10:1.
The Chief Shepherd, The Great Shepherd,
1Pe 5:4; Heb 13:20.
The Shiloh,
Ge 49:10.
The Strength of Israel,
1Sa 15:29.
The Son of Righteousness,
Mal 4:2.
The Lord our Righteousness,
Jer 23:6.
The Surety of a better Testament,
Heb 7:22.
The True Tabernacle which the Lord pitched and not man,
Heb 8:2.
The Teacher come from God,
Joh 3:2.
The Temple made without hands,
Mr 14:58; Joh 2:19-21; Da 2:45.
The Testator,
Heb 9:16-17.
The tree of life,
Ge 3:24; Re 22:2.
Truth itself,
Joh 14:6; 18:38.
The Way, and only Way,
Joh 14:6 with Isa 35:8.
The water of life, and well of living water,
Joh 4:14; Song 4:15; Joh 7:37-39.
The wisdom of God, and Wisdom,
1Co 1:24; Pr 8:1, &c.
The Witness,
Re 1:5; Isa 43:10; Re 3:14.
Isa 9:6.
Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever,
Heb 13:8.

To these should be added, under a fourth division, the names which Christ hath, in Scripture, in common with his church; for these give a most endeared and interesting view of the loveliness and sweetness of his person; but as these will meet us under the next article, the church, which comes to be noticed in the Poor Man’s Concordance, I refer the reader to it there. I only detain the reader one moment longer, just to remark, on what hath been already offered on this blessed name of our Lord, how gracious God the Holy Ghost hath been to the church, to give so many and such very precious names to the Lord Jesus in the word of God, for his church to know him by and to enjoy him in. Had it been the intention of the Eternal Spirit, merely to have revealed him to the people and no more, one name in this case, would have been sufficient to have identified his person. But no, God the Holy Ghost would not only identify his person, but endear Him to the heart of his redeemed, under all the sweet and gracious characters, and offices, and relations, into which the Son of God hath condescended to put himself for the salvation of his people; and therefore, all these, and numberless other names of the like nature, Christ shall be known by in his word of truth.

And what makes the love and wisdom of the Holy Ghost so blessed to the believer’s heart in this particular is, that numerous and great as the names of Jesus are in his blessed word, there is not one by which Jesus is there called and known, but what becomes dear to their hearts, and which, at one time or other, they do not want, and which they would not have had left out in the Bible for a thousand worlds. Surely, the reader will never think of the subject, in which Christ appears thus lovely and endeared, without crying out with the apostle, "Thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gift!" {2Co 9:15}




In the Old and New Testament language, by the church of God is uniformly meant, the whole body of the faithful, of which Christ is the Head. The apostle to the Hebrews defines the meaning of the church, when he calls it "the general assembly and church of the first-born, which are written in heaven." {Heb 12:23} And the apostle John no less defines it, when he speaks of the names written in the Lamb’s book of life. {Re 21:27} Yea, our Lord himself fixeth the meaning, when bidding devils, being subject to them, in his name, but because their names were written in heaven. {Lu 10:20} By the church therefore, is meant, the whole body of Christ both in heaven and earth, the elect of God in Christ, given by the Father to the Son, redeemed by the Son, and sanctified by God the Holy Ghost, and called. And, although we sometimes meet with the expression of churches in the word of God, such as when it is said, the churches had rest throughout all Judea, {Ac 9:31} and again, all the churches of the Gentiles give thanks, {Ro 16:4} yet, the whole multitude of the people, of what kindred or nation forever, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether bond or free, from the beginning of the world to the consummation of all things, form but one and the same body, of which Christ is the glorious Head. Such is the church.

And it is blessed to see in the word of God how plainly and evidently this church, made up of Christ’s members, and gathered out of the world’s wide wilderness, is distinguished so as to prove whose she is, and to whom she belongs.

The Lord Jesus himself describes her union with himself under the similitude of branches in a vine, {Joh 15:1, &c.} and shews, as plain as words can make if, that the vine and the branches are not more closely knit together, and forming one, than is Christ and his church. Yea, the figure doth not come up to the reality; for a branch may be, and sometimes is, separated from the vine, but not so can this take place between Christ and his church, for he saith, "Because I live, ye shall live also." {Joh 14:19} And his servant, the apostle Paul, describes the intimate connection of Christ with his church, under the similitude of the marriage state. {Eph 5:25-32} "This is a great mystery, (saith the apostle,) but I speak concerning Christ and the church." Nevertheless, even here again, this beautiful figure, tender and affectionate as it is, falls far short of the oneness and union between Christ and his church. For death puts an end to all the connections of man and wife upon earth. But in respect to Christ and his spouse, the church, the dying day of the believer is but the wedding day. It is but as an espousal, a betrothing before; but in that day the church is brought home by her all-lovely and all-loving Husband, to the marriage supper of the lamb in heaven. (See those Scriptures, Ho 2:19-20; Re 19:7-9)

The best service, I apprehend, which I can render to the reader, under this article of the church, will be (to do what I should otherwise have done under the former, when speaking of Christ, but conceiving it might as well be noticed under this,) to bring into one view the several names which Christ and his church have, in common, in the word of God, which certainly form the highest evidence that can be desired, in proof of their union and oneness and interest in each other. Nothing, indeed, can be more lovely and delightful to the contemplation.

It will be proper to introduce this account, with first shewing some of the special and peculiar privileges the church possesseth, both in name and in interest, from her union and oneness with her Lord, and then follow this up with the view of those names and appellations Jesus and his church have in common together. The church is distinguished, by virtue of her interest in Christ, as.

The body of Christ, Eph 1:23.
Brethren of Christ,
Ro 8:29; Heb 3:1.
The bride, the Lamb’s wife,
Re 21:9.
Children of the kingdom,
Mt 13:38.
They are called christians after Christ,
Ac 11:26.
The church of God,
1Co 1:2.
Ps 45:14; Song 1:7
Complete in Christ,
Col 2:10.
Daughter of the King,
Ps 45:13.
Comely in Christ’s comeliness,
Eze 16:14.
Ro 9:11.
Family of God,
Eph 3:15.
Flock of God,
Ac 20:28.
Fold of Christ,
Joh 10:16.
Friends of God.
Jas 2:23.
Glory of God,
Isa 46:13.
Habitation of God,
Eph 2:22.
Heritage of God,
Jer 12:7; Ps 127:3; Joe 3:2.
The Israel of God,
Ga 6:16
The lot of God’s inheritance,
De 32:9.
Members of Christ,
Eph 5:30.
Peculiar people,
1Pe 2:9.
The portion of the Lord,
De 32:9.
The temple of God,
1Co 3:16.
The treasure of God,
Ps 135:4.
Vessels of mercy,
Ro 9:23.
The vineyard of the Lord,
Isa 5:1, &c.

These, with many others of the like nature, are among the distinguishing, names by which the church of Christ is known in Scripture, by reason of her oneness and union with Him.

But this view of the intimate and everlasting connection between Christ and his church will be abundantly heightened, if we add to it what was proposed to shew the sameness between them, from being known under the same names, as descriptive of this union. A few examples in point will be known by the name of Adam, as our first father: "As the first Adam was made a living soul, so the last Adam was made a quickening Spirit." {1Co 15:45} As Christ is called a Babe, so are they said to be babes in Christ. {Lu 2:16; 1Pe 2:2} As Christ is declared to be the dearly beloved of the Father, {Jer 12:7} so the church is said to be dearly beloved also, {1Co 10:14; Php 4:1; 2Ti 1:2} Is Christ the Elect, in whom JEHOVAH’S soul delighteth? so are they elect, according to the foreknowledge of God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. {Isa 42:1; 1Pe 1:2} Is Jesus the heir of all things? {Heb 1:2} so are they heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ, {Ro 8:17} And when that Christ, by the spirit of prophecy, is called JEHOVAH our righteousness, the church as his wife, and entitled to every thing in him, is also called by the same name, JEHOVAH our righteousness. (See, compared together, Jer 23:6 with Jer 33:16) Yea, in one remarkable instance, the church not only bears Christ’s name, but Christ bears hers. He is called Jacob, and Israel. (Isa 41:8 and Isa 49:3)

Without enlarging this point farther, for enough, I presume, hath been advanced in proof of the thing itself, nothing can be more plain, and nothing can be more highly satisfactory, than this oneness, from union and participation between Christ and his church. And I trust, the review will be always blessed to the believer’s heart, and, under the Holy Ghost’s teaching, be always leading out the affections to the full enjoyment of it, agreeably to the mind and will of God.


There is somewhat particularly interesting in this Jewish rite. And as the appointment is from God, it demands suitable attention for the proper apprehension of it. It evidently appears, from the first moment of its institution, that the ordination was with an eye to Christ, for the covenant of redemption by Jesus had this token or seal, and it is expressly said, "that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promise made unto the fathers." {Ro 15:8} And by the ceasing of this Jewish rite, and the institution of Baptism to supersede it, it should seem, that it was understood by Christ’s submitting to this act, he thereby became debtor to the whole law, and fulfilled it: and hence, all his redeemed not only are freed from it, but, in fact, they are prohibited the observance. Paul the apostle was so earnest on this point, that he declared to the Galatian church that an attention to circumcision virtually denied the covenant. "Behold, I Paul (said he) say unto you, that if ye be circumcised Christ shall profit you nothing." {Ga 5:2} And the reason seems to have been this: The seed of Abraham, by the act of circumcision, declared that they were looking for and waiting to the coming of the promised Seed, in whom all the families of the faithful were to be blessed. To be circumcised, therefore, after Christ was come, was in effect denying that Christ Was come, and by that act saying, We are looking for his coming. Hence, all the faithful posterity of Abraham were so tenacious of observing the rite of circumcision before Christ came, and so determined not to observe it after. And also, this other cause renders circumcision improper. The person circumcised, by that act, declared himself under obligations to fulfil the whole law. And hence Christ submitted to it with this view. But his redeemed are justified in Him, and therefore, to undergo circumcision would imply a defect in this justification. "I testify (said Paul,) again, to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law." {Ga 5:3} This, then, is the proper apprehension concerning the rite of circumcision.

Cities of Refuge

See HAWKERS: Refuge


Which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God, {Heb 11:10} I think it not improper to notice this, in a work of this kind, inasmuch as we meet with the expression frequently in Scripture, both in allusion to the church of God upon earth, and the church triumphant in heaven. (See Ps 46:4; 48:1,8; 87:3; Song 3:2-3 and also Heb 12:22; Re 3:12; 21:2-10; 22:19) The city of God in his church upon earth, and in heaven, is one and the same. It is peculiarly called his, because he hath founded it and built it, and dwells in it, and is the governor of it, and grants to the citizens the privileges and immunities of it. It is the Lord’s property both by purchase, and by conquest, and he hath the whole revenue of it. And hence, all the inhabitants of this city are, in heart and mind, one and the same. For though the church here below is in a militant state, and the church above, freed from this warfare, is triumphant, yet, equally dear are the citizens of both to the Lord of the country. They all speak the same language, all wear the same garment, Christ’s righteousness, all love the same Lord, and his Zion, and prefer her interests above their chief joy. {Ps 137:6} Reader, what saith your heart to those characters? (See that Scripture, Re 22:14-15)


The Scripture sense of one clean deserves our particular notice. Solomon demands, {Pr 20:9} "Who can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin?" None among the sons of Adam can lay claim to this cleanness, much less, that any have made themselves so. But the apostle John, commissioned by God the Holy Ghost, tells the church in a sweetness and fulness of expression indescribably blessed, that the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth from all sin. {1Jo 1:7} Here is the laver, the fountain, for sin and for all uncleanness, which JEHOVAH hath opened. {Zec 13:1} And hence, the Scripture sense of cleanness, is the sinner freed from the filth of sin, and the guilt of sin, and the dominion of sin, by the blood of Christ, and the sanctifying influences of the Holy Ghost. {Eze 36:25; Joh 13:10}


Clouds in the air, I detain not the reader to notice, but the ministry of the cloud in the church of God, when the people went out of Egypt. I think the particularity of it, and the blessedness of it, demands the attention of the church in all ages. And more so, because the promise is still with the church, that "the Lord will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion (let the reader not overlook the every dwelling place), and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night, for upon all the glory shall be a defence." {Isa 4:5} When we consider the peculiarity of this cloud, when we read expressly who was in it, when we consider the wonderful progress of it in its ministry, then going before, and then shifting its station, as occasion required, and going behind, when we behold the striking account of its ministry, in the difference of its aspect of light to Israel, and darkness to the Egyptians, when we trace the history of it through all the wilderness dispensation of the church, and discover its blessed and beneficial influences to Israel, from Succoth even to Jordan, who but must exclaim, What hath God wrought! Surely, it is impossible for any reader, and every reader, to attend to the wonderful account without joining Moses, the man of God and saying, "Happy art thou, O Israel! who is like unto thee, O people saved of the Lord?" {De 33:29} Let the reader turn to those Scriptures, {Ex 13:21-22; 14:19-20; 16:10; Nu 12:5; De 31:15; Ne 9:19; 1Co 10:1,4} But when the reader hath paused over these Scriptures, and duly pondered the wonderous subject, I entreat him to carry on the blessed consideration (for it is, indeed, most blessed), as it concerns the Exodus, or going forth of the church of Jesus now. For is not the church the same? Is not Jesus’s love to it the same? And doth he not go before it now in the pillar of cloud by day, and follow it in the pillar of fire by night, to guide, to bless, to protect, yea, himself to be the very supply to it, through all the eventful journies of its wilderness state, from the Succoth of the beginning of the spiritual life, even to Jordan, the river of natural death opening to glory? What though the cloud, in the miraculous movements of it as to Israel, is not seen, yet the Lord of the cloud, in his presence, grace, and love, is sensibly known and enjoyed. Surely, Old Testament saints had not advantages greater than New Testament believers. "We now with open face beholding, as in a glass, the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord." {2Co 3:18} We have the outer displays of the divine presence, in ordinances, and means of grace, and the blessed Scriptures of truth, like Israel’s cloud. And we have the inward tokens, in the Lord himself in the midst, to bless and make himself known in his soul-comforting manifestations. This indeed, is the new creation the Lord promised upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon all her assemblies. Here it may be truly said, "upon all the glory shall be a defence." Precious Lord Jesus! whilst thou art thus gracious, and thus blessed, to thy church and people, we still behold the cloud, yea, now look; through by faith, and behold thee in the cloud, a wall of fire round about, and the glory, as thou didst promise, in the midst of Zion! {See Zec 2:8}


We meet with this word upon many occasions in Scripture, but eminently so in two places. First, when the spies went up to search the promised land, and brought back the cluster of the rich fruit of Eshcol, {Nu 13:23} And again, the church, in the book of the Songs, {Song 1:14} where she commends her beloved, under the sweet similitude of the same, "My beloved is unto me as a cluster of camphire in the vineyards of Engedi." I conceive, that the beauties of the comparison in both instances are well worth attending to, in a work of this kind, and, therefore, I take for granted, that the reader will not be displeased in my detaining him on the occasion.

Nothing could be more happily chosen in both instances, when intended, as in the first, to set forth the fulness, and sweetness, and blessedness of the promised land than a cluster of its fruits. Christ, who is himself the glorious object intended to be set forth, is, indeed, a rich cluster of all divine and human excellencies in one, full of grace for his people here, and full of glory to all above. An ancient author tells us, that the Jews were accustomed to call such men as excelled in good qualities, Eshcoloth; that is, clusters. And hence they had a saying, that after the death of Jose Ben Joezen, a man of Tzereda, and Jose Ben Jochanan, a man of Jerusalem, the clusters ceased.

In the other instance, in direct allusion to Christ, in the church’s commendation of him, {Song 1:14} there in an uncommon degree of beauty in the similitude. The word camphire is in the original, copher, and in the Misnah is translated, cyprus. And Dr. Shaw, in his travels, describes the plant as being very beautiful and fragrant, advancing in height to ten or twelve feet, and full of clusters. Here also, as in the former instance, Christ is elegantly set forth. For as the grapes of Eshcol represented the fulness of Christ, and the blood of the grape became no unapt resemblance of Him who trod the wine press of the wrath of God, and whose blood, in cleansing the sinner, revives the soul in the assurance of pardon, mercy, and peace, by his cross, so the cypress, or the camphire, in the fragrancy of its clusters, becomes no less typical of His incense and merits, in whose righteousness alone the church is accepted. I must not dismiss this view of the subject before that I have farther remarked, that the word, translated camphire, is by some rendered (copher) atonement. The learned Bishop Patrick hath observed, that the Hebrew Doctors, by dividing the word Eshcol into two words, found out the mystery of the Messiah in the passage, and read them thus, my beloved is unto me the Esh, that is, the man; Col, copher; that is, a cluster of atonement. I leave the reader to his own observation upon the subject, with only remarking, that on the supposition the Hebrew Doctors were right, what a lovely Scripture this is in the Songs, {Song 1:14} when the church so sings of Christ. Surely, Jesus is all this, and infinitely more. Jesus calls himself the vine, {Joh 15:1} and the church saith that his growth is in the vineyards of Engedi, the richest soil of all the earth, where not only the finest grapes, but the loftiest palm trees abounded, even Hazazon-lamar. See {2Ch 20:2} In Jesus dwelleth "all the fulness of the GODHEAD bodily." He is, indeed, a cluster of all that is desirable "in the life that now is, and that which is to come."


See HAWKERS: Cluster


Though this bird is too well known to need any account being given of him, yet being rendered so memorable in Scripture, from the circumstance of the apostle Peter’s denial of Christ, I cannot pass it by without remarking, in allusion to that striking event, how slender the means which the Lord is pleased sometimes to make use of, to answer the most important purposes! The crowing of a cock is enough, in the Lord’s hand, to accomplish the Lord’s design. No one but Peter understood what the crowing of this cock meant; but to him it became more powerful than the sound of thunder. Such are the slenderest events in common life, when the Lord commissions them to be his messengers! Some of the Fathers have drawn a resemblance between the crowing of the cock, and the ministry of God’s word. For as Peter heard the first crowing of the cock without the least emotion, so do men hear the word of God, when unaccompanied with grace, untouched and unconcerned. But when that word of God is sent home to the heart, by the powerful conviction of the Spirit of God, like the eye of Jesus which looked upon Peter, as the cock crew the second time, then the word is rendered effectual, and, like Peter, the sinner is led forth to weep bitterly. {Lu 22:61}




The Scripture meaning of this name was not as opprobrious as it is in modern times. A concubine, indeed, in all ages, was not as highly ranked as a wife. She was ever considered as secondary and subordinate to the person to whom the husband and father of the family was married. But in those dark and ignorant times, when men were allowed (or rather allowed themselves), many wives, a concubine meant, one that he acknowledged for a wife, or a subordinate and inferior degree. And the children of this connection did not, by any right of their own, possess or claim the inheritance of their father. And there was this farther distinction between the lawful wife, and the concubine, there was no religious ceremony used at the taking of a concubine; whereas, the lawful wife was usually betrothed to her husband before marriage, and sometimes, from the very childhood of the respective parties. And when the time appointed for the consummation of the marriage arrived, this was always done with great order and solemnity: and all the friends of the respective parties were invited to the wedding. I hope the reader will not lose sight of the marriage of Jesus with our nature, in this view of the subject, and will remember, that the union of Christ with his church, is uniformly set forth in the most blessed similitudes and figures of this kind through the whole Bible. Jesus was set up, as the glorious Head and Husband of his church, from everlasting. And, in fact, the whole of the union, in the present state, is but a betrothing. {See Ho 2:19-20} At the final consummation of all things, Jesus will bring home his bride, and then will be the marriage-supper of the Lamb in heaven. {Re 19:9}

I beg to make a farther observation on this subject, while I am upon it, and to call the reader to remark with me, that even in those times of ignorance, when men gave loose to their corrupt affections, yet, the very law of usage concerning concubines carried with it a decided testimony, that even in the very moment they gavel way to their unbridled passions, yet, by the reverence shewn the lawful wife, they tacitly confessed the just and honourable appointment of the Lord. It was well known, and well understood, that at the beginning the Lord made our first parents, and united them together; teaching, that when thus formed in holy wedlock, they were no longer considered, in His eye, as separate, but one. The Lord himself said, "They shall be one flesh?" And our Lord’s own comment upon it decidedly determines the point. "What therefore (saith Jesus) God hath joined together, let not man put asunder." (Compare Ge 2:24 with Mr 10:9) Now the introduction of a concubine, of how inferior a degree soever she may be, is, to all intents and purposes, a destroying this junction, and, by so much, a breach of the original appointment of the Lord.

And it were devoutly to be wished, that men would consider the subject in this point of view, for it is to be apprehended, by what passeth too often in common life, men have not accustomed themselves to this consideration of it. I am not now taking up the subject in respect to the sad immorality of it, though the awful consequences, in the instances of thousands, too loudly condemn daily the breach of the marriage vow on that score; but I am carrying the matter higher, in shewing the awfulness of it, as a defiance of the divine appointment. Hence, when the Pharisees came to our Lord to ask the question about putting away their wives, and pleaded Moses’s permission in certain cases, our Lord expressly said, that Moses’s permission was from the hardness of their heart, but from the beginning (saith Jesus), it was not so. The man and woman once united in wedlock, were no longer separable but by death. {Mt 19:3-9} And his servant, the apostle, finished the matter from his Master’s authority, when he saith, "Let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband." {1Co 7:2}

I must not finish the subject without first desiring the reader to take with him that sweet thought, that in the marriage of the Lord Jesus with our nature (which the marriage-state in nature is a type of), both in the general purpose of it with his church at large, and with the person of every individual member of his mystical body in particular, there is no concubine to interrupt the present and everlasting happiness of our union with Christ Jesus. Though we have, indeed, proved unfaithful, yet hath not Jesus. Though, we have played the harlot with many lovers, yet still he saith, "I am married to you, saith the Lord." Oh! what unknown, what unspeakable glory is there in those words of our Lord—"I will betroth thee unto me for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in loving kindness, and in mercies; I will even betroth thee unto me in faithfulness, and thou shalt know the Lord." {Ho 2:19-20. See the whole chapter [Ho 2].}

And think reader, what will it be in that day of final consummation, when the Lord shall bring home his church, and every individual of his mystical body shall be found one with the Lord, in an everlasting union never to be dissolved! Oh, the joy in Jesus’s own declaration, "At that day ye shall know, that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you!" {Joh 14:20}


The great work of God the Holy Ghost is consolation. And it is most blessed to the souls of the truly regenerate, in whose hearts the Lord graciously carrieth it on by his inward spiritual refreshments, to watch and observe how the tendencies of his grace are made towards them. "He takes of the things of Christ, and sheweth to them." And he it is that sheds abroad the love of God the Father in the heart, and directs the minds of the people into the patient waiting for Jesus Christ. So that all the actings of our faith upon either of the persons of the GODHEAD, are from his sweet influences; and all the manifestations the holy and sacred persons make to the believer, it is God the Holy Ghost teacheth the soul how to receive and enjoy. And by this continual process of grace, he doth what the apostle prayed he might do for the church, as the apostle prayed he might do for the church, as "the God of hope, fill the soul with all joy and peace in believing, that they might abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost." Ro 15:13


This great work also is, like the former, the work of God the Holy Ghost. And the Lord Jesus, in his description of his person, describes also his office, work and character. "He shall reprove, saith Jesus, the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment." {Joh 16:7-15} And to remark the wonderful operations of his grace under those several branches of his almighty power, by which he gives the fullest discoveries of our worthlessness, and the glorious manifestations of Jesus’s grace, and fulness, and suitability, these are among the highest instructions the souls of men can attain in the present life. Blessed and Sovereign Convincer! I would say, bring my soul under thy divine illuminations, that my whole heart may be savingly converted unto God.


We meet with this word but once in the Bible. {Mr 7:11} But it should seem, from the manner in which it is spoken of by our blessed Lord, that the Jews were much in the habit of using it. The word Corban applied by the Jews to all voluntary gifts. It should seem to have been taken from the word Karab, to give. And from a passage in the gospel by St. Matthew, it should appear that they not unfrequently swore by it. {Mt 23:18-19} As they used the word Corban upon certain occasions, so they, sometimes, used the word Mencha, which means offering, for all presentations to the temple.

See HAWKERS: Offering.

The manner in which our Lord hath condemned the Jews, for the use of the word Corban, plainly shews what a pretext, or covering, they made it to evade important duties. "Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and whoso curseth father or mother, let him die the death. But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, it is Corban; that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free. And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother." {Mr 7:10-12} By which, it should seem, that those unfeeling men sheltered themselves, from affording relief to the necessities of their parents, under pretence, that they had made a Corban of what they had to the Lord. "It is Corban, said they; that is, it is the Lord’s. I have devoted all I can spare to the service of the temple—I cannot help you."

Blessed Lord! how sweetly doth thy gospel explain and enforce that unceasing precept both of nature and of grace, and which needs no higher rewards to follow than a man’s own uncorrupt feelings-"Honour thy father and thy mother, which (saith the Holy Ghost), is the first commandment with promise." {Eph 6:2} It is worthy observation, and deserves to be noticed under this subject, that this commandment is, indeed, the first to which a promise is given. For the first table of the law gives no promise. It is the first commandment in the second table that opens with a promise, and a blessed one it is, "that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee." Ex 20:12


The corn of wheat is worthy notice in our Concordance, because Jesus is beautifully represented, and by himself, under this figure. {Joh 12:24} When the Son of God became incarnate, like a pure grain of corn, yea, and of the finest kind, he fell into the ground. And what an abundant harvest of redeemed souls hath he since produced to the glory of the Almighty Husbandman, his father! {Joh 15:1}


One of the well known names of Christ, and most blessedly answering to his office, work and character in the hearts of his people. (See two beautiful proofs among a thousand. Isa 9:6; 48:16-17) This name at once sets forth the infinite dignity of his person, and the infinite suitableness of his salvation; "for in him are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge." {Col 2:3} In conjunction with the Father and the Holy Ghost, he was in the council of peace before all worlds, when the whole scheme of redemption was formed, and when it was determined upon, to be brought forth in time, and in its blessings to reach to all eternity. Wonderful Counsellor! give thy people grace to listen to thy gracious and divine teaching, "and to buy of thee gold tried in the fire." {Re 3:18}


I cannot pass over this Scriptural term, because it contains in itself, and conveys to the people, so much in expression of the mind of Jesus. "The lifting up the light of God’s countenance upon a soul," implies such an abundance of favour, that whenever we meet with the words, they ought to be treasured up as a renewed token of "the good-will of Him who dwelt in the bush." {Nu 6:26; Ps 4:6; De 33:16; Ps 21:6; Song 2:14; Ac 2:28; Re 1:16}


The Scripture sense of this word is the same as in the circumstances of common life; namely, an agreement between parties. Thus Abraham and Abimelech entered into covenant at Beersheba. {Ge 21:32} And in like manner, David and Jonathan. {1Sa 20:42} To the same amount, in point of explanation, must we accept what is related in Scripture of God’s covenant concerning redemption, made between the sacred persons of the GODHEAD, when the holy undivided Three in One engaged to, and with, each other, for the salvation of the church of God in Christ. This is that everlasting covenant which was entered into, and formed in the council of peace before the word began. For so the apostle was commissioned by the Holy Ghost, to inform the church concerning that eternal life which was given us, he saith, in Christ Jesus, "before the world began?" {Tit 1:2; 2Ti 1:9} So that this everlasting covenant becomes the bottom and foundation in JEHOVAH’S appointment, and security of all grace and mercy for the church here, and of all glory and happiness hereafter, through the alone person, work, blood-shedding, and obedience of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is on this account that his church is chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world. {Eph 1:4} And from this appointment, before all worlds, result all the after mercies in time, by which the happy partakers of such unspeakable grace and mercy are regenerated, called, adopted, made willing in the day of God’s power, and are justified, sanctified, and, at length, fully glorified, to the praise of JEHOVAH’S grace, who hath made them accepted in the Beloved.

Such are the outlines of this blessed covenant. And which hath all properties contained in it to make it blessed. It is, therefore, very properly called in Scripture everlasting; for it is sure, unchangeable, and liable to no possibility of error or misapplication. Hence, the patriarch David, with his dying breath, amidst all the untoward circumstances which took place in himself and his family, took refuge and consolation in this: "Although (said he,) my house be not so with God, yet hath he made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure; for this is all my salvation and all my desire, although he make it not to grow." {2Sa 23:5}

In the gospel, it is called the New Testament, or covenant, not in respect to any thing new in it or from any change or alteration in its substance or design, but from the promises of the great things engaged for in the Old Testament dispensation being now newly confirmed and finished. And as the glorious person by whom the whole conditions of the covenant on the part of man was to be performed, had now, according to the original settlements made in eternity, been manifested, and agreeably to the very period proposed, "in [what is called] the fulness of time, appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself," it was, therefore, called Covenant, in his blood. But the whole purport, plan, design and grace, originating as it did in the purposes of JEHOVAH from all eternity, had all the properties in it of an everlasting covenant; and Christ always, and from all eternity, "was considered the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world." {Re 13:8}


See HAWKERS: Maker


In allusion to Christ, the Scripture meaning of crown is, that all the merit of redemption is his; and as such, he wears the crown. Hence in the book of the Revelations, he is said to have been seen with many crowns on his head, {Re 19:12} meaning, from the different offices and characters which he sustained in accomplishing redemption, the crown of GODHEAD he wears in common with the Father and the Holy Ghost. But the crown of Mediator is peculiarly and personally his own. Hence, he is said to have "power over all flesh," as a Prince, and a Saviour, "for to give eternal life to as many as the Father hath given him." {Joh 17:2} Hence, when JEHOVAH bringeth in the first begotten into the world, he saith, "Let all the angels of God worship him." {Heb 1:6} And the crown of salvation put upon the sacred head of Christ by the church in one full body, and also by every individual of the church, multiplies the crowns of Jesus to an infinite extent, when any and every poor sinner is brought from darkness to light, and willingly and cheerfully ascribes the whole of his own personal salvation to the Lord Jesus Christ.


When we consider how much the church of God owes to the cross of Christ, and that the everlasting joy of heaven springs from the crucifixion of the Lord Jesus, it may well merit a place in our Concordance, to dwell a few minutes on the astonishing subject.

The cross, as far as we can learn from history, on which criminals were executed, was a kind of gibbet, with timber across, on which the person condemned to suffer was nailed. The body was suspended from those nails, which were driven through the hands, and the arms stretched out to each extremity. In this manner the criminal remained until life, from the extremity of suffering, expired. Some have said, that the wretched sufferers were first nailed to the cross, and then the whole body lifted on high, and the bottom of the cross fixed in a socket prepared for that purpose. And as this was done by a jerk, some of the bones were generally broken by this act of violence. But this is not probable. Indeed, in respect to the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, it is very unlikely to have been done, for "a bone of Him was not to be broken."

As crucifixion was not only the most painful but the most disgraceful of all deaths, the Roman law never allowed a Roman, be his crime whatever it might, to be thus degraded. It was only inflicted on slaves and criminals, for some more atrocious transgressions. And in order to heighten the shame and pain, the poor victims, so condemned to death, were first scourged, and their backs lacerated with whips or leathern lashes; and not unfrequently led through the city naked with their blood streaming from their wounds, and carrying their cross to the proposed place of execution. The reader will not need to be told, that thus they treated the Lord of life and glory, whom none of the princes of this world knew, until that the holy Sufferer fainted from beneath the load and severity of his pain, when they compelled one that was passing by to bear the cross for the Lord Jesus.

It was an additional aggravation to the ignominy of crucifixion, that the sufferer was perfectly naked, and without the smallest covering. Thus all criminals suffered. And when we consider the personal cruelties all along shewn to the Lord Jesus, we cannot suppose, that the smallest respect was manifested in this particular to his sacred person. Such then was the death the Son of God in our nature endured, for the redemption of his church and people! But who shall describe the soul agonies of Jesus? Here I stop short. It is the crucifixion of the body that I am now limited to, when speaking of the cross of Jesus. Over this view only, let the reader and writer for a moment pause, while listening to the call of the Holy Ghost by his servant the Baptist, "Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world!" {Joh 1:29}

Was there ever such an object proposed to the mind of contemplation as the Lord Jesus Christ on the cross? It should seem as if the Lord Jesus, thus stretched forth and thus lifted up, was inviting, with his arms extended and his heart bleeding, all his redeemed to come to him. Indeed, every part of his sacred body joined in giving the welcome. His arms spread to receive, his feet fixed to wait, and his head bowed down as if to kiss his people. Oh, for grace, with Paul, to determine "to know nothing among men, save Jesus Christ and him crucified!" And with the same holy indignation as he felt, against every thing that would check the ardour of his love, to cry out, "God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me and I unto the world!" {Ga 6:14}


The cubit was a measure used among the Eastern nations, containing about eighteen inches of our English measure. The Hebrews, by a very singular idea, called it Ammah; that is, mother: as if other measures were produced by this.


I need not make any observation, by way of explaining what is so very plain and well understood in common life, as that of a cup. Neither, indeed should I have thought it necessary to have detained the reader over the word, had that been all that I proposed from it. But as the word cup is sometimes, and indeed, not unfrequently in Scripture, used figuratively, I thought it proper to attend to what is implied in the term. Sometimes the cup is placed for sorrow, and sometimes for joy, and the lot or portion of a man is called his cup. Hence, the Psalmist speaking of the blessings of grace in the Lord Jesus, calls them, the cup of salvation. {Ps 116:13} And Paul, when describing the blessedness of union with Christ, and communion in consequence thereof with God, calls the ordinance which resembles it, a cup. "The cup which we bless (saith he,) is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?" {1Co 10:16} Sometimes it is made use of to intimate a participation in suffering. "Awake, awake, stand up, O Jerusalem! which hast drunk at the hand of the Lord the cup of his fury; thou hast drunken the dregs of the cup of trembling, and wrung them out." {Isa 51:17} And as this, no doubt, under the language of prophecy, referred to Christ, so in open language the Lord Jesus himself, speaking of his soul-exercises, calls it a cup. {Mt 26:39-42; Joh 18:11}



We cannot be too attentive to those terms, as they refer to the original curse pronounced on the fall of our first parents, and those curses again proclaimed at the giving of the law on mount Sinai, as the penalty of disobedience. For the proper apprehension of our whole nature being involved in the guilt and condemnation of them, and our total inability to help ourselves, will from a means, under divine teaching, to discover how Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of both, being made "a curse for us." {Ga 3:13} The whole plan and purpose of redemption turns upon this hinge. Every thing that is blessed and consolatory in redemption is founded in this. Faith looks to Jesus for deliverance from all. And the apostle’s hymn of praise becomes the hymn of every regenerated believer, that "as sin hath reigned unto death, even so doth grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord." {Ro 5:21}


See HAWKERS: Curse


See HAWKERS: Cluster


Prince of Persia. This man was an eminent instrument in the Lord’s hand, for the deliverance of Israel from the Babylonish captivity. What is very remarkable and worthy the reader’s attention concerning Cyrus is, that the Lord, by the spirit of prophecy, informed the church one hundred and fifty years, at least, before the captivity took place, that Cyrus was anointed to end that captivity and bring his people out of it. And that no mistake might arise, the Lord called him by his name Cyrus, then, so long before he was born. The reader will find much information on this subject by reading the forty-fifth chapter of Isaiah’s prophecy, and comparing it with Ezr 1 and Da 6:28.

One circumstance I must beg to subjoin, because it is, in my view, very important and striking, concerning this prince of Persia, Cyrus. We plainly discover, that he was an instrument in the Lord’s hand for good to the church. And we farther discover, that he was appointed to this long before he was born. And we also no less perceive, that the church was assured of this. by his name, for their comfort, under all their exercises, until the time should come. But all the while Cyrus himself felt no interest in the great event he was appointed to accomplish, and knew not the Lord. For so the Lord gives the awful account—I have surnamed thee, said the Lord to him, though thou hast not known me. And this is again repeated in the following verse. {See Isa 45:3-4}

Depend upon it, reader, the case of Cyrus is not singular. Multitudes are appointed to minister to the Lord’s people, who neither know the Lord, nor love his people. But they shall serve the Lord’s purpose, however reluctantly, did they know all, they would go about it. For rather than the Lord’s poor children shall want bread, Jesus will feed them at their very enemies’ table. And when they have answered the Lord’s purpose, they themselves are accounted as nothing. What an awful Scripture that is of our Lord’s to this amount: {Mt 7:22} "Many will say unto me in that day, Lord! Lord! Have we not prophesied in thy name, and in thy name cast out devils, and in thy name done many wonderful works? To whom Jesus will say, I never knew you; depart from me!"


The dunghill god of the Philistines. We have the relation concerning this idol, Jg 16:23 and again, 1Sa 5:2, &c. The name seems well suited for such a purpose, being derived from Dag, fish. Some historians say, that the idol was formed like a fish.


A place honoured with the presence of the Lord Jesus. Some make Magdala and Dalmanutha one and the same. (See Mt 15:39 and Mr 8:10)


The chief city of Syria; so called from Damashech, a place of blood, from Damah, blood. Here Paul was directing his course for the destruction of the church when the Lord converted him. {Ac 9:2-6, &c.}


The fifth son of Jacob, and by Bilhah, the handmaid of Rachel. {Ge 30:4-6} I notice this man more with a view to make an observation on his father’s prophecy concerning his tribe, than from any thing particularly to be recorded relative to Dan himself. Jacob, when dying, prophesied concerning Dan in these remarkable words: {Ge 49:16-17} "Dan shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse’s heels, so that his rider shall fall backward." This prophecy was accomplished in the person of Samson, who descended from Dan. It is worthy farther remark, that though in the first instance of Dan there were no very promising prospects of a numerous race, Dan himself having but one son, {Ge 46:23} yet, at the children of Israel’s leaving Egypt, the tribe of Dan amounted to "threescore and two thousand, seven hundred men," all that were able to go forth to war. {Nu 1:38}


See HAWKERS: Dancing



I think it not a little important, for every serious reader of the Bible, to have proper ideas of the Scripture meaning of dancing, and therefore it would have been wrong, in a work of this kind, to have passed it by. It is very evident, that dancing formed, sometimes, a part in the religious duties of the Hebrews. Hence we read, {Ps 149:3} "Let them praise his name in the dance." And David is said, {2Sa 6:14} to have danced before the Lord. Yea, the Lord himself is represented, {Jer 31:4} as comforting his people with this assurance, "that they should again go forth in the dances of them that make merry." All which very evidently proves, that the dancing spoken of in Scripture totally differed from that vain, frivolous, and idle, not to say sinful, custom of dancing practised in modern times. It should seem to have been used among the people of God in a solemn manner, though, no doubt, accompanied with bursts of holy joy and praise. Hence, when "Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went after her with timbrels and with dances," at the triumph over the enemies of God and the church at the Red sea, we are told, that she answered them in holy song—"Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea." {Ex 15:20-21} Some have thought, that the holy dances of the Scripture were by way of resembling the motions of the heavenly bodies, as if in the joy of the heart, in any renewed instances of God’s grace and mercy manifested to the people, they looked up to heaven, and endeavoured by action of the body, as well as the going forth of the soul in praise, to testify their sense of the divine goodness. And certain it is, that when the heart is under very strong impressions of the Lord’s special favour, there will be an involuntary motion of the whole frame. Even in modern times we have heard of whole congregations, such as the Jumpers in Wales, and the Shakers (so called) in America, whose devotions have been marked with action as well as voice. Yea, the Holy Ghost hath testified of certain instances where "smiting the thigh, and stamping the foot," have been observed as solemn tokens towards the Lord. {See Jer 31:19; Eze 6:11} But all these are so foreign to what is now known by the term dancing, that they differ in every point but the name. I cannot dismiss this article without adding, that it were devoutly to be wished every parent of the rising generation would seriously consider to what danger of seduction they are preparing their little ones, when sending them forth to the dance. Who shall calculate the numberless instances of the kind, which dancing, by inflaming the passions, hath given birth to in modern life! (See a solemn account of such parents, and such children, with the issue of both,) Job 21:11-13


The prophet of the Lord. His name is very significant, meaning, the judgment Daniel was descended from the royal family of David, and was carried away captive to Babylon when quite a youth. The Chaldeans artfully gave him the name of Belteshazzar, which signifies, master or lord of the treasure; by way, it is most likely, of causing him to forget the Lord God of his fathers. {See Da 1:7} We have this man’s history in his writings, and in the accounts given of him by Eze 14:14 for his great sanctity of life and manners. And his wisdom was so highly esteemed, that it became proverbial to denote a wise man by calling him Daniel. Hence, the prophet Ezekiel, {Eze 28:3} speaking, by the Lord’s command, to the prince of Tyrus, speaks of his vanity and pride, as if he thought himself wiser than Daniel. The prophecies of Daniel concerning the Messiah were so bright and clear, that the modern Jews endeavoured to call in question their authenticity, but without effect. In fact, the corresponding fulfilment of the prophecy with the prediction, becomes the best and most decided testimony to their truth; for this is the seal of God the Holy Ghost. The death of this prophets in the place, and time, and manner, is not known. Some have thought, that he returned to Judea with the captives that returned with Ezra; but the word of God hath not noticed it, which renders it improbable. It is enough for us to be blessed with his ministry, in his inspired writings, while he lived, and to rest assured, that he died in the faith of that glorious Saviour, whose advent, and sufferings, and death, he was commissioned by the Lord so clearly to describe. This is enough for us to know. And the voice John heard from heaven concerning all such is conclusive and satisfactory. {See Re 14:13}


In Scripture language the word darkness is variously used. In the natural sense of the word, it means the obscurity, such as is described at the original state of things, when JEHOVAH went forth in acts of creation. It is said, "darkness was on the face of the deep." {Ge 1:2} In a spiritual sense, darkness is frequently made use of in Scripture to denote the blindness and ignorance of the mind, by reason of sin. Hence Paul, when speaking of the conversion of the church at Corinth, saith, "God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined into our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ." {2Co 4:6} The darkness of the grave, and the darkness of hell, are both also spoken of in Scripture. {Job 10:21-22; Mt 22:13} The darkness which took place at the death of Christ, and which lasted from the sixth to the ninth hour, differed from all these, and was among the miracles which marked that momentous event. Profane writers, as well as the sacred Scriptures, have it upon record. Dionysius the Areopagite, in his epistle to Polycarp, makes mention of it with decided convictions on his mind, that the event was supernatural. And another writer, Suidas, relates, that the same Dionysius said concerning it, that God either suffered, or took part with one that did. But what are all the testimonies of profane writers to those which God the Holy Ghost gives of it? Some have thought, that this supernatural darkness was the Father’s frown at the Jews’ cruelty, in crucifying Christ. For my part, I believe it to have been the very reverse. For never was the Father more glorified than by those sufferings of the Lord Jesus. Never was Christ more glorified than by those sufferings. Then it was that Scripture was fulfilled, and Jesus set, as JEHOVAH’S King, "upon his holy hill of Zion." {Ps 2:6} What was it, this darkness then, under these views, meant to imply? Surely, that Jesus the Son of God, when becoming the sinner’s Surety, shall do all, and suffer all, the sinner deserved, and must have borne for ever, had not Christ interposed. Darkness, yea, darkness to be felt, shall be in the Surety’s lot. Christ is now lifted up a spectacle between heaven and earth. The sinner’s Surety is now appearing as one forsaken of both, and meriting the favour of neither. He is now suspended on the cross in the air, to represent his territories, who is the "Prince of the power of the air." {Eph 2:2} The cataracts of divine wrath were now opened. Christ is beheld in the very character he had taken at the call of God the Father; first, made sin, and then, a curse, (see these Scriptures,) 2Co 5:21; Ga 3:13 then follows, darkness, soul-trial, and death. It was not necessary the sinner’s Surety should go down into hell, to suffer there the torments of the damned: it is not the place that constitutes the suffering, but the manner: and here the judgment due to the sinner seized him. He saith himself, "The sorrows of death compassed me, the pains of hell gat hold upon me." {Ps 116:3} Surely, if ever the face of hell was seen on earth, or the darkness of hell known, it was on that day. Hence, when the whole was passed, and this eclipse gone by; and day-light brake in again upon Jesus, he cried with a loud voice, "It is finished." {Joh 19:30} Reader! those cries of the Lord Jesus on the cross, during the dreadful darkness and desertion his soul endured, may serve to teach us somewhat of those eternal shrieks and cries of the damned, who are cast out of God’s presence for ever!


Son of Eliab, one of the rebels with Korah. {Nu 16:1} His name is derived from Dath, rites.


I should not think it necessary to offer any observation upon this name, if considered in natural alliances only. But there is a great sweetness in it, when read in Scripture in allusion to the church. It is very blessed to perceive, that as the Lord Jesus fills all relations to his church, and is, in one and the same moment, her everlasting Father, her Husband, and Brother, and Friend, so the church is to Jesus, his daughter, his sister, his spouse, his beloved, his fair-one, and the only one of her mother. {Ps 45:9-10; Song 6:9} How frequently do we find the Lord speaking of his church under the endeared character of daughter. "For the hurt of the daughter of my people, I am hurt." {Jer 8:21} "Tell ye the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee!" Zec 9:9 with Mt 21:5


The very important figure which David, king of Israel, makes in Scripture, demands, that in a work of this kind, he should not be overlooked. His services, as a prophet of the Lord, and his labours in the Scriptural writings which come to the church with his name, render it highly needful to notice him. But added to this, as a type of the Lord Jesus, and the great Mediator bearing his name, renders him still more endearing to our view. His very name from Dud, to love, means, dear and well-beloved; and as a type of the ever-dear and well-beloved Jesus, nothing could be more suited. I only beg the reader to observe concerning types in general, and of him in particular, that it is only in this very precise instance, in which the agreement runs, that the word of God considers them; and consequently, ought to be considered by the church. The Lord Jesus Christ after the flesh, is spoken of as the seed of David; and as such, the covenant runs in his name. {See Ps 89:34-35; 2Ti 2:8}


See HAWKERS: Death



There is a threefold sense of death; natural, spiritual, and eternal. That which is natural, respects the separation of soul and body. "The body without the Spirit is dead." {Jas 2:16} Spiritual death means, the soul unquickened by the Holy Ghost. "And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins." {Eph 2:1} And eternal death implies the everlasting separation both of soul and body from God to all eternity. "I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed, hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him." {Lu 12:5}

See HAWKERS: Hardness of Heart .


The eminent prophetess, whose history is recorded Judges iv. and v. She was the wife of Lapidoth. Her name is probably from Deborat, bee; perhaps, in allusion to the activity of her mind. The Holy Ghost hath endeared her memory, not only by the victory wrought by her instrumentality, in the deliverance of Israel, but by that divine hymn she sang, and is left upon re-record for the use of the church.


The accursed enemy of Christ and his church. He is known in Scripture under a great variety of names, all, more or less, expressive of his character. Abaddon, and the angel of the bottomless pit, (Re 9:11.) Beelzebub, (Mt 12:24.) Belial, (2Co 6:15.) the Old Dragon, (Re 12:3.) the father of liars, (Joh 8:44.) Lucifer, (Isa 14:12.) a murderer from the beginning, (Joh 8:44.) Serpent, (Isa 27:1.) Satan, (Job 2:6.) the god of this world, (2Co 4:4.) a roaring lion. (1Pe 5:8.) See HAWKERS: Satan


The dew is a merciful provision the Lord hath ordained for moistening the plants and other productions of the earth in dry seasons, when there is no rain. And it is supposed, that the dew of the night is exactly in proportion to the heat of the day. But what I more particularly desire to notice respecting the dew is, the gracious condescension of the Lord, in resembling his blessings on his people to the figure of the dew. Hence, we read, by his servant the prophet Hosea, how the Lord saith, "I will be as the dew unto Israel." {Ho 14:5} And how is that? The Lord answereth in another Scripture. "It tarrieth not for man, nor waiteth for the sons of men." {Mic 5:7} No predisposing cause in men, no, not even the wants or miseries of men, prompting the infinite mind of God to bestow his blessings. His love is before our misery, and his mercy makes no pause for our merit. Hence, we find numberless Scriptures speaking of the Lord’s mercies under this figure. Jesus saith to the church, in a time when visiting her, "My head is filled with dew, and my locks with the drops of the night." {Song 5:2} Hence, the resurrection of his people by grace, as hereafter to glory, is said to be "as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out her dead." {Isa 26:19} meaning that as from the rich dews which fall upon the earth, the dry, withered, and apparently dead plants of the winter shall again bud, and break forth in the spring, so the dead and dying state of Christ’s redeemed shall, from the dew of his birth, "revive as the corn, and grow as the vine." Hence, the doctrines of grace are said to be of the same refreshing quality as the dew. "My doctrine" (said Moses,) "shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distil as the dew, as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as the showers upon the grass." (De 32:2 and De 33:13)



It would be unnecessary to offer any observations simply on this bird, as it is in itself, but as it is made use of by the Scriptures of God, as figurative of the Holy Ghost, and also by the Lord Jesus, to denote the loveliness of his church, it merits our attention. It was in the form of a dove that the Holy Ghost descended upon the blessed Jesus at his baptism. {Mt 13:6} And it was the dove that brought the tidings of the waters being assuaged into the ark, by the olive branch in his mouth. {Ge 8:12} And Christ compares his church to the beauty and gentleness of the dove. {Song 2:14} And the comparison is certainly very just; for as the dove in nature is a very beautiful, and clean, and affectionate creature, so the church in grace, when washed in Christ’s blood, and justified in Christ’s righteousness, and made comely from the comeliness her Lord hath put upon her, is all-glorious within, and hath no spot, or blemish, but is without blame before Jesus in love. Hence, the Psalmist sweetly sings of the church—"Though she hath lain among the pots, yet shall she be like the wings of a dove, covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow gold." {Ps 68:13}


One of the names of the devil. {Re 12:9} Hence, in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ’s victory over hell, the Psalmist saith, "Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder, the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet."


The visions of the night are called dreams. And before the more open revelations by the Lord Jesus Christ, certain it is, that the Lord not unfrequently made use of their ministry in the church. Hence, the patriarchs Abraham and Jacob were thus exercised. {Ge 15 Ge 28} And Joseph’s dreams, when related to his father and brethren, were made instrumental to excite the envy of his brethren. Ge 37:5-6, &c. Yea, the Lord declared concerning dreams, while the church was in the wilderness, that he would make himself known to his servants the prophets in this way. {Nu 12:6} And even in the days of the New Testament dispensation, dreams were not in disuse for occasionally revealing the mind of the Lord. Concerning the safety of the child Jesus, by removing him into Egypt, this was directed by an angel appearing by night to Joseph in a dream. {Mt 2:13} But while the Lord was thus pleased, by the means of dreams, to make known to his people, as occasion might require, the purposes of his will, he was no less pleased to direct his servants the prophets, by open revelation, to guard against all imposition from lying dreams, and false visions of men’s own forming. The prophet Jeremiah was taught thus to declare the Lord’s mind concerning these things, "I have heard what the prophets said, that prophecy lies in my name; saying, I have dreamed, I have dreamed. How long shall this be in the heart of the prophets, that prophecy lies? Yea, they are prophets of the deceit of their heart, which think to cause my people to forget my name by their dreams." {Jer 23:25-27} In the open day-light of that full revelation the gospel hath brought, the greatest caution should be observed respecting attention to dreams. Upon every occasion of the sort, the faithful in Christ Jesus would do well to remember the Lord’s direction upon another subject, in respect to them that sought after familiar spirits; "to the law and to the testimony, if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them." {Isa 8:19-20} Far be it from any one to limit the Holy One of Israel; but by this reference upon all exercises of the mind concerning dreams the children of the Lord will be preserved from error. To say that dreams are wholly done away under the gospel dispensation, and that the Lord never doth speak by them to his people, would be opposing a well known Scripture concerning them, which wholly related to the latter-day ministry. The prophet Joel was commissioned to declare, and the apostle Peter explained what he said, in direct reference to the days of the manifestation of the Holy Ghost, that the Lord would in the last days, "pour out of his Spirit upon all flesh; and that in consequence of his mercy, their sons and their daughters should prophecy, and their old men dream dreams, and their young men see visions." {Joe 2:28; Ac 2:17} So that to say their entire use is done away, would be presuming to be wise above what is written. At the same time to suppose, that the common and ordinary dreams of the night are intended to direct the mind of the Lord’s people, would be to lessen the divine authority of God’s holy word, which, in all cases; is able to make us "wise unto salvation through the faith that is in Christ Jesus." The exercise of the mind in dreams is certainly among the wonders we meet with in life, which are not the least surprising, though the least to be explained. We know that the whole body is perfectly conscious, and asleep; while there is a somewhat in us, or belonging to us, that is, at times, very busily engaged and employed. We talk apparently with others, and we hear them talk with us. We travel far and near; transact great concerns; not unfrequently converse with persons, whom in our waking hours we know to be dead; but yet in sleep sometimes forget this and sometimes not. We hear their voice and perfectly recollect it; their person, manner, and the like, are as familiar to us as when living. Yea, sometimes circumstances of a similar nature are brought before us in our sleep, both with the dead and living whom we never knew. These, with numberless other particularities, are among the dreams of the night, of which the body, asleep and torpid, is wholly unconscious; but of which the mind or thinking faculty, or the somewhat indescribable, be it what it may, is most earnestly engaged in, and highly interested about. Who shall say what this is? Who shall describe it? Who shall define its use? And there is another very striking particularity in dreams, that while it carries the fullest conviction to that thinking faculty, that somewhat indescribable being acted upon, in a way and manner no man can explain, serves to prove, that the whole is somewhat more than the effect of fancy, though not unfrequently the trifling nature of the thing itself is as trifling. I mean when persons far remote from each other, have one and the same dream, or are apparently engaged in one and the same concern in that dream, without any previous communication on the subject; yea, perhaps without any previous knowledge of each other. And let me add another particularity as striking as any, concerning the exercise of the mind, or thinking faculty, in dreams, beyond the power of any man to account for; namely, when we receive instructions or help on any point, during our dreaming hours, from a person or persons, then supposed to be with us, which, without whose aid we could not in ourselves have accomplished. I will beg to illustrate this, by the relation of a plain matter of fact, which I had from a friend of mine, with whom I lived many years in the habits of great intimacy: indeed, the same, more or less, may be found perhaps in every man’s experience, on one point or other. My friend was a good classic, and conversant with the best Latin authors. In one of his dreams he fancied himself reading one of his favourite books, which he was in the habit of constant reading, when a passage occurred that he could not construe. He tried again and again to translate it, but all to no purpose. Mortified with himself, he was about to close the book and relinquish the attempt, when a person looking over his shoulder gently upbraided him on his dulness {Lu 24:35} and construed the passage to him. Now the question is, who was this looker-on, for he himself was asleep, and alone? The reader will sadly mistake my meaning, from all that I have here said upon dreams, if he thinks I am bringing forward a justification of that farrago of unconnected, trifling, and impertinent stuff, which some make of dreams. Too many there are, whose waking hours are little better than the merest unmeaning dreams of the night. But making all due allowance for such things, certain it is, that in the early ages of the world, the Lord was pleased to make use of the ministry of dreams. And though under the gospel we have a more sure guide to take heed unto, yet it were to limit the Holy One of Israel to say, that they now are never used, and their ministry hath totally ceased. No doubt, the greatest jealousy maybe proper to exercise concerning them; and certainly, we must be safe in rejecting them in all points, where they are not in perfect agreement with the glorious gospel of the ever-blessed God.


Is sometimes put figuratively in Scripture, to imply the thirst and desire of the soul after Christ. Hence, we find the Lord Jesus saying "If any man thirst, let him come to me and drink." {Joh 7:37} And again, "He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me and I in him." {Joh 6:56} In like manner, at the close of Scripture, the coming of Christ is described under the similitude of drink. {Re 22:17}

Dwell Alone

This is a Scripture phrase of great beauty, concerning the Lord’s heritage. The Lord compelled this declaration to be made out of the mouth of Balaam, when blessing the children of God while he wished to curse them. "The people shall dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned among the nations." {Nu 23:9} And I hardly know, in all the Scripture, a more blessed mark of divine discrimination. Very much it were to be wished, that the Lord’s people would be always on the look out for it, as a token and badge of their high calling in Christ Jesus. That the Lord’s people have, from all eternity, been so appointed is certain. They have dwelt alone in God the Father’s gracious purpose in giving them to his Son. They have dwelt alone in the mind of Jesus, when he stood forth as their Surety, and Head, and Husband, before all worlds. And they have dwelt alone in the view and love of God the Holy Ghost, when making them the objects of his grace. Hence therefore, as they dwell alone in the privileges of the everlasting covenant, and as the members of the mystical body of Christ, so are they supposed to dwell alone in their affections, pursuits, manners, habits, and daily delights. They may, and they do, hear that voice John heard from heaven concerning them, when calling them to dwell alone, and to have no connection with the unfruitful works of darkness. "Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues." {Re 18:4}


I cannot pass over this article in our Concordance, in as much as we find frequent mention made of the eagle in Scripture. And I do this the rather from the singularity of it, and especially in the way in which it is used. I mean, because it is declared in the Levitical law to be unclean; yea, all the different species of the eagle, including the vulture and the hawk, which are both of the eagle kind. {See Le 11:13-16} Now it is certain, that the Lord, (by which I apprehend is meant the Lord Jesus Christ in our nature,) condescends to make use of the similitude of an eagle, in describing his care over his people, when he saith, "I bare you on eagle’s wings, and brought you unto myself." {Ex 19:4; De 32:11} Is there not something of a most interesting nature implied in those affections of the Lord, beside the protection here set forth as shewn his people? As the eagle is among the creatures of uncleanness; is there not an allusion to the Lord’s taking our uncleanness upon him, when he thus speaks of bearing his redeemed on eagle’s wings? The reader will observe, I do but ask the question, and not determine the matter. But as we well know, and all redeemed souls rejoice in the glorious consolation, it was Jesus both"bare our sins, and carried our sorrows, when the Lord JEHOVAH laid on him the iniquity of us all,"the Lord’s making use of one of the unclean creatures, in a similitude to himself, may not be supposed unaptly to represent this unequalled mercy? Connect with this view, what the gospel saith, (2Co 5:21 and Ga 3:13) and let the reader judge the fitness of the observation. He, who in such infinite and unequalled love and grace, became both sin and a curse for his people, might go on in the humiliation, to compare himself to the eagle, when made sin for us; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. The beautiful comparison, made in allusion to this bird, in providing safety for her young, to that of the Lord Jesus carrying his people as on eagle’s wings, is too striking hastily to pass it by. {De 32:11-12} The eagle’s stirring up her nest, fluttering over her young, spreading abroad her wings; taking them and bearing them on her wings; are beautiful descriptions, and which it seems, in the case of the eagle’s care over her brood, is literally the case. The young eagles are much disposed to sleep. The old bird therefore, rouseth them up, by disturbing them in their nest; when they are awakened, she fluttereth over them, spreading abroad her wings, to teach them how to use theirs, and how to fly. And until they are able to soar above all danger in the air, she carrieth them on her wings, that they may in due season use their own. Such, but in an infinitely higher degree of wisdom, love, and tenderness, doth Jesus, by his offspring. The Lord stirred them up from sleeping in the dangers of Egypt, and taught them how"to flee from the wrath to come."And the Lord is doing so now, in bringing up all his redeemed out of the Egypt of sin and death in this world. But the most beautiful part of the representation remains yet to be noticed. The eagle is the only bird that carries her young upon her wings. All other birds use their talons for bearing up their little brood. Now, when the Lord Jesus useth this similitude, it teacheth us that it is impossible they can fall whom he bears; for they are on the wings and above, and not beneath, and like those birds, who catch up their young in their talons, and in their flight may drop them. Moreover, no weapon from beneath can reach the young, in the care of the eagle, without first piercing the old bird. So nothing can touch Christ’s little ones without first destroying Christ. Was there ever a similitude more beautiful, lovely, and comfortable? Let me only add, to this figure of the Old Testament church, that precious one also, of the Lord Jesus in the New. I mean, when to the strength of the eagle, Jesus subjoins the affection of the hen;"saying, How often would I have gathered you, even as an hen gathers her chickens under her wings!" {Mt 23:37} There is another similitude made use of respecting the church, in allusion to the eagle. The prophet Micah, {Mic 1:16} speaks of the boldness of the eagle. And some have asserted, that in old age, the eagle is renewed with youth. Whether this be so, or not; or whether the moulting time, common to other birds every year, is only once experienced by the eagle, and that in old age, I will not, for I cannot, determine; but certain it is, that the Lord himself makes use of the similitude, to describe his people by. In one of the sweetest promises, the Lord thus comforts them, "He giveth power to the faint, and to them that have no might, he increaseth strength. Even the youths shall faint and be weary, and the young men shall utterly fall; but they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run and not be weary, and they shall walk and not faint." {Isa 40:27-31} And while the Lord thus comforts his church with the assurance of the renewings of spiritual strength, like the eagle in nature, the church is described as praising God under the view of renewing grace, in the same figure: "Bless the Lord, O my soul, and all that is within me, bless his holy name: who forgiveth all thine iniquities, and healeth all thy diseases: who redeemeth thy life from destruction, and crowneth thee with loving kindness and tender mercies: who satisfieth thy mouth with good things, so that thy youth is renewed as the eagle’s?" {Ps 103:1-5}



In Scripture, such frequent mention is made of the hearing ear, and the uncircumcised in heart and ears, that it ought to be noticed in a work of this kind. In Scripture language, to uncover the ear, {1Sa 20:2,13} as it is rendered in the margin of the Bibles, is to reveal somewhat particularly to a certain person, or persons, which, in general, to others, is not made known. And hence the Lord Jesus himself saith by the spirit of prophecy, {Ps 11:6} Mine ears hast thou opened. So again, Isa 1:5 "The Lord God hath opened mine ear, and I was not rebellious," In the Jewish church, it was the custom, and among the appointments of the Lord himself, when a servant, after six years’ service, being freed by the law, so loved his master, that he would not leave him, he was to have his ear bored with an awl unto the door post, as a token of a free and voluntary service; and then to serve for ever. {Ex 21:2,5} And in allusion to this, (for this was a beautiful type of the Lord Jesus Christ), the Lord Jesus saith, Mine ears hast thou opened, or as the margin of the Bible hath, it, mine ears hast thou digged. {See Ps 40:6} The apostle Paul commenting upon this passage, in quoting it, gives a free and full translation, and renders it, A body hast thou given me, or prepared me. {Heb 10:5} And certain it is, that the lesser, of boring the ear, implies the greater, of preparing the whole body. But how delightful is it to make interpretation, of what the Jewish servant said respecting the house of his servitude, in allusion to the Lord Jesus in the house of his! who, as the servant of JEHOVAH (for such he fully became, when he became our Surety), might be said thus to express himself, I love my master, I love my wife, my children; I will not go out free. Surely, it is blessed to eye Christ as our Surety, constantly represented by types in the Old Testament Scripture. As the uncovering the ear is a Scripture expression, to denote divine teaching, and the opening the heart and understanding, so the word of God abounds with figures and similitudes to represent the reverse. They are said to be uncircumcised in heart and ears, to whom the word of the Lord is unprofitable. Their ears are said to be heavy; to be waxed gross, and dull in hearing, and the like. {Isa 6:10} Hence! no less than seven times in the Scripture; (as, if to denote the awfulness of such a state) the dreadful condition of the ungodly is described under those characters. {See Isa 6:9-10; Mt 13:14-15; Mr 4:12; Lu 8:10; Joh 12:40; Ac 28:26-27; Ro 11:8}


This word is of great importance in the Scripture tongue, applied as it is, with peculiar emphasis, to the work of the Holy Ghost upon the heart. The apostle, speaking of the wonderful gifts of God’s grace, saith, "Now he that hath wrought us for the self same thing is God, who hath also given unto us the earnest of the Spirit." {2Co 5:5} And elsewhere, he calls it the earnest of our inheritance. {Eph 1:14} It becomes the Lord’s pledge, the Lord’s token, and covenant of his love to the soul. Sweet evidence of divine faithfulness!


We find that in the Old Testament scripture, the earring was a token and pledge of overtures to marriage. Thus Abraham’s servant’s first present, in his master’s name, to Rebekah, was a golden earring. {Ge 24:22} And hence Laban, her brother’s, invitation, in consequence thereof. (Ge 24:30-31) In allusion to this, we find the Lord Jesus speaking of his church, "I put a jewel on thy forehead, and earrings in thine ears, and a beautiful crown upon thine head." {Eze 16:12} And certain it is, that when the Lord Jesus is going forth in the graces of his Holy Spirit, to make his people willing in the day of his power; he doth all this and infinitely more. Yea, all the persons of the GODHEAD give of their golden blessings, the most precious jewels. "We will make thee borders of gold, with studs of silver." {Song 1:11}




There are many senses in which this word is used in holy Scripture. In general, it means the gross matter which forms a bed, and sustains the life of trees, and fruit, and of vegetable life. God called the dry land earth. {Ge 1:10} Sometimes it is put for the people, and sometimes for their property. The earth, it is said, was filled with violence. {Ge 6:13} And respecting property, we are told, that while the heavens are the Lord’s, the earth hath he given to the children of men. {Ps 115:16} I have somewhere read of the presumptuous gift of one of the princes of the earth, assuming to himself this grant, making a deed of gift to one of his favorites, of a certain portion of the land, the charter of which ran in words to this effect: "I give all that is from heaven to the centre of the earth, including the minerals in the bowels of it," &c. Poor vain man! when shortly after, all that he could embrace of the earth, or the earth him, was just his own breadth and length to lie down upon for corruption and to mingle with in the dust! The word earth is also spoken of by way of a natural and moral sense, Hence, in opposition to spirit, the Scripture describes the first man as of the earth, earthy; while the second man is declared to be, the Lord from heaven. And Jesus himself defines the essential difference, he that is of the earth, speaketh of the earth, he that cometh from heaven, is above all. {See 1Co 15:47-48; Joh 3:31}


The first account we have of an earthquake is in the book of Numbers, {Nu 16:28-34} in the instance of God’s judgments upon the rebellion of Korah, and his company. And it should seem from hence, but a manner of just conclusion, that earthquakes, notwithstanding that modem philosophers pretend to account for them by physical causes, are not so, but special indications of the Lord’s displeasure. It is somewhat remarkable, that in the ten plagues of Egypt, this was not one. For of all alarming events, no doubt, the earthquake is the greatest. The Scripture relates another earthquake in the days Uzziah, king of Judah. {See Am 1:1; Zec 14:5} And a third took place at the death of Christ. {Mt 27:51} The Father in the church, St. Cyril, relates, that the rocks which were split on Mount Calvary on this occasion were visible in his days. Matthew tells us, that when the centurion saw this earthquake, it convinced him of the GODHEAD of Christ. (Mt 27:54.)



The custom of eating in the Eastern world, totally differed from our customs and manners. It was always in a reclining posture. And there was great attention paid to the company, even in their ordinary meals. The patriarchs ate by themselves. And when our fathers were in Egypt, we are told, that it was an abomination for the Egyptians to sit at meat with the Hebrews. {Ge 43:32} It is our happiness that these distinctions are done away. Jesus received sinners, and ate with them. Well it is for us he did. {Lu 15:2} How blessedly the apostle speaks on the subject: "The kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost." {Ro 14:17} It may not be unacceptable to the readers, for whom I particularly intend this Concordance, to set before them an account of the extraordinary attention the ancient Jews observed in their seasons of meals, to a scrupulous exactness. It may be more than gratifying as an history, for it may be profitable in beholding what was unimportant among them, while we gather improvement from what was becoming. The view of both may be useful. The Jews never sat down to the table until that they had first washed their hands. Hence, their surprise, at the freedom of Christ and his disciples on this occasion. {Mt 15:2; Mr 7:2-4} When they have finished their repast, they wash again. None of the company begin to eat until that the governor or master of the feast hath broken bread, and craved a blessing. One of the fathers gives us the usual words of this blessing. The words were "Blessed be thou, O Lord, our God, the King of the world, for it is thou who produceth the bread of the earth." All present say, Amen. And the master of the table generally helps the guests, however numerous they may be. When they have eaten, he takes the vessel of wine in his right hand, saying as before "Blessed be thou, O Lord our God, the King of the world, who hast produced the fruit of the vine." The Amen is, as before, repeated. Then is generally repeated the twenty-third Psalm. There is always reserved a portion of bread after their meals, which is suffered to remain on the table. Was not this with an eye to Christ, the bread of life? {Joh 6:48} A cup is usually washed at the close of the entertainment, and is filled with wine, when the governor or master of the feast saith, elevating it to the view of the whole company, "Let us bless him, of whose benefits we have been partaking." The company answer, "Blessed be he who hath heaped his favours on us, and by his goodness hath now fed us." This is followed up with prayer, in which is generally expressed the Lord’s goodness to Israel, beseeching him to pity Jerusalem and his temple, to restore the throne of David, and to send Elias and the Messiah, and to deliver them out of their long captivity: all answer Amen. A Psalm is again recited, and the cup of wine is given by the master of the table to every one. The table is then cleared, and the service finisheth. I have thought it worth rehearsing this custom of the ancient Jews, because it serves to shew how much devotion mingled even with their ordinary meals. I take shame and reproach to myself in the recollection, how such conduct puts to the blush modern Christians. At what table shall we go to find so much piety? They looked forward but to the Messiah to come. We profess to believe that he is come, and hath restored all things. Blessed Lord Jesus! How dost thou daily witness the graceless tables of thousands that call themselves after thee, Christians, but where not the vestige of the Christian is to be found.


A mountain in the lot of Ephraim over against mount Gerizim. The name Ebal signifies, somewhat old and confused, from Balah, old. It was the famous spot from whence the curses were pronounced on the breaches of the law. And the place seemed to be well suited for this purpose, for it was a barren unfruitful spot. Whereas, Gerizim, which lay opposite to it, and from whence the blessings were delivered, was a beautiful and fruitful country. {De 11:29; 27:4; Jos 8:30-32}


This man is spoken of with honourable testimony in Scripture, for his service to the prophet Jeremiah. His name shews who he was, Ebed, a servant, Melech, to the king. {See Jer 38:7-13}


A well known name and I believe, often used by the Lord’s people, after the example of Samuel, upon numberless occasions in life. If the reader will consult 1Sa 7 he will be enabled to enter into the Spirit of the expression, if so be the Lord be his teacher. And should the Lord give him also a right view of the subject, he will discover that the mercy was not confined to the days of Samuel, but in all ages of the church, the faithful can, and do, find causes daily to set up their Ebenezers, "to the praise of the glory of his grace, who maketh them accepted in the Beloved." Even in the moment of writing do I find cause to set up the Ebenezer of the morning, "hitherto hath the Lord helped!" And, reader, what a sweet additional thought is it, in the full assurance of faith, to refresh the soul, that he who hath hitherto helped, and doth help, will help, through grace, in life, and in glory, to all eternity. I only add, under this article, that there is a great strength of expression in the word Ebenezer. It is a compound meaning Eben, or Aben, a stone, JEHOVAH laid in Zion, in whom whosoever believeth, shall never be confounded? (Compare Isa 28:16 with 1Pe 2:6-8)


One of the books of Solomon, and so called by the Septuagint. But it is worthy remark, that the first verse runs in this form, "The Words of Coheleth the son of David;" though the word is feminine, and is as if it is said, she who speaks. But that it is Solomon who is the writer, and who is describing in many parts of it himself, there can be no question, since we have in it so ample an account of his riches and treasure, and at the same time, of his discovery of the vanity of all.


The garden of our first parents. Eden, means delights. {Ge 2:8}


A well known kingdom in Scripture history, from whence the church, under the Lord, made their first Exodus. The believer in Christ knows also what it is to have been brought up in Egypt, and brought out of the Egypt of the soul.


See HAWKERS: Medad


In the church of the Old Testament, elders were the fathers of the tribes, and had the government in a great measure committed to them. Hence when the Lord appeared unto Moses at the bush, with a view to reveal himself in the deliverance of the people; he said, "Go and gather the elders of Israel together." {Ex 3:16} In the New Testament church, the term seems to be generally applied to fathers and governors of families. Peter called himself an elder. {1Pe 5:1}


Son of Aaron, and his successor in the priestly office. His history commences from the death of his father Aaron. {See Nu 20:23-29} His name is very expressive, help of God


We meet with this word so very often in Scripture, that one might have been led to conclude, that it would have been received in the church with implicit faith, referring the act itself, as becometh sinful ignorant creatures to do, into the sovereignty and good pleasure of God. It is in the first and highest instance spoken of, and applied to, the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Christ of God. (Isa 42:1 with Mt 12:17-18 &c.) It is specially spoken of the church of Israel. {Isa 45:4; 49:22} It is also spoken of in relation to the Gentile church, gathered out of all nations. {Mt 24:31; Ro 11:5; Tit 1:1} And what endears this sovereign act of grace the more is, that it is all in, and for, Christ. {Eph 1:4} The Scriptures uniformly declaring while in the very moment of establishing the truth itself, that it is all of free grace, no merit, no pretensions of merit here or hereafter, becoming in the least instrumental to this distinguishing mercy, but wholly resulting from the sovereign will and purpose of the Lord. {De 7:1; Ro 9:11-16; 2Ti 1:9; Eph 1:6} Hence the everlasting security of the church, and of the blessings of the church, are all sure, certain and irrevocable. {Ro 8:33} Here also the interest the Lord takes in his church, and all her concerns. Do any afflict them? he saith, "Shall not God avenge his own elect who cry day and night unto him, though he bear long with them? I tell you that he will avenge them speedily." {Lu 18:7-8} Yea, the Lord declares, that he will "shorten the days of affliction for the elects’ sake." {See Mt 24:22} And these blessings are heightened in their personal nature. John speaks of an elect lady and her sister. {2Jo 13} And Peter speaks of the elect church at Babylon. {1Pe 5:13} I must not overlook, under this article, what%is said in Scripture of elect angels, also. {1Ti 5:21} No doubt they owe their steadfastness to Christ, as their Head and Sovereign, in election and dominion; while Christ’s seed, the church, are preserved by union. But without this preservation in Christ, by election, angels are no more secure from falling than men, who have fallen. For as some angels have fallen, so might all, if not upheld by a superior power to themselves. For as we read, {Job 4:18} "God putteth no trust in his servants, and his angels he chargeth with folly," that is, with weakness; so it is plain that their preservation is not in themselves, but in the Lord. And when we read of the elect angels, it implies their election, and upholding in Christ. Think what a glorious, blessed Almighty Lord the christian’s Lord is! Well might the apostle Peter, under the deep impression of this sacred truth made upon his heart, cry out with holy rapture, "Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctification of the Spirit unto obedience, and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ, grace unto you, and peace be multiplied." {1Pe 1:2}


The High Priest, in the days of the judges. {1Sa 2:11} His name is very significant, meaning, my God. The sin of Eli is remarkably striking. And it teaches most powerfully. We see in him a decided proof of the great danger of consulting the feelings of nature, rather than obeying the precepts of grace. His tenderness, as a father, tempted him to lose sight of his reverence for God. He therefore contented himself with reproving his sons for their vileness, when he should have publicly stript them of their office, and banished them from his presence. And though he was admonished of this evil conduct by the child Samuel, speaking to him in a vision from the Lord, yet we find no firmness to reform. And though the Lord deferred the threatened punishment of his two sons for near twenty and seven years, yet he allowed them still to minister in the service of the sanctuary. At length the judgment came, and a most tremendous judgment it was. (See Hophni, 1Sa 4:12-22) How different from him, of whom it is said, "He did not acknowledge his brethren, nor know his own children!" {De 33:9}

Eli Eli Lama Sabachthani

The reader will not wish to pass over this well known cry of Jesus on the cross; but will be gratified with the continued attention of it. Those words of Christ are full of important signification; and every pious reader of his Bible ought to have a proper conception of their meaning. They are partly in the Hebrew, and partly in the Syriac tongue, and which, perhaps occasioned the perverse misconstruction in some, who supposed the Lord called Elias, when Jesus said Eli. The prophet had said, "That the Lord should roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem, and the heavens and the earth should shake." {Joe 3:16} And hence we find that prophecy fulfilled. The loud voice of Jesus was not like one whose strength was gone, but rather uttered in proof of what Jesus had said: "No man taketh my life from me, but I lay it down of myself, I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father." {Joh 10:18} The words themselves seem to be a quotation from Ps 22:1, thereby intimating, that the prophet in that Psalm spake wholly of Christ. This was highly important for the church to know. And the meaning yet more important. The Holy Ghost hath caused his servants the Evangelists, to give the church the interpretation: Eli, Eli, lama, are Hebrew; Sabacthani, or Sabadetani, is Syriac. Astonishing words for the only beloved of the Father to utter! Jesus had uttered no cry of pain in the great tortures of his body; neither do we hear the meek Lamb of God complain of the insults of the rabble, in the unequalled repreaches cast upon him. These, and every other sorrow, seem to have been swallowed up and forgotten in the flood of divine wrath, which now opened like cataracts from heaven in the Father’s desertion. Who shall say what this was? Who is competent to describe the horrors of it, when it induced such a cry in the soul agonies of Jesus? Well may every child of God pause over the renewed reading of it, and in the contemplation, consider the love and tenderness of Jesus to his people, who thus endured the being forsaken of his Father for a season, that they might not be forsaken for ever. {Heb 5:7-9}


Though the history of this highly favoured servant of the Lord would afford much improvement to enlarge upon, according to the Scripture testimony concerning him, yet it would swell this work to a size much beyond the limits intended, for the writer to indulge himself in it. I have therefore noticed this prophet, only with a view to remark the greatness of his name. Elijah is a compound word, including two of the names of JEHOVAH. Eli, my God; and Jah, the Lord. It would be thought presumptuous to call our children in the present hour by such names, in the plain English of the words, but with the Hebrews it was done in honour of the Lord God of their fathers. And so particular do the pious fathers of the Old Testament seem to have been, in naming their children, that they studied to give them such as might have some allusion to the Lord, or to retain one of the letters of JEHOVAH in them. If I venture to add another observation concerning this great man, it would be but just to remark, that in that memorable prophecy of Malachi, concerning the coming of Elijah before the day of Christ, {Mal 4:5} though our Lord explained this to his disciples, in making reference to the spirit of Elias in the person of John the baptist, {Mt 17:11-12} yet our Lord did not limit the coming of Elijah to that season only. The Evangelists, in describing the transfiguration of the Lord Jesus, relate that Elijah and Moses were present at the solemn scene. {Mt 17:3-4} And there doth not seem an objection, wherefore Elijah may not again appear before the Lord Jesus comes in glory, as is supposed, he will in his reign upon earth. The expression of Malachi seems to warrant this conclusion, for it is said, that this mission of Elijah will be "before the great and dreadful day of the Lord." The first coming of Christ, was indeed a great and glorious, but not a dreadful day. Whereas, the second coming is uniformly spoken of as the terrible day of the Lord. For while it will be "to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe," it is no less said to be "in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ." {2Th 1:8,10}


This man was the husband of Naomi, whom we read of with such honourable testimony for her faith in God, in the book of Ruth; and as so much is contained in that sweet fragment of sacred Scripture, in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ, I thought it proper to notice in this place, this name. The whole of the book of Ruth is interesting, not only as a true history of events which took place in the church, but, like that of Joseph, is typical and figurative of higher things. The certain man, there spoken of, going down from Bethlehem-judah, the land of bread, to sojourn in Moab, the city of destruction, becomes no unapt representation of our first father, who, like the Samaritan our Lord describes, going down from Jerusalem, the holy city, to Jericho, the cursed city, fell among thieves. {Lu 10:30} And as the persons of this certain man and his family were types of others, so their names were significant also of their history. Elimelech means, my God, a king; Naomi signifies, a pleasant one; and their sons, Mahlon and Chilion, sickness and consumption; for such will always be the fruits of leaving Jesus for the world. (See Ru 1-4 throughout.)


The successor, in the prophetical office, of Elijah. His name is also highly significant, meaning the salvation of my God. I must pass over many interesting circumstances in the history of this man of God, for the same reasons as in the former. But I beg to notice one event in Elisha’s ministry, because it is not so generally regarded, and yet seems to lead to a profitable subject of meditation. The event I refer to, is that of his healing the waters of Jericho. {See 2Ki 2:19-22} The reader will not forget, that Jericho is the city Joshua cursed before the Lord. (See Jos 6:26 with 1Ki 16:34) There evidently appears from this history, the tokens of divine displeasure upon Jericho in the days of Elisha. For we read, that the men of the city said unto the prophet, "Behold, I pray thee, the situation of this city is pleasant, as my lord seeth, but the water is naught, and the ground barren." In the margin of our Bibles the barren ground is explained, in causing to miscarry. Hence it should seem that the divine displeasure was manifested in this way, in the rendering the climate unfavourable to the increase of children. I do not presume to decide upon the subject, neither do I say as much, when I ask in order to determine the point, as to enquire. But I humbly conceive, if by the naughtiness of the water of Jericho, barrenness was induced among the females, there was somewhat in this analogous to the Lord’s appointment in Israel concerning the waters of Jealousy. In both cases, the matter is the same in relation to the cause. {See Nu 5:23-31} That the barrenness mentioned of Jericho referred to the sterility of the women, or their miscarriages, which is the same thing in effect, I have no doubt. The same word Sheceleh, is made use of in this place, as in the instance of Jacob’s expostulating with Laban: "Thy she-goats" {Ge 31:38} "have not cast their young." And the Lord, when speaking in promises to his people, saith, "He" {Ex 23:25-26} "shall bless thy bread and thy water, and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee. There shall nothing cast their young, nor be barren, in thy land." It appears then, that amidst all the pleasantness of Jericho, which abounded with palm trees (and, indeed, on that account was called the city of palm trees,) {See 2Ch 28:15} there was still a certain somewhat, unfavourable to that which to the children of Israel (looking forward to the types that the promised seed would be in their lot), was among the most distressing of all calamities, the want of children. This was the state of Jericho. The prophet’s cruse of salt cast into the waters, under the Lord’s blessing, healed the land. Elisha cast the cruse into the spring, saying,"Thus saith the Lord, I have healed these waters; there shall not be from thence any more, death, or barren land. So the waters were healed unto this day, according to the saying of Elisha." I have thought it worthwhile to enter into the particulars of this interesting account, concerning the barrenness at Jericho healed by the cruse of salt cast into the spring of the waters, by way of introducing an infinitely more interesting observation on the subject itself. The cruse of salt, like the tree at Marah {Ex 15:25} were both beautiful types of Jesus and his salvation. Both the cruse and the barrenness are effectually cured when Jesus takes them away. The waters of Marah lose their bitterness when his cross is put in them to sweeten and sanctify. The barrenness of Jericho is healed, and children are born, even in Jericho, when Christ’s cruse of grace is applied. A Rahab and harlot is found in Jericho; and Æthiopia, and Seba, and the multitude of isles, shall stretch forth their hands unto God. Jesus hath taken out the curse when he was made a curse for us, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. {Ga 3:13; 2Co 5:21} Hallelujah!


His name signifies, to be zealous for God; from Kina, zealous; and El, God.

See HAWKERS: Hannah


The sixth month of the Israelites, corresponding to our August. The same signifies a cry.


The sorcerer. His name answers to the character, for it means magician. {Ac 13:8}


The embalming the bodies of the dead was a very ancient custom, both with the Hebrews and the Egyptians. Hence we read of Joseph giving directions to the physicians to embalm the body of his father. {Ge 1:2} This is the earliest account of embalming that we have in Scripture. And it should seem, therefore, to have taken its rise in Egypt. Some have said, that necessity first taught the Egyptians the art of embalming, for when the river Nile overflowed, sometimes the inundation continued for near two months; during which time the bodies of the dead not only remained unburied, but remained unavoidably in the tents. To avoid the dreadful effects arising from putrefaction, gave rise to the idea of embalming; which was done by taking away the entrails, and anointing the body with oil and a composition of spices, which formed a kind of transparent coating, preserving from corruption, and keeping the body entire. I beg the reader to remark, that the custom, thus probably borrowed from the Egyptians, became the custom also of the Hebrews, even to the days of our Saviour. For we read, that there was an intention of embalming the Lord of life and glory. But if the reader will consult all the evangelists, he will find that the thing was not done, but prevented by our Lord’s resurrection. The pious women resting the Sabbath day became, by the Lord’s providence, the overruling cause to this effect. The Almighty Redeemer could need no embalming. His holy body saw no corruption. Sweet thought to the believer! And the dust of his saints, in like manner, is embalmed in him. Infinitely more valuable than the golden dust of the goldsmith. Hence the Psalmist saith, "Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints." {Ps 116:15}


We pause over this precious name, as well we may, before we presume to enter upon it, or to say what immense blessings are folded up in it. Who, indeed, can undertake to say? Nevertheless, if what we propose be wholly scriptural, and supported by Scripture authority, we can never err. And though our discoveries go but a little way, yet even that little way is blessed, when God the Holy Ghost goeth before us, and His voice is distinctly heard directing. {Isa 30:21} Concerning this blessed name of our adorable Lord, we find that it was given by the Lord himself, and that it was declared to be the Lord’s sign to the house of David. {Isa 7:14} "Therefore, the Lord himself shall give you a sign. Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel." The Hebrew word Almah, virgin, strictly and properly speaking, a virgin, who hath never been seen by man. The word implies hidden, kept in, and secret. St. Jerome makes a nice distinction on this ground, between the ordinary word, Bethula, a young woman, and Almah, a virgin. In this memorable passage of Isa 7:14 the word is Almah. But while I consider this distinction highly important, I beg the reader yet more particularly to consider the blessedness of the name itself of Emanuel, God with us. Sweet consideration to the heart of the believer! For as God, it is evident, that all he did when upon earth, and all that he is doing now in heaven, was, and is effectual to all the purposes of salvation. The infinite dignity of his person gives an infinite merit to his work, and cannot fail, both in his blood and righteousness, to justify his people, and render them truly acceptable in the sight of God their Father, and fully secure to them the everlasting blessedness and glory of heaven. And as He is man and God in our nature, so does his nearness and dearness give an interest to his people in all that belongs to him; yea, all the blessings come home with a tenfold sweetness to our hearts, because he is Emmanuel, God with us. God in our nature, and we the "members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones."


A village sixty furlongs (that is seven miles and a half,) north of Jerusalem, rendered memorable in being the place to which the two disciples walked on the day of our Lord’s resurrection, and where he made himself known unto them, in breaking of bread, and blessing it. {See Lu 24:13-32}


This word would not have needed particular attention, but for that the Lord Jesus on the throne called himself by it. {Re 21:6} And when we consider in how many ways the Lord is, both the beginning and the end, the Alpha and the Omega, surely it is very blessed to make him, what the Father hath made him, as the Mediator and head of his church and people, the first and the last in all our pursuits, affections, and designs: Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, today, and for ever.


We read of the vineyards of Engedi Song 1:14. A place remarkable for palm trees %and vines, and the church compares the Lord Jesus to both on account of his riches and sweetness and fulness. The word means, fountain of happiness.


The seventh from Adam. His name signifies dedicated, from Chanach. The Holy Ghost: hath given a blessed testimony to this man. {Heb 11:5} Oh! for grace thus to walk, and thus to have communion with God in Christ!


The place where John baptized. {Joh 3:22} It lay south of Shalim and Jordan. The name signifies a cloud.


The son of Seth. {Ge 5:6} The name signifies sickness, mortality, yea, the word itself, Enos, is sickness.


A place toward the salt sea. {See Jos 15:7} The name signifies the fountain of the sun, from Ain, fountain, and Shemesh, the sun.


An ensign, as a banner, set up as a trophy of victory, or for a declaration of war. I should not have thought it necessary to have noticed it, but because Christ is said to be set up as an ensign to the people, and to call the nations from afar; alluding, perhaps, to both the Jewish and Gentile church. {See Isa 5:26; 11:10-12} And the reader will forgive me when I add, that it is blessed to behold the Lord Jesus under, this figure. For He and He alone, is: the Standard-bearer among ten thousand. So hath he been in JEHOVAH’S view, from all eternity. His victories mark him in the one point, and his warfare for his church mark him for the other. So that He is the signal of war to all his redeemed, for their contests with sin, death, and hell. Oh! may the Holy Ghost lift him up to my soul continually, that the Amaleks of the day may have no momentary success, until that my God hath put out, as he hath sworn, the name of Amalek from under heaven! {Ex 17:10-16}

See HAWKERS: Banner


A convert to the gospel. {Ro 16:5}


It is supposed, that he was the first bishop of Colosse. {Col 1:7} His name is from the Greek, meaning covered with foam.


An eminent servant of the church at Philippi. {Php 4:18}


An Hebrew measure, containing about three pecks and three pints, like a Bath.!


The celebrated city to which Paul sent his Epistle. And one of the seven churches to whom the Lord Jesus sent his message. (See Ac 19:1; Eph 1:1; Re 2:1)


This formed part of the High Priest’s dress, and no doubt, like the office itself, was intended as typical of Christ. It was a rich dress composed of different colours, blue, purple, and crimson, and adorned with gold. On that part of it which crossed the breast was a square ornament called the choschen, containing precious stones, with the names on them of the twelve tribes of Israel. Nothing could more aptly represent our great High Priest, the Lord Jesus Christ, going in before the presence of JEHOVAH with the names of his people on his breast. Hence the church, in allusion to it, vehemently urgeth Christ in that request, "Set me as a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine arm;" {Song 8:6} meaning, that she might be always in his remembrance, to live in his heart, and to be always looked upon as a seal, or signet, on the arm. {See Ex 28:4-29}

See HAWKERS: Urim and HAWKERS: Thummim


This is more of Syriac than the Hebrew language. It comes from Pathach, to open. The Evangelist hath explained it, Mr 7:34. Whenever we read this miracle of the Lord Jesus, shall we not beg the Lord to say to us, as to this poor man, that all our spiritual faculties may be opened at his sovereign voice, and all unite in his praises?


A city of Ephraim; perhaps the same as Ophrah. {Jg 6:11} It is derived from Epher, ashes. The prophet Isaiah hath a beautiful observation on this word, contrasted with Pheer, which is beauty. The Lord, he saith, will give them Pheer for Epher; that is, beauty for ashes; meaning the blessed change wrought by grace in the soul, when from sin they are brought to salvation in the Lord Jesus Christ. {See Isa 61:3}


One of the sons of Joseph. The name is derived from Pharah, fruitfulness. In the after ages of the church, the Lord frequently speaks of the whole church of Israel by the name of Ephraim. {See Jer 31:20; Ho 7:1; 12:1; 13:1} I do not presume to say the cause was, because the ten tribes had the chief city in Ephraim; but I think it probable. The Psalmist, when speaking of looking out a place for the ark, saith, we found it in Ephratah. {Ps 132:6}


Ephrath, Ephratah

This is the same as Bethlehem, where Christ was born. {See Mic 5:2; Mt 2:1} The word is derived from Pharah, fruitfulness.

See HAWKERS: Bethlehem


See HAWKERS: Ephratah


The elder brother of Jacob, who despised the blessing, and was rejected. In the history of those two brothers, we have enough to answer and silence all cavils respecting distinguishing grace from God’s own testimony. {See Ge 25:21-23; Mal 1:3; Ro 9 throughout.} But while this doctrine concerning distinguishing grace is fully displayed in the history of Jacob and Esau from those Scriptures, there is one point more relating to Esau which deserves to be particularly considered, and the more so, from the misapprehension of many respecting it. I mean what is said by the apostle of the rejection of Esau’s repentance. {Heb 12:16-17} By a mistake both of the cause which gave birth to this man’s repentance, and of the nature of that repentance itself, many erroneous opinions have been formed upon it. A short attention to the passage as given by the apostle, under the Holy Ghost’s teaching, will put this subject in a clear light, and explain this seeming difficulty. The passage is as follows: "Lest there be any fornicator or profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his birthright. For ye know how that afterward when he would have inherited the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no place of repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears." Now, if the reader will compare what is here said with the account given by the Holy Ghost, how he sold his birthright. {Ge 25:29-34} he will discover the contempt which he put upon his birthright, and the consequent resentment of God. This is the first thing to be observed in this transaction. The covenant blessing he still despised. This he wholly disregarded, and never repented that he had so done. And if the reader looks attentively to what the Apostle hath said concerning his repentance, he will next discover, that Esau’s repentance was not in respect to the promised blessing, in spiritual things conveyed to Jacob, but mere temporal possessions. Jacob was made Esau’s lord, and Esau himself, by selling his birthright, had consented to it; of this he repented, and sought it carefully with tears, to prevail upon his father Isaac to call it back, hoping the known partiality of the father to him would prevail over his natural feelings. "And hence he cried with an exceeding bitter cry, and said, Hast thou but one blessing, my father, bless me, even me, also, O my father!" {Ge 27:34-38} The reader will perceive, that in this whole account here nothing but the natural feelings at work. The repentance of Esau is wholly concerning earthly possessions, and not a word spoken about the covenant blessing given to Abraham concerning the rejection of Esau’s repentance is the rejection of his earthly father Isaac, and hath nothing to do with the rejection of the Lord. Esau offered no repentance to God. The blessing in Christ he regarded no more then, than he did when he sold his birthright. This was not in Esau’s concern. Esau was still the same profane person as ever. So that, if men who read their Bibles would read them attentively on this point, and beg the great Author of his written word, even God the Holy Ghost, to instruct them, they would learn to make a proper distinction between what Paul calls the sorrow of the world, which worketh death, and that godly sorrow which worketh repentance to salvation not to be repented of. {2Co 7:10} The former, like Esau’s, is wholly from nature the latter, Paul describes, is from grace. The one is man’s own creating, and wholly concerning, earthly things; the other is the Lord’s creating, and wholly refers to heavenly things. The repentance that begins in a man’s own heart from his own disappointments in worldly pursuits, ends as it began, and produceth death. The repentance which is from above and leads to true sorrow of soul, riseth to the source from whence it first came, and bringeth forth life. And this is confirmed by what the apostle declared; "Christ is exalted as a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins." {Ac 5:31}


This was a valley or brook, so called, in the south of Judah, and perhaps took its name from the clusters of grapes there abounding. The name Eshcol, indeed, means bunch of grapes. It was in this place the spies sent by Moses to search the land cut down one bunch, which required two men to carry. {See Nu 13:23-24}

See HAWKERS: Cluster.


See HAWKERS: Espoused



This term is well known among the Hebrews, in the ceremony of their marriages. The espousing each other, and the betrothing by promise to each other, from the time that this was done, was considered as sacred, though the marriage was not consummated sometimes for a considerable space after. Upon these occasions there was generally a pledge given from the man to the woman, as a token of this inviolable contract. This espousal, in the Jewish church, is frequently made use of, by way of figure, to represent the spiritual union and marriage of Christ with his people. Hence we find several striking Scriptures to this amount. {Isa 54:5; Ho 2:19-20; Jer 2:2; 3:14; Re 19:7-9} The Son of God married our nature when taking that holy portion of it, his body, into union with the GODHEAD. And he forms an union, as the Christ of God, with every individual of his mystical body, by betrothing each to himself. He also, like the Jewish husband, gives the pledge and token of his love, when he gives the influence of his Holy Spirit. From this time the contract is considered inviolable, and the Lord saith, "Thou shalt not play the harlot, and thou shalt not be for another man; so will I also be for thee." {Ho 3:3} At length, when the Lord brings home his spouse, then it is called the marriage-supper of the Lamb in heaven. {Re 19:9}

See HAWKERS: Betrothed and HAWKERS: Marriage .


Daughter of Abihail. See her history, Book of Es 1-10. Her name means secret, from Sathar.



The Scripture sense of these terms, in reference to the persons of the GODHEAD, and the events connected with them, are in the strictest sense of the word, for ever and ever. Very solemn, and yet very blessed, and full of the highest consolation, are those views of the eternity of JEHOVAH and his purposes in salvation. How infinitely sublime are those Scriptures! "Thus saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy." {Isa 57:15} "For I lift up my hand to heaven, and say, I live for ever." {De 32:40} "The eternal God is thy refuge, and underneath are the everlasting arms." {De 33:27} And JEHOVAH, in a threefold character of persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, is thus described in the eternity of his nature and essence, so Christ the Mediator, by virtue of the union of the manhood with the GODHEAD, is declared by JEHOVAH to be eternal. "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever." {Ps 45:6; Heb 1:8} "The Lord sware, and will not repent; Thou art a Priest for ever, after the order of Melchizedec." {Ps 110:4} And hence, in Christ and by Christ, and from an union with him, all that is connected in the blessed work of salvation is of eternal duration. The covenant is declared to be an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things and sure. {2Sa 23:5; Jer 32:40} The gospel is called an everlasting gospel. {Re 14:6} Redemption is said to be an eternal redemption. {Heb 9:12} And the consequence certainly follows from these properties, that the glory purchased by an eternal redemption is an eternal weight of glory. So the apostle to the Corinthians calls it, 2Co 4:17. {See Heb 5:9; 1Pe 5:10; 1Jo 5:11}


See HAWKERS: Eternal


One of the great kingdoms in Africa, sometimes called Cush in Scripture, from Cush, blackness. Blessed are the promises concerning the call of Ethiopia to the Lord, in the latter dispensations of the gospel. {Ps 68:31; 72:10-11; Isa 45:14}


Our first mother. The name is taken from a Hebrew root, signifying life. The name woman seems to be a corruption of womb-man, because taken out of man; for the very reason thus assigned by our first father so explains it. {Ge 2:23} There is a very great beauty and wisdom in the contrivance, as well as grace and favour in the Lord’s ordination in peopling the earth. Both sexes shall have equal honour in the plan of creation and redemption. The man, saith the apostle, Adam was first formed, then Eve, {1Ti 2:13} Here the man hath the precedency. But in all the after circumstances the woman is to be the womb of creation. And yet to keep up this order, the rib of the man shall be, as it were, the womb for the women. And hence, she shall be called womb-man. But as both the man and the woman are equally involved in sin, in the redemption for both the Lord will make a new thing in the earth, and a woman shall compass a man. {Jer 31:22} The man of the earth, therefore, Adam and all his race, shall have no hand in this generation; yea, the womb of the woman only shall be no more than but for the deposit of this Holy Thing. The body the Father prepared for his Son shall be produced by the miraculous overshadowing power of God the Holy Ghost. So that though Christ is of the seed of David, according to the flesh, and the seed of the woman, according to promise, and thus literally and truly belonging to both, yet indeed, and in truth, unconnected with either. So blessed and so wonderful are the ways of our wonder-working God!


This was a solemn day among the Jews. It was observed on the tenth day of the month Tizri. The Hebrews called it Chippeen, meaning pardon. And they had a belief that the whole of the offences of the past year were then forgiven. What could be more striking in reference to "the blood of Christ which cleanseth from all sin?" {1Jo 1:7} I refer the reader to Le 16 for the relation of this day of expiation, where there is a circumstantial account of it. The Rabbi had a high veneration for this day, and observed it with great strictness and solemnity. They make a point to have all breaches made up in families, or among the people on this day. And if one is conscious that he is the aggressor, he first makes overtures for a reconciliation with the person he hath offended. And if the other is averse to forgive or withhold it, the aggressor again and again sues for pardon. But if the offended will not be reconciled, the offender takes with him one or more witnesses, to testify what he hath done, and from hence the offended person, if he any longer refuseth, becomes the guilty party. The same is observed, if the party that was injured be dead. The offender goes to his grave and acknowledges his guilt, and this is considered as obtaining his pardon. The day of Expiation was considered so solemn, and the office of the High Priest so sacred, that fearing he should commit an error when it was finished, and the day over, he changed his dress, blessed the people, and gave a great feast, blessing the Lord that he had come out unhurt from the sanctuary.

See HAWKERS: Goat.


The prophet. His name is very significant, meaning "the strength of God." The ministry of this man seems to have been carried on by signs and representations, more than by open preaching. The Lord indeed said that Ezekiel was for a sign unto his people. {Eze 24:24-27} And in nothing perhaps do the customs and manners of mankind differ more, than in the method of communication to each other. Language is rather an imperfection, notwithstanding all we boast of its beauty, than an accomplishment. It is most needful in numberless instances, suited to our present state. But in the world of perfection to which we are hastening, the communication of ideas will have a more complete and quick order. The word of God tells us as much, in saying, that in that blessed place, "whether there be tongues they shall cease?" {1Co 13:8} In the eastern countries, and in the days of the prophets particularly, and even now, modern travellers say, that generally more than half the transactions of life are carried on by signs. The prophets delivered their messages by gesticulations and signs, similar to what was then in common use in common concerns, and thus made their message familiar and easy to be understood. Thus Ezekiel’s removing into captivity, digging through the wall, not mourning for the dead, and the like, were declared to be tokens and signs respecting the Lord’s dealings with his people. So Jeremiah’s girdle hid by the river; the potter’s earthen bottle, the wooden yoke he wore about his neck; these were all to the same amount, speaking by action, instead of words, and much better understood by the people. Isaiah speaks of the same signs. {Isa 8:18} And Zechariah, of Christ and his fellows. {Zec 3:8} In reading Ezekiel’s prophecy, particular attention should be had to these things.


A city of Arabia, meaning, the Wood of the strong. So called from Hets, wood; and Gaber, strong. {1Ki 9:26}


The Priest. See his Book. (Ezr 1-10) His name means help, from Ezer.


The face is frequently put for the whole body. It is meant for the person. Hence, when the church prayeth, "O Lord God, turn not away the face of thine Anointed;" that is, the person of thine Anointed. {2Ch 6:42} So again, when it is said, "The face of the Lord is against them that do evil," it means, that the Lord himself is so. {Ps 34:16} So again, the patriarch Jacob, speaking to his son Joseph, said, "I had not thought to see thy face;" that is, thy person; "and lo! God hath shewed me thy seed." {Ge 48:11}

Concerning the face of the Lord, it is said by the Lord to Moses, "Thou canst not see my face; for there shall no man see me and live." And yet in the same chapter we are told, that "the Lord spake to Moses face to face, as a man speaketh to his friend." (Ex 33:20. See also Nu 14:14; De 5:4) But there is no difficulty in reconciling these Scriptures; in fact, they do not differ, when properly considered, from each other. The sight of JEHOVAH, in his own unveiled glory, is inadmissible to mortals. But the manifestation of JEHOVAH, so as to identify his person and reality as the speaker, is as plain in those discoveries as that of seeing him face to face.

Those Scriptures are best explained by each other. One part of the divine word throws a light upon another; and we are commanded thus to form our judgments, by "comparing spiritual things with spiritual." {1Co 2:13}

But every difficulty is at once removed concerning seeing the face of JEHOVAH, by considering the person of the Lord Jesus in his mediatorial character and office, as the visible JEHOVAH. Thus for example;—when JEHOVAH promiseth to send his angel before the people, and commandeth them to obey his voice, he adds, "for my name is in him." {Ex 23:20-21} In whom but Christ, as Christ, was ever the name of JEHOVAH? So again, when it is said. {1Sa 3:21} "And the Lord appeared again in Shiloh; for the Lord revealed himself to Samuel in Shiloh, by the word of the Lord." What word could this be but the uncreated Word, which was, in the after ages of the church, "made flesh, and dwelt among us?" {Joh 1:1-4} Surely, in these and numberless other instances, spoken of in the Old Testament Scripture, of JEHOVAH’S appearance, sometimes in the form of a man, and sometimes of an angel, the Lord Jesus is all along intended to be represented. In all those manifestations it is, as the apostle speaks, giving the church "the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ." {2Co 4:6}


This is the great and momentous word in Scripture, which hath given rise to endless disputes, and employed the minds of men in all ages to explain; and yet to thousands still remains as obscure as ever. But notwithstanding: all that the bewildered and erroneous mind of man may say on faith, the scriptural account of faith is the simplest and plainest thing in the world. Faith is no more than the sincere and hearty assent and consent of the mind to the belief of the being and promises of God, as especially revealed to the church in the person and redemption, work of the Lord Jesus Christ. JEHOVAH, in his threefold character of person, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, hath mercifully been pleased to reveal himself as "forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin," and giving eternal life to the church in Christ Jesus. And these blessings are all declared to be in the person, and procured to the church by the sole undertaking of the Lord Jesus Christ, as the glorious Head of his body the church, the fulness of him "that filleth all in all."

The hearty, cordial, and sincere belief in these blessed truths of God is called faith, because it is giving credit to the testimony of God, and relying upon his faithfulness for the fulfilment of them. The apostle John, in his first Epistle, fifth chapter, and ninth and following verses, puts this doctrine in so clear a point of view, that, under divine teaching, if attended to, it would be impossible to mistake it. "If we receive (saith John) the witness of men, the witness of God is greater; for this is the witness of God which he hath testified of his Son. He that believeth on the Son of God hath the witness in himself. He that believeth not God, hath made him a liar, because he believeth not the record that God gave of his Son. And this is the record that God hath given to us, eternal life; and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son, hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God, hath not life."

No form of words could have been more happily chosen to state what is the act of faith, and to put it in a clear and full light. Immense and unspeakable blessings are promised by God. It is not the greatness of the blessings which demands our faith, but the greatness of the Being promising. Indeed, the greater the blessings are, the greater would be the difficulty of believing, unless some other warrant and authority become the foundation for belief. The bottom, therefore, of all faith is, that what we are called upon to is that cannot lie; JEHOVAH that will not lie. An Almighty Promiser that never can out-promise himself. Hence, when Moses at the bush desired a confirmation of the truth, the Lord gave him to deliver to Israel, by knowing his name, and having such assurances to make to them as might silence every doubt. "Behold," (said he,) "when I come to the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you, and they shall say unto me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM." That is, I AM a being self-existing, and eternal; and which, therefore, gives a being to all my promises. So that this is the sure ground of faith. Not the greatness and blessedness of the promise; but the greatness, blessedness, and faithfulness of the Promiser. And to believe in the almighty Promiser in his assurances in Christ, is faith. I only add, however, under this article, that though faith is the simplest and plainest act of the mind, yet both the possession and the exercise of it is the gift of God. "Unto you," (saith an apostle,) "it is given to believe." {Php 1:29} And hence every truly awakened and regenerated believer finds daily reason, to cry out, as the apostle did to Christ, "Lord, increase our faith!" {Lu 17:5}


After what hath been said under the foregoing article of faith, I shall not think it necessary to add much on the subject of faithfulness. The sense of it is very obvious. I only beg to observe, that it appears from Scripture the Lord delights to be known to his people, in his covenant engagements, by this distinguishing perfection. That sweet passage delivered to the church by Moses, is a most decided proof of it: "Know, therefore, that the Lord thy God, he is God; the faithful God, which keepeth covenant and mercy with the that love him and keep his commandments to a thousand generations." De 6:9. See also 1Sa 2:34; 1Co 1:9; 1Th 5:24; Re 1:5; 19:11


The fall of man is among the first of the portraits in the Bible on the great subject of redemption. When Adam came out of the hands of his gracious Creator, we are told, that he was created in the image of God. By which I apprehend, that he was formed in similitude to him who is "the image of the invisible God, the first born of every creature." "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness." {Ge 1:26} What image? Not the image of JEHOVAH as JEHOVAH, for JEHOVAH is invisible; but, according to what the apostle Paul hath delivered to the church, by the authority and instruction of the Holy Ghost, in the image of him who before all worlds stood up, at the call of God, as the glorious Head of his body the church secretly, though not openly, the "first-born of every creature." Let the reader read the whole passage. {Col 1:15, &c.} "Who is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of every creature. For by him were all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible; whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers, all things were created by him and for him: and he is before all things, and by him all things consist. And he is the Head of the body, the church; who is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in all things he might have the pre-eminence." Now from hence it plainly appears that Christ as Christ, that is, God and man in one person, had a priority of existence to every other, and was, and is, he image of the invisible JEHOVAH, in whose likeness Adam, the first man, was made. It appears also, that by him, that is, God and man in one person, all things were created. God created all things, we are told, by Jesus Christ. {Eph 3:9}

And it farther appears, that all things were not only created by him, but for him. The whole cause for which JEHOVAH went forth in acts of creation, as relating to our world, was for the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. Yea, more than this; for the same Scripture saith, that he is not only before all things, but by him all things consist. As if this image of the invisible God became the only foundation for creation to rest upon, and the only power to preserve and keep the whole together. This image then of the invisible God was the Person in whose likeness, it should seem, Adam, the first man of the earth, was formed. And, therefore, in the holiness of that similitude, as well in mind as in body, our first parent came forth from the hands of his infinite and kind Creator.

By the fall he lost this resemblance, and all his faculties became ruined and defiled; yea, his whole nature virtually all sin. Hence the Scriptures, under the strongest expressions, speak of the mighty ruin. His understanding became darkened, so as to lose the knowledge of God. {Eph 4:18-19} His affections became carnal, sensual, and devilish. {Eph 2:1-3; Jas 3:15} His will stubborn, rebellious, proud, and disobedient. {1Pe 4:3} Yea, his whole mind enmity against God. {Ro 8:7} The Psalmist, and after him the apostle Paul, hath given some of the more striking features of fallen man, when he saith, "The Lord looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand and seek after God." But the result of the divine enquiry was, that "they were all gone aside, they were altogether become filthy, there was none that did good, no not one." (Ps 14:2-3 with Ro 3:10-19) Such is the Scripture account of the fall.

Blessed be He that, by his great undertaking, hath restored our poor nature from the ruins of the fall, and by uniting his church, which is his body, to himself, hath given to us a better righteousness than man had before. The holiness of Adam was but the holiness of the creature, peaceable, capable of being lost; and was lost. The holiness of the Lord Jesus, in which all his redeemed are beheld and accepted before God, is the holiness of God-man, perfect, and incapable of being ever lost or lessened. How precious the thought! So then, our present fallen state is not the original state of man, neither is it the final state. In Jesus and his righteousness the injury sustained by the fall is more than repaired, and the everlasting welfare of the church, which is his body, eternally secured from all the possibility of loss from an union and oneness with him. Hail! thou glorious, gracious, holy one of God, "the Lord our righteousness." {Jer 23:6}


Is one of God’s four sore judgments which the Lord threatened to send upon Jerusalem; the sword, and the famine, the noisome beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast. {See Eze 14:22} And though it may be said by some, that famine may be induced by natural causes, yet it must be allowed by those who believe the Scripture, that natural causes are but the agents and instruments of divine appointment. Who can doubt but that the plenty in Egypt, which was succeeded by seven years famine, was to bring about the gracious purposes of the Lord concerning Joseph and his family, that Israel might be led out of Egypt? Who can question that the famine in the days of Elisha was the same, when we are told, that the Lord called for it seven years. {2Ki 8:1} And who will put down to natural causes what the Lord accomplished lay instruments, in themselves so feeble, when in the days of Joel the Lord’s great army ate up the whole produce of the land? {Joe 1; 2, etc.}

But reader! how dreadful soever a famine in a land may be, when for the wickedness of the people the Lord sends it, yet the word of God speaks of a famine yet more alarming. How very solemn are the words of the Lord, by the prophet, on this subject, Am 8:11-12 "Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord. And they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even unto the east; they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it." What an awful sentence is this! And by as much as the soul is infinitely more important in value than the body, by so much must be the famine of living bread here threatened. But to what period of the church are we to look for its accomplishment? Was it not eminently fulfilled in the instance of the house of Israel, when, after their rejecting the Lord of life and glory, the Lord scattered them over the face of the earth, and left the nation to a wandering state, "without a king, without a prince, without a sacrifice, without an image, without an ephod, and without teraphim?" Yea, are they not still in this awful state? Oh! that that sweet promise may be hastening for its accomplishment, which the prophet who related the famined state of Israel declared also, by the same authority, should be at length fulfilled. "Afterward" (said he,) "shall the children of Israel return, and seek the Lord their God, and David their king; and shall fear the Lord and his goodness many days." {Ho 3:4-5} But let not the reader close up his view of this spiritual famine as it relates to the Jews, without going farther, and enquiring whether the threatening may not belong equally to the Gentile church? yea, and whether it is not now in the present hour accomplishing in the earth? Is there not a famine of hearing the word of the Lord in numberless places which are called Christian countries, as well as idolatrous lands? Are there not multitudes who call themselves after Christ, but yet know no more of him than the name? Yea, to come nearer home, are there not villages and country places in this kingdom where the spiritual famine prevails, notwithstanding our land is called, a land of Bibles, and societies for disseminating the word of God are every where opening? Alas! while the grand and distinguishing principles of the faith of Christ are so openly and impudently denied; while God the Father’s gracious purposes in the gift of salvation by his dear Son, is thought nothing of; while the GODHEAD of Christ, and redemption wholly by his blood, is daringly opposed; and while the person, work, and influence of God the Holy Ghost is not made the very foundation of a sinner’s hope, in reading the sacred word to make wise unto salvation; while these things are kept in the back ground, and the object with many in teaching is but to introduce a flimsy system of morality to supply the place of vital godliness, is there not still a famine, yea, with many, with the Bible in their hand? Pious regenerated Christians see this, and find cause to mourn in secret over it; while they can only pray the Lord to take away the reproach of our land, and remove this spiritual famine from our people. Oh, for Jesus, the living bread, to feed his people with true understanding and knowledge!


See HAWKERS: Fasting



There seems to have been a disposition in all men, and from the earliest ages of antiquity, to testify a somewhat of sorrow in the mind in all abstinence, at certain times, and upon certain occasions, from food, by way of punishment for sin. Indeed, real and unfeigned sorrow of the heart will of itself naturally induce abstinence. For let a man be supposed to return from his labour with a keen appetite, and let it be supposed, that some one meets him at the door of his house with any evil tidings, his child or some beloved friend is dead, or himself threatened with some adversity; we know that the sudden relation of such, or the like calamities, will have an immediate effect to check the propensity of hunger. But whether the first observance of fasts had their origin in those feelings of nature, I would not presume to say; yet certain it is, the very mind of man since the fall hath always leaned to somewhat of doing, or suffering, by way of propitiation for the sins and transgressions of nature. We find this principle very general in the history of mankind. The Jews were very tenacious of their fast days; so were, and so are, the Musselmen of the Turks; and so are modern Christians, who observe the ritual of the form, more than regard the power of godliness. No one can doubt, who knows any thing of the human frame and character, that every individual by nature feels in himself a disposition to enter into a compromise or commutation with God; and if the Lord would but relax in certain demands which are enforced, he shall have offerings, of another kind by way of compensation or atonement. The cry of the heart in that sinner the prophet Micah speaks of, is the cry of every man’s heart, more or less, however differently expressed in the various languages of the earth. "Wherewith shall I come before the Lord, and bow myself before the High God? shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old? Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, or with ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my first-born for my transgression; the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?" {Mic 6:6-7} But the grand question in relation to fasts is, What saith the word of God concerning them? We certainly do not read any thing in the divine appointment of fasts before the days of Moses, and in the patriarchal age. And under the law, excepting the solemn day of atonement, there are no express precepts on the subject. That the people of God set apart days and seasons for the affliction of the soul is most certain, and this by divine command, {Le 23:27,29} but the reader will be careful to observe, that there is a wide distinction between the sorrow of soul and the fasting of the body. It is concerning fasts we are now speaking; and the subject is, what authority do they derive for observance in Scripture? When holy men of old were, in their hallowed seasons, mourning over the sins of fallen nature, no doubt the bodies were neglected, in numberless instances, in refusing to take food. Indeed, when the soul is absorbed in grief, the body will feel but little inclination to meat. Joshua and the elders of Israel fell upon their faces before the ark, and put dust upon their heads, when the men of Ai had a momentary triumph over Israel. {Jos 7:6} David fasted in the case of his child’s sickness. {2Sa 12:16} And the apostle Paul, in the time of his conversion, was three days without sight, and neither did eat nor drink. {Ac 9:9} But all these, and many others of a similar kind, were effects from predisposing causes, in which fasting became involuntary, and not enjoined.

Our blessed Lord gives directions how fasts are to be observed, with an eye to the gracious improvement of them, but hath not appointed any particular seasons for their observance. {See Mt 6:16-18} From whence arose the long ritual in the Romish church, and the special season of Ember Weeks, and the Wednesdays and Fridays in every week, and the vigil before every saint’s day, and the whole of Lent, it is difficult to say. But while men of no religion, and strangers to vital godliness, may, and will take up with the outside of piety, and abstain from their ordinary food on fast days, and glut the appetite with dainties on feast days; the great question still again recurs, what can we gather from the word of God of instruction in relation to fasting? I answer in the words of the apostle, "The kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost." {Ro 4:17}

The life of a truly regenerated believer in Christ, is at all times, and upon all occasions, a life of abstinence and self-denial. Every child of God well knows from his own experience, arising from a body of sin and death that he carries about him, that fleshly lusts of every kind war against the soul; that it is impossible to be too strict in abridging every species of indulgence in the body; and that pampering the flesh, is only causing that flesh to rebel. Hence, therefore, he desires to observe a perpetual fast in things pertaining to the body, that through grace he may put on the Lord Jesus Christ, "making no provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lust thereof." {Ro 13:14} But after the most rigid observance of humblings in the body, it is the distinguishing character of a truly regenerated believer in Christ, that neither by fastings, nor prayers, nor alms-deeds, nor offerings, no, nor the whole observance of outward or inward things, can poor fallen man recommend himself to God. Well is it for the faithful follower of Jesus, that He, the glorious High Priest of our profession, "beareth away the iniquity of our most holy things." {Ex 28:38} Our fast sins, our prayer sins, our ordinance sins, all need the cleansing laver of his blood to take away, and but for this there could be no acceptation of our persons, but the holy jealousy of the Lord in the midst of fasting, prayer and humiliation, might consume us on our very knees.


In Scripture language there is something of great importance in this word. It is used upon many occasions to signify the best of the thing to whatsoever it is applied. Thus the fat of the earth is made use of to denote the whole of temporal blessings. Thus Isaac’s prophetical blessings to Jacob. {Ge 27:28} "God give thee of the dew of heaven and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine." And as these temporal blessings were the consequence of spiritual mercies, and these all founded in Christ, nothing can be plainer than that the fatness had an eye to Him, in whom all nations of the earth were to be blessed. Hence, with reference to the same, the Psalmist saith, "My soul shall be satisfied as with marrow and fatness." {Ps 63:5}

The soul cannot be satisfied with earthly things; but these are figurative expressions, to intimate the soul-enriching blessings in Jesus. Now from these explanations, we may discover what was all along alluded to in the fat of the Jewish offerings. If the reader will consult the Old Testament on the subject, he will find that in all the offerings made by fire, the fat was wholly the Lord’s. {Le 2:9-16} And as it was uniformly connected with the blood of the altar, it should seem to have been intended all along to mean Christ. And hence it should seem also to have been meant in allusion to the wicked who despise Christ, that they setup their own righteousness in opposition to the righteousness of Jesus. Thus Jeshurun "waxed fat and kicked: thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick; thou art covered with fatness. Then he forsook God which made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock (the Christ) of his salvation." {De 32:15} Hence also, such characters are said to be "enclosed in their own fat." {Ps 17:10} If these views be well founded, it may serve also by way of additional testimony to the truth of Scripture, that the law in all points was but a shadow, the body is Christ. And JEHOVAH so strikingly saying, "all the fat is the Lord’s," {Le 3:16} sets forth that Christ is the Christ of God. {1Co 3:23}


This name in Scripture hath many applications. Not only the father of a family and head of an house or tribe, but also it is frequently put for the inventor of any art or science. Thus Jubal is said to have been the father of such as dwell in tents; and "Tubal the father of all such as handle the harp or organ." {Ge 4:20} And in a yet more interesting sense, the word of God calls them father, who stand distinguished in the church in a way of pre-eminency, such as Abraham, the father of the faithful, so called for the greatness of his faith. And so on the contrary, the wicked and ungodly are called evil. Hence Christ told the enemies of his gospel, "Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do." {Joh 8:44}

But while we carefully attend to these distinctions, respecting the application of the name of father in Scripture it should be always kept in remembrance that the name Father is in a peculiar and blessed sense had in special reference to God, as "the father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named." {Eph 3:14-15}

Hence, in relation to him under this sweet appellation and character, the Lord Jesus himself said to Mary after he arose from the dead, "I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God." {Joh 20:17} Christ also is the everlasting Father of his church and people. {Isa 9:6} I refer the reader to what was said under the article Abba, for the farther view of the blessedness of this relationship. Nothing can be more sweet or consolatory. (Let the reader consult also those Scriptures, Mt 23:9; Isa 63:16; Mal 2:10)


There are several ideas intended to be conveyed to the mind, by that passion which is called in Scripture fear. There is but one creature in the creation of God, that is said to be wholly void of fear, namely, the leviathan. {Job 41:33} The fear for the most part spoken of by the word of God, is what relates to our nature, of which there is a threefold description, natural fear, sinful fear and holy fear. Since the fall of man, the whole race of Adam have known the effects both of natural and sinful fear; none but the regenerated are acquainted with what is known in Scripture by a religious, or holy fear.

Natural and slavish fear, arising from a conscious sense of sin, manifested itself immediately upon the fall, when Adam sought to hide himself from the presence of the Lord amidst the trees of the garden. {See Ge 3:8} But when a poor sinner is awakened from the sleep and death of sin, and brought forth to a new and spiritual life, "perfect love casteth out fear." Hence the apostle saith, "Ye have not received the Spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father." {Ro 8:15} It is very blessed when freed from slavish fear. And it is very blessed to have that child-like fear which marks the Lord’s people. And it is very blessed to discover how the slavish fear which bringeth bondage is removed, and from whence the holy child-like fear is derived. The sweet promise of God by the prophet explains the whole. {Jer 32:40} "I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away from them to do them good; but I will put my fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me."

I will only add, for the comfort and encouragement of the Lord’s timid and tried ones, who, in the midst of strong faith, feel at times much natural fear, that it is sweetly accommodating to consider the Lord Jesus Christ, in the days of his flesh, was graciously pleased in this, as in all other points of grace, to be our example. Of Jesus it is said, that "though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience, by the things which he suffered. And in the days of his flesh he offered up prayers and supplications, with strong crying and tears, unto him that was able to save him from death, and was heard in that he feared." {Heb 5:7-8} Sweet and precious thought! Jesus who knew no sin, yet coming to us in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh, knew what it was to be sore amazed, to be sorrowful even unto death, to fear, and to be very heavy. Reader, think how Jesus sympathizes with his people under their fears, and heaviness, and sorrow of heart.


In the Jewish church we find much said concerning the festivals observed; and what makes the subject important is, that they were of the Lord’s own appointment. They had the constant feast of the Sabbath every seventh day, in commemoration of the Lord’s resting on the seventh day from the works of creation. And when the church was formed in the wilderness, they had the several feasts as appointed in regular order. The feast of the Passover, typical of the Lord Jesus Christ, on their going out of Egypt. The feast of Pentecost, the fifteenth day from the Passover, in commemoration of the giving of the Law on mount Sinai, fifty days after the people left Egypt. They had also the feast of Tabernacles, which formed the third great feast of the year, in which all the males were enjoined to appear before the Lord. {De 16:16} These were among the standing feasts appointed by the Lord in the church of Israel.

But beside these, they had others by the same appointment. The feast of Trumpets of the New Moon; the feasts of Expiation, or, as the Jews called it, Chippur; that is, pardon; because on this day it was considered, that an act of grace took place from heaven, for the cleansing the sins and infirmities of all the people through the year. What a striking allusion to that great day of the Lord Jesus, when "by the one offering of himself once offered, he perfected for ever them that were sanctified!" {Heb 10:14} And what a beautiful correspondence to the same, was the prophet Zechariah’s account of this glorious event, when hosts: "I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day." {Zec 3:9}

In this account of the Jewish feasts we must not overlook the feast of Jobel, or Jubilee Trumpets, in the forty-ninth year, called the Sabbatical year, or seven times seven. For surely, nothing could be more striking as typical of the Lord Jesus Christ. The Lord made a blessed provision, by this feast, for the freedom of every poor captive in the land. I refer the reader to the account of it in the Scriptures themselves, (Le 25 throughout;) for it would not come within the limits of the present work, to go through the particulars. But of all the subjects in the Jewish church, which pointed in a direct allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ, there is not one more striking. And I venture to believe, that though this trumpet was never sounded but once in forty-nine years, and consequently few, if any, ever heard it before, or ever lived to hear it a second Jubilee, yet there was not a soul in the camp but understood the joyful sound, and felt the meaning (if I may be allowed the expression,) like the archangel’s trumpet, as it will be understood by all flesh, when Jesus comes to judgment. The rigorous master on the morning of the Jubilee, whose tyranny then expired, understood by it his sentence. And what were the feelings of the poor oppressed servant, whom the Lord hath then made free, when the mor nirgshered in the sound of the blessed, though never before heard, trumpet!

I hope the reader will not overlook the sweetest and most interesting part of this feast of the Jubilee. It was the Lord Jesus in his great salvation who was thus proclaimed. Every poor sinner, captive to Satan, sin, and hell, who heard the sound, heard it in the sweet voice, "Ye have sold yourselves for nought, and ye shall be redeemed without money, saith the Lord." {Isa 52:3}

I think it highly proper, before I dismiss this article concerning the Jewish feasts, to remark to the reader, the distinguishing privilege we enjoy in the Christian church, in having all in one the sum and substance of every feast in the person, work, grace, and glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. We have our Christian Sabbaths weekly, in which we commemorate all the blessings of creation, redemption, and sanctification at once. And all believers in Christ truly find their sabbaths to be all this and more.

Doth not every regenerated child of God in honouring the Lord’s day, honour at the same time the Lord’s work; and while he celebrates God the Father’s resting from the works of the old creation, celebrate also God the Father’s work in the new creation of his precious soul in Christ Jesus? {See Eph 2:10} And in the celebration of the sabbath in honour of God the Son, who by his triumph over death, hell, and the grave, when he arose on that day, and manifested himself to be the resurrection and the life; doth not every regenerated child of God thereby prove, "that he is risen with Christ from dead works, to serve the living and true God?" Yea, doth he not manifest his personal interest in that sweet promise, by those acts of giving honour to his Lord, where it said, "Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection; on such the second death hath no power." {Re 20:5} And is not God the Holy Ghost glorified and honoured in the Christian sabbath, at the renewal of the sacred day, in that then is celebrated his first open and visible display of his love and mercy over the church, when at Pentecost he came down upon the people? Doth not every regenerated child of God here also, as in the other instances, testify, that it is by the sovereignty of his power and grace, he is quickened to a new and spiritual life, and now waits again on the Lord, in his holy ordinance of the sabbath, for the renewing of the Holy Ghost to be shed on him abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Lord? {Tit 3:5-6}

Surely, these are very clear and incontestible evidences of the true commemoration of the Christian sabbath, when, in the observance, special and distinct acts of praise and honour, are given to each glorious person of the GODHEAD, as they are represented to us in the Scriptures of truth, in the several character-offices of their divine agency. And thus while each and every one hath the special and distinct acts of praise given to them, for the special acts of grace and mercy shewn to the church in Christ, the whole form one and the same glorious object of adoration, love, and praise, as the eternal undivided JEHOVAH, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, both to the church on earth, and in heaven, to all eternity.

Reader it is most blessed thus to see and enjoy our privileges. The believer’s feast is a continual feast; yea, an increasing everlasting feast, a daily sabbath. Jesus himself is indeed the Jubilee; yea, the very sabbath of the soul. And when at his house, at his table, at his ordinances, in his word, in every promise, and by every providence, the soul is kept alive by grace in him, the feast is not at stated periods only, but continual. Jesus is the life of the soul; and the portion for ever.





The expression of feeding in Scripture is, sometimes applied in a good sense, and sometimes in a bad one. When men are nourished with the word of life, they are said to be fed. Hence the Lord promised to give pastors to the church, "that should feed his people with understanding and knowledge?" {Jer 3:15} And on the contrary, in those who take up with false doctrines, they are said to feed on wind. {Ho 12:5} to feed on ashes, and the like. {Isa 44:20}

But the general and principal use of the term in Scripture of feeding, is applied to the Lord Jesus Christ. "He shall feed his flock like a shepherd." {Isa 44:11} And as feeding is a comprehensive expression, to denote every thing relating to the office of a shepherd, so whenever this act of love and attention is spoken of in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ, it means to convey the whole of his character, both in his relation as a shepherd to his people, and the tenderness of his care over them. The church is his flock, his property, his purchase, his glory. He hath a perfect knowledge of all his sheep. He provides pasture; yea, is himself their food and portion. He protects from beasts of prey, heals the diseased, gathers home the wanderer, leads the flock out to wholesome pastures, and, in short, doth the whole office of a shepherd; and doth it in such a way, and with so much love and tenderness, that they are most blessed who belong to his fold. Sweet thought of the Psalmist, and which equally may be taken up by every lamb of Christ’s fo1d: "The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want." {Ps 23 throughout.}



The Hebrews were so much accustomed to use parable and figure in their discourses, and gesture in their conversation, to convey to each other their meaning, rather than by words, that it is no wonder so many and various meanings should be conveyed by one and the same way. Thus by feet they meant to denote every thing that was humble, and conceal every thing immodest. "A wicked man, (saith Solomons) speaketh with his feet." {Pr 6:13} The sense is, by motions of his feet he conveyed somewhat indecent and unbecoming "To leave off the sandals from the feet," was an indication of sorrow, and of great humility. Thus Ezekiel mourned for his wife. {Eze 24:17} And Moses was commanded at the bush to put off his shoes, in token that the ground where he then stood was holy ground. {Ex 3:5} To sit at the feet of another, implied humility. {1Sa 25:24} Mary sat at the feet of Jesus. {Lu 7:38} To cover the feet, was a phrase used to imply attending to the wants of nature. Thus Ehud. {Jg 3:24} "To open the feet to every one that passed by," was an expression of whoredom {Eze 16:25} These phrases serve to throw a light upon the subject in general.

But if these things were so, and every action relative to the feet carried with it somewhat of a special nature, think what unequalled humbleness that was in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of life and glory, when he condescended to wash the feet of poor fishermen. {See Joh 13:3-8} And what tends to endear this action of Christ the more is, that it was at a season, we are told, when all things were given into his sovereign hands. Never surely, was there an instance of equal humility. Poor vain man, that hath nothing, yea, is himself worse than nothing, is proud. But Jesus, who hath all things, and is himself infinitely superior to all things, is unequalled in humility. It were to be wished, that all his redeemed felt more of this spirit of their Lord. And it were to be wished, that every poor, tried, and humble believer, would never lose sight of this feature of character in the Lord Jesus Christ. And let any man, and every man, determine the point for himself: When is Jesus most lovely, most dear, and precious? Is it not when he is most condescending? Suppose the Lord Jesus were to wash my feet, as he did Peter’s, would not such an act of grace overwhelm my poor heart with love? Yea, would not the Lord Jesus be the more exalted to my view and in my esteem when in his matchless grace he had been most condescending? How sweet are such views of Jesus!


I should not have thought it necessary to have called the reader’s attention to this word, had it not been to remark to him, the great beauty of it in a double sense, when applied to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ in relation to his fellowship with his Father in the nature and essence of the GODHEAD, and in relation to his fellowship with his church in the human nature; under both which the Lord Jesus appears so lovely and so endeared to his people, as to render him most interesting indeed.

In the former sense of the word, as applied to Christ, or spoken of him, we have that very precious unequalled passage of the Lord, by the prophet Zechariah, (Zec 13:7) where JEHOVAH calls him by this name, "The man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts." Every one who knows any thing of the common terms made use of among men, knows also, that fellow means equal. The very name, indeed, would lose all its force and meaning, when spoken of persons in common, if there were supposed the least inequality between them. And this runs through all ranks and orders of the people, from the king to the beggar. The king’s fellow, and the beggar’s fellow, is perfectly understood as implying a common level. How truly blessed, therefore, is the word as applied by JEHOVAH himself to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. Who but must rejoice, when he thus receives God the Father’s own testimony to the oneness and fellowship in the divine nature between God the Father, and God the Son. "The man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts."

In like manner, on the same ground, how very blessed is it to consider him who, in his divine nature, is fellow to the Lord of hosts; in his human nature, is fellow to his church and people. Here again, the Lord JEHOVAH, the Father, gives the like testimony; for speaking to Joshua, the type of Jesus, the Lord saith, "Here now, O Joshua the high priest, thou and thy fellows that sit before thee, for they are men wondered at" {Zec 3:8} Wondered at indeed, to be fellow to him in his human nature, who, in his divine nature, "is fellow to the Lord of hosts!" But so it is: for the truth is undeniable. Hence Jesus himself, by the spirit of prophecy, under the ministry of a prophet, is introduced as saying, "Behold, I and the children whom the Lord hath given me, are for signs and wonders in Israel; from the Lord of hosts, which dwelleth in mount Zion." {Isa 8:18} See this more fully explained, {Heb 2:11-13} Hence also, the Holy Ghost bears testimony to the same in that glorious Scripture, when speaking of his mediatorial throne, and the covenanting of Christ for his people; "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre. Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness; therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above (or for) thy fellows:" for so the word may be rendered. And if I were writing a Concordance for the learned, and not for the poor man, I should say the original will justify that it should be, non prœ consortibus, sedpropter consortes. (Compare Ps 45:6-7 with Heb 1:8-9)

Now I beg the reader to ponder well the subject, and mark with me the blessedness and the preciousness of it. Here are all the persons in JEHOVAH testifying to this glorious character of the Lord Jesus, as the fellow of the Lord of hosts in his divine nature. And let me ask, what can be more blessed or precious? In the one, how glorious to consider the foundation and security of all that is interesting to our hopes for the life that now is, and that which is to come. And in the other, how very sweet and lovely it is, to know our nearness and fellow partnership in all that is in Christ Jesus as the Head and Husband of his body the church, "the fulness of him that filleth all in all." O! with what rapture ought every child of God to read what the Holy Ghost saith to this purport, in the close of the second chapter of the Hebrews. (Heb 2) "For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham. Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people. For in that he himself hath suffered, being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted."

And now I hope from such unanswerable testimonies to this great truth as are found in all the persons of the GODHEAD witnessing to it, the reader will never be in danger of being led away from the uniform and unceasing belief, that he who in his infinite grace and mercy hath made himself our fellow, is, and hath been from all eternity, fellow to the Lord of hosts. If any would teach a contrary doctrine, let him first solemnly declare whether God the Holy Ghost hath taught it him. This question, if properly applied, would be a dreadful silencing to all such as pretend to be "wise above what is written." And I would solemnly recommend also, every one of this description, who, under the pretence of candour, is literally joining, however unintentionally, the Infidel’s cause, to read the history of Nadab and Abihu, Le 10:2 and Uzzah, 2Sa 6:6-7. With such tremendous judgments in view, we should hear no more of such presumptuous reasonings.

And while the Lord Jesus himself bears testimony to the fellowship and equality between himself and his Father, saying, "I and my Father are one," {Joh 10:30} none after this would fancy fellow meant neighbour. Neither would such venture to say, when our Lord quoted the passage of Zechariah, which he did in the hour of his sufferings, (see Zec 13:7 compared with Mt 25:31-32) he meant no more than a mere proverbial expression, and had not the most distinct relation to his sufferings and death.


The gospel sense of this, and especially in the Epistle of John, {Joh 1:1-3} hath somewhat most endearing in it. The Greek word the apostle useth to express it, means partnership; and implies, that the church in and through Christ, hath an interest in all that belongs to Christ. {1Co 1:9}

Fig Tree

I should not think it necessary to notice this article in our Concordance, but for the occasion that offers thereby of making an observation on the fig tree which the Lord Jesus blighted near Bethany. It may be proper, for the better apprehension of the subject, to remark, that the fig tree grew, in Palestine, not unfrequently in the roads, and highways, and hedges, beside those that were cultivated in. the gardens. It is plain, that this fig tree which Christ withered was of this kind; a hedge fruit, and, consequently, it was no man’s property. Matthew’s account of this transaction is, that when Jesus "saw this fig tree in the way, he came to it, and found nothing but leaves only; and said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee hence forward for ever: and presently the fig tree withered away." {Mt 21:18} And Mark adds to this relation, that "the time of figs was not yet." {Mr 11:13}

It is very evident from hence, that the Lord Jesus had an object of much higher moment to set forth by this action, than the mere blighting a hedge fig tree. For surely, the Lord did not expect fruit out of season; neither did he mean, as some have supposed, to shew anger, to a fig tree. It is well known, that in the eastern world almost all instruction was conveyed by parable and figure. And so much did the Lord Jesus, in his divine teaching, fall in with this popular way of conveying knowledge, that at one time we are told "without a parable spake he not unto them." {Mt 13:34} The question becomes exceedingly interesting to know, what particular instruction to his disciples the Lord meant to have impressed on their minds by this event.

Perhaps I may be singular in my view of the subject. But if I err, may the Lord pity and pardon my ignorance, and the reader find no injury from my statement of it. The whole stress of the subject, as it strikes me, is in the nature and quality of this fig tree. It was hedge fruit. It was in the highway; and no man’s property. Now the church is expressly compared by the Lord himself to a fig tree of his own, and planted in his vineyard. {Lu 13:6} And the prophet, in the Old Testament dispensation, celebrated the glories of God’s grace to the church under a similar figure of his planting his vineyard with a choice vine. {Isa 5:1 &c.} The fruitless fig tree of the hedge, and which at the command of Jesus withered away, according to my view of the subject, was intended by the Lord to represent the mere professors of the gospel, who to a traveller afford leaves, but no fruit. It is, indeed, without; not in the garden, the church. It cannot bring forth fruit unto God; for the Lord saith, when speaking of his church, "From me is thy fruit found." {Ho 14:8} Jesus hath a right and property in his people. They are his, both by the Father’s gift, and by his own purchase. And he hath brought them in, and fenced them round, and they are "trees of his right hand planting." {Isa 61:3}

The instant withering of the barren fig tree, at Christ’s command, became the emblem of what must ultimately follow all the way-side productions in nature, void of grace, at the great day of the Lord. And our Lord’s own comment upon the blasted tree, seems very fully to justify this view of the subject. For when the disciples remarked to Jesus how soon the fig tree was withered away, the Lord made this striking answer, "Have faith in God." As if he had said, all are but the mere leaves of profession where there is no vital union in me. As he said elsewhere, "I am the vine; ye are the branches." {Joh 15:5} If this be the right sense of the passage, and the Lord Jesus meant to teach his disciples thereby, that every hedge fig tree hath no part in the church, no owner in Christ by his Father’s gift or purchase, no union with him, and, consequently, no communion in his graces, but must in the hour of decision instantly wither away; then will this parable of the barren fig tree form one testimony more to the numberless other testimonies with which the word of God abounds, that the children of the wicked one, and the children of the kingdom, are totally separate and dissimilar from everlasting, and so must continue to everlasting. Tares can never become wheat; neither can wheat become tares. Goats must remain goats; for their nature cannot admit in them the nature of sheep. The fig tree of the hedge, never planted in the vineyard of Jesus, hath no fruit in him; and, consequently, always barren. So infinitely important is it, to be found in Christ.


The finger of God. This is a very common expression in Scripture, to denote the works of God. Thus the magicians in the court of Pharaoh were compelled to acknowledge the finger of God concerning several of the ten plagues of Egypt which the Lord brought upon the Egyptians. It appears, that the Lord permitted the magicians, in certain instances, to be led into the persuasion, that their arts produced similar effects to the works of Moses and Aaron. Such as in the case of the rods becoming serpents; but even here, is if to draw the striking difference, Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods. {Ex 7:10-12} So in the turning the river into blood. {Ex 3:19,21-22} But this permission was evidently intended to the better conviction of their minds in other instances; and accordingly we find the magicians themselves openly confessing, in the case of the lice on man and beast, "This is the finger of God." Ex 8:19. Our blessed Lord, in the days of his flesh, speaking of his miracles, made use of the same phrase. "If I (said Jesus) with the finger of God cast out devils, no doubt, the kingdom of God is come upon you." (Lu 11:20. See Ex 31:18)

The expression of the finger, for the whole action, is not to us in the western world a circumstance so generally understood; but it appears, that in the east the greater part of the transactions in common life were carried on by those means. The silence observed by them would to us be astonishing. Servants seldom spoke in the presence of their masters. They received, for the most part, all their commands by signs; and in their approach to their lord observed the most profound silence. By the gesticulation of the body, the motion of the eye, or the expression of the finger, directions were conveyed, and never misunderstood.

Some writer of ancient date hath interpreted one of the psalms of David (the hundred and twenty-third), under this view; and indeed, if read with an eye to this custom in the east, the beauty of it becomes abundantly more striking. Suppose David in that psalm had reference to the great humility and awe with which the lowest servants approach their lord, the expressions of his soul in that sweet psalm would strike the mind as if thus speaking: "Unto thee lift I up mine eyes, O thou that dwellest in the heavens. Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto the hand of their masters, and as the eyes of a maiden to the hand of her mistress, even so our eyes wait upon the Lord our God, until he have mercy upon us."


This is a blessed word in Scripture language in application to the Lord Jesus Christ. The prophet Daniel, when proclaiming to the church the time of the Messiah’s coming, added this also, as the distinguishing feature of his mission. He was to be anointed as the Most Holy, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin. {Da 9:24} And Zechariah no less, while describing him as the great Zerubbabel declared, that the same hands which laid the foundation of the spiritual temple should also finish it. {Zec 4:9} And the Lord Jesus himself, speaking in his mediatorial character as the Sent and Servant of JEHOVAH, in the close of his ministry, lifted his eyes to heaven, and said, "Father, I have glorified thee on the earth; I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do." {Joh 17:4} And in confirmation of the same, as the last act on the cross, he bowed his sacred head, and said, "It is finished!" {Joh 19:30} Think reader, what a blessed consideration this is to the mind of a poor self. condemned sinner, conscious that he can do nothing but sin; and cannot put forth a single act of his own to obtain salvation. Oh! how truly refreshing to the soul thus to behold Christ as the lawfulfiller, the sum and substance of all the types and sacrifices, and JEHOVAH’S salvation, to the ends of the earth. Jesus! I would say, add one blessing more to thy finished salvation; and "work in me both to will and to do of thy good pleasure."


Is one of the great elements in nature by which the Lord is pleased to carry on the purposes of his holy will in the kingdoms of his government. But in Scripture language it is used upon many occasions. JEHOVAH himself is compared to a consuming fire. {De 4:24; Heb 12:29} And agreeably to this, we find numberless appearances made of the divine presence in fire. To Moses at the bush, Ex 3:2 at the giving of the law on Mount Siani, Ex 19:18-19. To Isaiah in the vision, Isa 6:4. To Ezekiel at the river Chebar, Eze 1:4. And to the beloved apostle John at Patmos, Re 1:14.

Add to these, the Lord is pleased to reveal himself under the similitude of fire, in several parts of Scripture. Thus the prophet Malachi describes Jesus in his priestly office as a refiner’s fire. {Mal 3:2} And John the Baptist, when drawing a comparison between the Lord and himself, in order to exalt his master, and set forth his own nothingness, saith, "I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire." {Mt 3:11}

And it is worthy of farther remark, that many manifestations of the Lord’s, under the Old Testament, were made by fire. In the covenant manifestations to Abraham, it was the representation of a "smoking furnace, and a burning lamp." {Ge 15:17-18} In the church in the wilderness, the going of the Lord before his people was under the form of a "pillar of fire." {Ex 13:21} Yea, the unceasing representation of the Lord on the altar, was by the "holy fire that never went out." {Le 6:13} And in short, the many manifestations made by fire of the Lord’s presence and favour in the answers of the Lord to his servants, all shew the vast solemnity of the thing itself. {See Le 9:24; Jg 13:19-20; 2Ch 7:1; 1Ki 18:38}

It must not be omitted either to observe, that the ministering spirits and servants of the Lord from the upper and brighter world, are frequently spoken of under the same similitude. The Lord is said to make "his angels spirits; and his ministers a flaming fire." {Ps 104:4} And the Psalmist elsewhere speaks of the chariots of God as chariots of fire, when at the Lord’s brightness that"was before him, thick clouds passed, hail stones, and coals of fire." {Ps 18:10-12} And Daniel, in his lofty description, saith, that "a fiery stream issued, and came forth from before him." {Da 7:10} And Habakkuk also, "Before him (saith he,) went the pestilence, and burning coals went forth at his feet." {Hab 3:5}

The word of God is compared also to fire. "Is not my word like a fire, saith the Lord, and like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces?" {Jer 23:29} And hence, in allusion to the same, the Lord Jesus declares the purpose of his coming is to this effect. "I am come (saith Christ,) to send fire on the earth; and what will I, if it be already kindled?" {Lu 12:49} And one of the apostles declares that in the end of the dispensation of the gospel, "every man’s work shall be tried by fire." {1Co 3:13}

And lastly, to mention no more, the torments of the damned are uniformly described in Scripture under the image of fire. Some of the most sublime, and at the same time most awful passages in Scripture, are made use of in the description. Moses introduces the Lord as speaking in this language. "A fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell; and shall consume the earth with her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the nations." {De 32:22} And Isaiah, as if in contemplation of the horrors of this eternal fire, exclaims: "The sinners in Zion are afraid; fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites: who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?" {Isa 33:14} And our blessed Lord adopts the same language in allusion to the same awful destruction of the wicked. He speaks of a worm that never dieth, and a fire that never is quenched. And this Jesus repeats three times, following each other, in the same chapter. {Mr 9:44-48} And in his solemn description of the last day, in the tremendous judgment of it, he hath already recorded the very words with which he will speak to the sinners. "Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and all his angels." {Mt 25:41} John also, more largely dwells upon the subject in his book of the Revelations. {See Re 20 throughout.}

Whether this fire is to be considered as the common, natural, and elementary fire, or whether the expressions are figurative, hath been the subject of much enquiry among persons whom the world hath been accustomed to call learned. But the world have sadly mistaken their name, in calling those learned who would fritter away the plain truths of Scripture into metaphor and figure. Indeed, nothing can more strongly mark the weakness of the human understanding, than the disputes which have been brought forward, in different ages of the church, by way of doing away the doctrine of the eternity of hell-torments. For unless men could persuade themselves, that God is not able to punish sin (of which the miseries and sorrows of the present life too plainly prove the contrary,) or that God will not make good his word in doing it (which his truth and veracity too awfully declare he will,) it matters not in what that punishment consists. Exactly suited to the deserts of sin, in every instance, we may be sure it will be. Too wise to err, too just: to do wrong, becomes a decided answer to all the indecent and unbecoming objections of unbelievers.

Here, therefore, let the faithful rest. The plain, the sure, the unalterable language of the word of God on this momentous point, is summed up in a few words.—"The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God." And at the same time it is said: "For the needy shall not always be forgotten; the expectation of the poor shall not perish for ever." {Ps 9:17-18} This is enough to ascertain the fact. The farther enquiry in what that hell for the wicked consists, or what will be the fulness of the Lord’s remembrance to his poor and needy, both these points may be very safely left with him. The apostle Paul makes a full conclusion of the subject, for the exercise of faith to the church, and such as may be sufficient to answer all the cavils of men, until the whole comes to be realized. Speaking to the church concerning the unjust sufferings the people of God endure from the ungodly, he saith, "Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you; and to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus should be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ; who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his power, when he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe." {2Th 1:6-10}


See HAWKERS: Firstborn



I should not think it necessary to detain the reader with any thing by way of explanation to these terms, being in themselves sufficiently obvious, but only when applied to the person of Christ, considered with an eye to him, they merit attention.

We are told by the apostle to the Colossians, (Col 1:18) that he who is the Head of his body the church, and who is the beginning, was also the first-born from the dead, that "in all things he might have the pre-eminence." It is astonishing to what minute circumstances every thing in the church of the Old Testament had a reference, by way of typifying the Lord Jesus Christ in this pre-eminency of character, as the first, and first-born, and first-fruits, and the firstlings of the flock, and of the herd. As if (and which in reality is the case), JEHOVAH would have every thing shadow forth and bring forward somewhat either by allusion, or by direct type, concerning him who is the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, and sum and substance of all things, in the ordinance of God for salvation. We find this beginning even in the patriarchal age. So that Jacob, when a-dying, though he set aside Reuben from the right of primogeniture, for his particular offence against his father, yet still speaks of the dignity of it."Reuben (saith he) thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength; the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power."Then follows the sentence of degradation,"Thou shalt not excel;" that is, thou shalt not retain the right of heirship. {Ge 49:4} And at the formation of the church, at the Exodus by Moses, while the first-born of the Egyptians, both of man and beast, were all killed, the Lord declared, that all the first-born of Israel, both of man and beast, should be consecrated to him. {Ex 12:29; 13:2}

I do not presume to speak with any confidence upon the subject; but I would very humbly ask, Is there not somewhat wonderfully striking in this appointment of the Lord? The Passover that was then observed, we have authority to say, was altogether typical of Christ; for God the Holy Ghost declared by Paul the apostle, that Christ, "our passover, was sacrificed for us." {1Co 5:7} And as this Passover, in the sprinkling of the blood of the lamb of the first year, without blemish, and without spot, on the houses of the Israelites, become the only cause of safety, to make all the difference between the first-born of Israel and the first-born of Egypt; are we not taught herefrom, that the year of Christ’s redeemed is no less the day of Christ’s vengance? {Isa 63:4} God will have a sacrifice of judgment in the firstlings of his enemies, as well as of mercy in the firstlings of his people. So much will JEHOVAH in all things honour his dear Son, as the first, and first-born, and only begotten of his Father, that at the forming of the church there shall be a destruction in the first-born of those that hate him. I do not presume to speak decidedly on this point; but I cannot but conceive, that there is somewhat very striking on this ground is the difference here shewn between Israel and Egypt. {Ex 11:7}

And if the reader will pursue the subject through the Bible, in the several types by which Christ the first-born is set forth, he will, I am persuaded, be wonderfully struck, as he passeth through the sacred volume, with the vast attention manifested on the occasion.

The first-born among the children of Israel had a precedency and birthright, which certainly pointed to Jesus. The right of priesthood was with the elder son, and a double portion among his brethren. {Ge 49:8} And if a man had many wives, still the first-born of every one of them was to be consecrated to the Lord.

And under this view I must not forget to observe, that the offering appointed for every male that opened the womb, (see Ex 13:2 with Ex 34:19-20; Le 12:6; Lu 2:21-24) had a direct reference to Christ. Yea, some have thought (and it is a point worthy the most serious consideration,) whether this direction concerning the opening of the womb had respect to any other. For strictly and properly speaking, none but the Lord Jesus ever did open the womb. By the miraculous impregnation of the Virgin, from the overshadowing power of the Holy Ghost, the opening of womb was specially and peculiarly only effected at the birth of Christ; whereas, in every other instance, from the creation of the world, as anatomists well know, it is accomplished at the time of conception. And if this be the case in the instance of Christ, and this appointment of dedication to the Lord of the first-born, that openeth the womb had respect only to Christ; what an eye to this one birth, all along through the whole Levitical dispensation, was manifested by this right of the Lord, both in the first-born of men and of beast, to typify Christ!

I beg the reader on this occasion, as in many others, to observe, that I presume not to speak with any positiveness upon the subject; I only state it. Certain it is, that in all things, and by every way, it was and is JEHOVAH’S will, Jesus should have the pre-eminency. It is blessed, therefore, upon all occasions to discover it.

The redemption of the first-born among the children of Israel, was usually observed with great ceremony. The parents brought their son to the priest, together with the appointed offering for redemption, {See Nu 18:15-16} and the priest received the child from his mother’s hands, with the solemn assurance, that it was her firstborn. The priest then claiming the child in right of the Lord, accepts at the parents’ hands the appointed offering, and return the infant; and the day concludes in holy rejoicing.

It forms an additional testimony, that all this was with an eye to Christ, in that among the first-born of the Levites, the redemption of the first-born was not appointed. {Nu 1:47; 3:12-13} And, wherefore, among the Levites this exemption, for it is evident our Lord sprang out of Judah? The whole of Israel is said to be unto JEHOVAH "a kingdom of priests." {Ex 19:6} And therefore, in every thing, and by every way, both in a single tribe and in the whole people, as the Lord’s chosen, as shall be typical of the Lord Jesus Christ. In a word, JEHOVAH’S great design all along, and from one eternity to another, is to glorify his dear Son. In all things and by all things, he shall have the pre-eminence. "Every knee shall bow before him, and every tongue confess, that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." Amen,

I will detain the reader no longer than just to remark, that the offering of the first fruits had an eye to the Lord Jesus, similar to what hath been shewn respecting the first-born. For the waving the first fruits towards heaven, and the lamb that was to be offered with it for a burnt offering, very plainly testified, that this also was typical. (See in confirmation Le 23:10-14.)


The Hebrews had no particular names, or very few, for the distinguishing of the several species of fish. It is more probable, that as the law prohibited all that had no fins and scales, they were not very anxious to search the rivers in pursuit of them. {See Le 11:9-12} Our adorable Redeemer, when coming to deliver his people from a yoke that neither we nor our fathers were able to bear, both by his precept and example, taught, that what he had cleansed became no longer unclean. {Mt 17:27; Joh 21:9; Lu 24:42}




The word flesh hath different meanings in Scripture. It is a word of general acceptation in respect to animal life. Hence the apostle to the Corinthians, chapter the fifteenth, and thirty-ninth verse, saith, "All flesh is not the same flesh; but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds." And, hence, when the Lord determined the total destruction of the world, except the church preserved in the family of Noah, he said, "The end of all flesh is come before me." {Ge 6:13} But beside this general acceptation of the word in relation to all animal life, the Scripture hath a more confined and special sense in reference to human nature.—"Hide not thyself from thine own flesh;" meaning, thine own nature. {Isa 58:7}

There is another and more endearing sense of the word flesh, when spoken of in Scripture in relation to the types and affinities of families. Thus in the instance of the sons of Jacob, when some were for killing Joseph, Judah restrained from the deed, saying, "What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? Let not our hand be upon him, for he is our brother and our flesh." {Ge 37:26-27} And there is yet a far more endearing sense in which the word flesh is used in Scripture, when spoken of in the person of our Lord Jesus Christ; the nearest of all types, and the tenderest of all brothers. "For we are members (saith the apostle) of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones." {Eph 5:30} But the term flesh hath also another sense, when by of opposition to the spirit, it is taken as a comprehensive expression of our whole corrupt and carnal nature by the fall. "I know (saith Paul,) that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing." {Ro 5:18} And "elsewhere the same apostle saith, The flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh; and these are contrary the one to the other, so that ye cannot do the things that ye would." {Ga 5:17} And hence when by the gracious work of regeneration wrought in the heart by the sovereign power of God the Holy Ghost, believers are then said "to be not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, it so be that the Spirit of God dwell in them." {Ro 8:9} And hence this new life of God in the soul is called union with Christ, in living upon Christ, and walking with Christ. "As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father, even so he that eateth me shall live by me." {Joh 6:57}


By flies in Scripture are meant, not only those that have wings and fly in the open air, but also insects which creep upon the earth. They are reputed unclean by the law. {Le 11:41 &c.} The plague of Egypt of the flies, {see Ex 8:20, &c.} may in some measure serve to explain, how pointed, as well as heavy, the Lord’s punishments on the Egyptians were. The Egyptians had their Baalzebub, as well as the Philistines; and probably from the same cause. {See 2Ki 1:2} Hence this dunghill idol Baalzebub, that is, the god of the flies, they looked to to keep them from their destroying power. So then when the Lord made the very idol they worshipped thus contemptible before them, while under the smarting of his power, how strikingly did the Lord set forth the distinguishing mercy to his people, in the moment he thus visited their enemies. It is worthy of farther remark, that it was not until this plague that the Lord declared the separation he would put between his people and the Egyptians. I beg the reader to turn to the Scripture account of this. {Ex 8:20-26}

I must not dismiss this article until that I have farther observed upon it, that in all probability it was a fly of the same species as infested Egypt, that the Lord, by the prophet Isaiah, called for, after that glorious prophecy concerning Christ; and which, it should seem, was to be among the plagues of those who received not Christ. "The Lord" [saith the prophet,] "shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria." {Isa 7:17-18}

How strange soever the worship of a fly may appear to us, yet historians of modern times have given us an account of similar honours paid by the Hottentots to the fly; and perhaps to this very day the custom is not altered. Kolben in his history of the present state of the Cape of Good Hope relates, that there is an insect about the size of a child’s little finger, that hath two wings and two horns, which is held in the highest veneration by this deluded people. They sacrifice two of the fattest sheep to this fly, whenever he appears in their kraal, or village. And the historian farther adds, that he thinks it impossible to drive the opinion out of their minds, but that the appearance of this insect in a kraal is an omen of great prosperity to the inhabitants.

Having said thus much, by way of shewing to what a degraded state our whole nature is reduced by the fall, I hope the reader will indulge me with making another observation, to point out the blessedness to which we are brought, in the recovery from such gross ignorance, by the glorious gospel of the ever-blessed God. Oh, what unspeakable mercy is it to be free from all dunghill deities and superstitious foolishness, in the knowledge of the true God and our Saviour Jesus Christ. "Thanks be unto God, for his unspeakable gift!" {2Co 9:15}


The church of Jesus is so often spoken of in Scripture under the figure and similitude of a flock, that I could not think myself justified in passing it by unnoticed. That Jesus is himself called the Shepherd of Israel. {Ps 80:1} and sometimes the good Shepherd. {Joh 10:11} and chief Shepherd, {1Pe 5:4} and the great Shepherd. {Heb 13:20} and the one Shepherd. {Eze 34:23} These are familiar names, by which Christ is well known to his church in Scripture. And consequently, as every shepherd is supposed to have a flock, otherwise his very character of shepherd ceaseth; so the church hath various descriptions also as the flock of Christ by which she is known. The church is said by Jesus himself to be his sheep, which his Father hath given him, and which he hath also purchased by his blood, and made them his by the conquests of his grace. Hence he saith, he called them all by name. He knoweth all their persons, state, and circumstances; goeth before them, and them into wholesome pastures, and causeth them to lie down in safety. He undertakes for all their wants, heals the diseased among them, brings home wanderers, restores the misled, and is so watchful over the whole of his flock, that they must all pass again under the hand of him that telleth them. {Jer 33:13} and hence it is impossible that any of them should perish, but he giveth them eternal life. {Joh 10:1-16}

And what tends, if possible, to endear yet more this view of Christ’s church as his flock, is the several properties of it. The flock of Jesus is but one. {Song 6:9} though scattered in various parts of the earth, and divided into several folds. Both Jew and Gentile are brought into it, and hereafter will form "one in the general assembly and church of the first-born, whose names are written in heaven." {Heb 12:23} And this flock of Christ is not only one, but it forms a separate and distinct one. For separated by distinguishing grace and gathered out of the world’s wide wilderness, Jesus hath pent it up, and hedged it in; so that it is for ever separated from the wolves and beasts of prey. Hence Jesus is represented as calling to his church in those sweet words: "Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon; look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir, and Hermon, from the lions’ dens, and from the mountains of the leopards." {Song 4:8}

There is another great feature of Jesus’s flock, and this is, in the present life, compared to the world, they are but small and inconsiderable in number. Jesus himself calleth it a little flock. "Fear not, little flock, (said that gracious Shepherd), for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom." {Lu 12:32} But overlooked and despised as the flock of Jesus is by the great ones of the earth, and low and humble as they are in their own view; yet when they are all brought home, and housed in his eternal kingdom, they will form a blessed company. John, the beloved apostle, in his days, when admitted in that glorious vision of the Lord to see heaven opened, related to the church, that he saw "a multitude, whom no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues." {Re 7:9} And who shall say what millions since, the Lord hath gathered and taken home to his everlasting sheepfold above? Oh! the blessedness of belonging to the flock of Christ! Well might the prophet in the contemplation, as if speaking to Jesus, the Israel of his people, cry out, "Where is the flock that was given thee, thy beautiful flock?" {Jer 13:20} And how beautiful, indeed, in the eyes of Jesus, must the flock appear, when made comely in his comeliness! How spotless like the whitest fleece, when washed in his blood, covered in the garment of his righteousness, and made all glorious within by the indwelling residence of the Holy Ghost! Hear what the Lord saith to his church: "Thou art beautiful as Tirzah, O my love! comely as Jerusalem, terrible as an army with banners. Thy teeth are like a flock of sheep that are even shorn, which come up from the washing, whereof every one bear twins, and none is barren among them." {Song 6:4; 4:2}


This word is particularly and perhaps especially applicable only to the deluge, when the Lord by a flood of waters destroyed every thing that lived upon the earth of his creatures. But the word in Scripture is made use of to denote many things of an overwhelming nature. Thus, floods of sin, floods of sorrow, floods of ungodly men, and the like. So that there is one of the sweetest promises in the Bible, in allusion to the graces of the Lord the Spirit, made use of in a way of illustration, by the figure of a flood. "When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him." {Isa 59:19} Yea the Lord Jesus himself adopts the figure in reference to his own personal sufferings. "I am come, saith Christ, into deep waters, where the floods overflow me." {Ps 69:2} But the church takes comfort from hence, that no water spouts of divine wrath can cool the warm love of the heart of Jesus to his church and people. "Many waters cannot quench love, neither can the floods drown it." {Song 8:7}


This word in Scripture is sometimes figuratively used, to express the Lord’s gracious dealings with his people. Thus {Ps 81:16} JEHOVAH is said to have fed his people with the finest wheat; meaning, the spiritual and distinguishing blessings he poured out upon them. Hence the consecration of Aaron was with the finest wheat flour. {See Ex 29:1-2} Hence the meat-offering was of the same. {Le 2:1} The Hebrews called all offerings made by grain, or flour, Mincha. Were not the whole of these offerings with an eye to Christ? Was not Jesus the first of the finest flour? And if the church, while presenting their offerings of the finest flour, with an eye to Christ, were in the appointments of the Lord, may we not, without violence to the original, suppose, that JEHOVAH feeding the people with the finest wheat had an eye to Christ?


The term fool in Scripture language differs from what is understood in the general acceptation of the word among men. By fool we mean one that is weak in his intellect, and an idiot. But not so in the word of God. Thus in the psalms, "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God.." {Ps 14:1} But the sense is, that the wicked and ungodly have by their action said this. So again, that pride and haughtiness of men, which prompts them to reject Christ, this in Scripture language is called folly. Hence the apostle saith, "The world by wisdom knew not God; and it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe." {1Co 1:21} By comparing two passages in Scripture together, the sense of the word is very strongly marked. Thus the prophet Isaiah saith, speaking of bad men, that"It is a people of no understanding; therefore, he that made them will not have mercy upon them, and he that formed them will shew them no favour." {Isa 27:11} Now, that it might not be supposed, that this being void of understanding was the natural and unavoidable condition of idiotism, which brought upon them the displeasure of God, and for which the Lord would shew them no favour, the Holy Ghost, by his servant Job, hath very fully shewn in what that want of understanding consisted."And unto man he said, Behold the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding." {Job 28:28}




See HAWKERS: Lebanon


The word itself implies what it expresses, the basis and ground-work of a building. But in Scripture language it means Christ, the foundation God hath laid in Zion, and on which JEHOVAH hath built his church; and against which the gates of hell can never prevail. It is very blessed to see the ground and bottom on which this rests. It is founded in the purpose, counsel and will of JEHOVAH. The everlasting love, the everlasting wisdom, the everlasting power of God in which all the Persons of the GODHEAD are in the great design blended, all concur and all unite. And what endears it to the church, and gives a permanency and security to the whole is, that it is unchangeable, eternal, and for ever. And Christ in the united nature of God and man, becomes the sure foundation to give firmness and stability to it. He is the wonderful Person on whom it is built; the Rock of ages. So that he, and he alone, in the purposes of JEHOVAH, gives certainty to all that is included in redemption, for grace here and glory to all eternity. Well might the apostle in the contemplation of it say, "Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, Jesus Christ." {1Co 3:11} And blessed is the corresponding experience and testimony of true believers in the heart, when built upon the foundations of apostles and prophets, "Jesus Christ being the chief corner-stone; they are in all the building fitly framed, and growing together unto an holy temple in the Lord." {Eph 3:20-21}


This word is used in Scripture to denote the spring and source of divine life to the church; and what is worthy of remark, as if to confirm the fundamental truth of our holy faith, in that of JEHOVAH existing in a threefold character of persons, this word is equally applied to each and to all. To God the Father,"as the fountain of living waters." {Jer 2:13} To God the Son, who had opened a "fountain for sin and uncleanness to the house of David and inhabitants of Jerusalem." {Zec 13:1} And to God the Holy Ghost, as a "river of living water in the hearts of believers." {Joh 7:38} Hence the church sings so blessedly concerning her Beloved, calling him "a fountain of gardens; a well of living waters; and streams from Lebanon." {Song 4:15}


See HAWKERS: Foxes


From the well known subtilty of this creature, the sacred writers make use of his name, by way of describing craft, and hypocrisy, and guile. Hence false prophets are called in Scripture foxes. {Eze 13:4} And the church in the Canticles is forewarned against them. {Song 2:15} The Lord Jesus makes application of the name to Herod. {Lu 13:32}


See HAWKERS: Freedom



The Scriptures considering our whole nature by the fall under the vassalage of sin and Satan, represent our deliverance from both by grace under the character of spiritual freedom. And Jesus, in a very striking manner, represents the greatness of it by a contrast, drawn to a state of slavery. "Whosoever committeth sin (saith Jesus,) is the servant of sin; and the servant abideth not in the house for ever, but the son abideth ever. If the son, therefore, shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed." {Joh 8:34-36}


The word friend in the language of Scripture is very general; but eminently so when spoken of Christ. Abraham is called "the friend of God" {2Ch 20:7} And the friendship of David and Jonathan is proverbial. {1Sa 18:3} But all friendship falls to the ground, when brought into any comparative statement with that of the friendship of the Lord Jesus. "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." So Speaks Jesus himself. {Joh 15:13} But though no man ever manifested greater love than this, yet the God-man himself far, very far, exceeded it; for he laid down his life for his enemies. {Ro 5:8} And what unceasing, what everlasting, what unexampled proofs did Jesus give of his friendship, before it came to this last finishing act of love in dying for his people. He engaged from everlasting as our Surety; he took our nature, married our persons, paid all our debts, cancelled all our insolvency, bore the whole weight and pressure both of our sins and his Father’s wrath, endured the contradiction of sinners against himself, lest we should be weary and faint in our minds; and having died for us, he took up both the person and the causes of all his people. He is now carrying on the whole purposes of redemption, and never intermits one moment an unceasing attention to our present and everlasting interests; neither will he, until that he hath brought home all his redeemed to glory, that "where he is, there they may be also." Well might the spouse in the Canticles, in the contemplation of such unheard of unexampled love, exclaim, "This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem!" {Song 5:16}


We find in the law of Moses a precept concerning frontlets. {Ex 13:16; De 6:8} And though we, under the glorious dispensation of the gospel, have no direction concerning them, yet it may not be improper, nor perhaps unprofitable, to notice them in a cursory way. The religious world hath been divided in opinion concerning what was intended by frontlets. Some have contended that the precept was not meant in the literal sense of the word, but only figuratively. By frontiers between the eyes, they say, was shadowed, that all the Lord commanded should be continually before their eyes, that they might never lose sight of his precepts. And in confirmation of this opinion, it is said, that before the church was carried into Babylon, they were not known. And we do not find a word in any of the prophets in respect to their neglect, or the use of them. That they were in use in the days of our Lord seems more than probable; for Jesus, speaking of the Scribes and Pharisees, said, "that they made broad their phylacteries." {Mt 23:5 } It doth not appear, that our Lord condemned the use, but the abuse of them; and from the motive for which they wore them—to be seen of men. But those who accept the precept of Moses in the literal sense of the thing itself, not only believe, that the Hebrews wore frontlets, but have described the form and manner in which they were worn. The account is gathered from Ex 13, and from portions of the book of Deuteronomy. If the reader will consult those chapters, he will find four distinct precepts; which four precepts they say, were marked on four pieces of a kind of skin or parchment, and wore on their foreheads. The first was, "Sanctify unto me all the first-born," &c. {Ex 13:2-10} The second was, "When the Lord shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites," &c. {Ex 13:11-16} The third was taken from the book of Deuteronomy, "Hear; O Israel! the Lord our God is one Lord." {De 6:4-5} And the fourth was taken from De 11:13-21 "If thou shalt hearken diligently unto my commandments," &c.

The frontlets of the head were called by the Jews Tephila. It is said, that even in modern times the most devout of the Jews wear them in their devotions. What a blessedness is it, in the holy faith the believer in Jesus is called to, that our great High Priest bears the names and persons of his people on his breast and on his arm, and is himself the sweet and holy frontlet for all the redeemed. How beautiful and expressive the prayer of the church on this point. {Song 8:6}



In addition to what hath been already offered under the title of First Fruits (which see,) it may not be amiss to observe, that the holy Scriptures are full of expressions to denote the blessedness of the fruits of the Spirit. The Lord in the Old Testament Scripture gave exceeding great and precious promises of blessings, which were to be expected in the fruits and effects under the New Testament dispensation; and in the gospel the Lord Jesus confirmed the whole, when promising to send the Holy Ghost, and testified of his manifold gifts which should follow. (Isa 44:3-5 Joh 14 Joh 15 and Joh 16 chapters throughout; 1Co 12 throughout.)


See HAWKERS: Fruit


See HAWKERS: Fulness



These expressions, when spoken in Scripture with an eye to the Lord Jesus Christ, imply more than language can convey, or the imagination conceive. Jesus Christ, as the glorious Head of his body the church, is the fulness that filleth all in all. So the apostle speaks, Eph 1:23. And in the same Epistle he saith, speaking of Christ, "that he ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things." {Eph 4:10} But when we have read those expressions, and pondered them to the utmost, What adequate conception have we of their meaning? So again, when it is said, that "in him dwelleth all the fulness of the GODHEAD bodily:" {Col 2:9} who shall undertake to say what that is? Not JEHOVAH dwelling in the God-man Christ Jesus, by filling that nature with grace and glory, as the Lord Jesus by his holy Spirit dwells in the saints, and fills their hearts, and unites himself to them, and they to him, by grace here, and glory above. Not thus; but the GODHEAD dwells in Christ Jesus, and fills that nature of Christ Jesus in a personal bodily union; as fire fills the iron substantially that is in it, so that it becomes itself fire from that union. Who shall go farther, and determine what this is?

And what endears all these precious views of our Lord in his fulness is, the interest his redeemed have in it. The apostle adds to this account of the GODHEAD in his fulness dwelling in Christ bodily, "and ye are complete in him." Here is the blessedness of the whole, as it concerns our happiness, and security, and glory in him. Hence the church is called "the glory of Christ." {2Co 8:23} And so the church is; for it is, indeed, Christ's glory, to give out of his fulness to his body the church, as the glorious Head of the church. And although his own personal glory is in himself, and to himself, in the GODHEAD, of his nature and essence, being"one with the Father, over all, God blessed for ever;"yet in his mediatorial glory, as the Head of his body the church, "of his fulness do all the members receive, and grace for grace." And it is the glory of the Lord Jesus to give out, and to make that body glorious like himself, and from himself, to be his glory for ever. Oh! the blessedness of thus beholding the fulness of the Lord Jesus. Oh! what encouragement to the faith of the Lord’s poor, needy, empty people. In Jesus’s fulness we are full; in Jesus’s glory we are glorified; yea, it is Jesus’s glory to receive me, to give out to me, and to be more glorious in thus receiving and giving. Hallelujah!




A memorable word in the believer’s recollection, and rendered both solemn and sacred to the meditation, when frequently by faith the soul is looking over again the transactions at the hall of Pilate. The word Gabbatha our translators have thought proper to preserve, in our Testaments, in the original Hebrew; and yet have given the English of it, calling it Pavement. {Joh 19:13} It means an elevated spot; probably it formed a balustrade, or gallery, from whence to the court below, Pilate might more conveniently speak to the people. Let the reader figure to himself this gabbatha, with a seat for the Governor to sit above the people, and probably separated by railing. Let him fancy he sees the rabble below surrounding the sacred person of our Lord, and Crying out, "Away with him, away with him; crucify him." Let him behold the meek and suffering Lamb of God, silent, patient, and submissive. And while with that contempt which marked Pilate’s character, we hear him say, "Shall I crucify your king?"the chief priests, unconscious of what they said, answered,"We have no king but Caesar;"thereby fulfilling the dying patriarch Jacob’s prophecy (that "the sceptre should not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come;" Ge 49:10 and thus proving from their own testimony, that the Shiloh was come.) Let all these interesting views be but in the reader’s contemplation when he reads of these transactions, and he will have a lively idea of the Gabbatha of Pilate’s palace.


The messenger sent to Daniel, and to Zacharias, and to the Virgin Mary. {Da 9:21; Lu 1:11-26} His name is compounded of Gaber, strength; and I-ei, my God.—Man of God, or God is my strength.


We meet with this name in the holy Scriptures, to denote three very different characters. The first is one of Jacob’s sons, which he had by Zilpah, Leah’s handmaid, {Ge 30:11} and she called his name Gad, which signifies armed; and, therefore, in the margin of our Bibles it is marked a troop, or company. The second Gad we meet with, is the prophet Gad, David’s seer. {2Sa 24:11} The character of this man is well spoken of, by his conduct and faithfulness, in Scripture. He was much attached to David; {See 1Sa 22:5} yet faithful to the Lord at the time of David’s transgression. {See 2Sa 24:10-19} We read also, that Gad compiled a history of the acts of David. {See 1Ch 29:29-30} The third mention of Gad is as an idol. There was a Baal-Gad in the valley of Lebanon. {Jos 11:17} And the prophet Isaiah speaks of some "who prepared a table for that troop" [Gad,] "and that furnished a drink offering for that number." [meni] {Isa 65:11} The dying patriarch Jacob blessing his sons, made a memorable prophecy concerning Gad: "A troop" (said Jacob) "shall overcome him, but he shall overcome at the last." {Ge 49:19} Considered in a temporal sense, this was literally true. For the Gadites were a numerous tribe, and a warlike tribe. We find no less than forty-five thousand six hundred and fifty, came out of Egypt, {Nu 2:15} "men both of might, and men of war, fit for the battle, that could handle shield and buckler; whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were as swift as the roes upon the mountains." {1Ch 12:8} And considered in a spiritual sense, the seed of Israel, though frequently overcome by troops of foes, yet though conquered, still they are a conquering people. Troops of lusts, troops of corruptions, troops from hell, and troops from the world, may, and will, bring the poor exercised soul too often under: yet the victory is still on the side of Jacob’s seed. The praying seed of Jacob, at length come off as the prevailing Israel; for they must overcome "by the blood of the Lamb," and be more than conquerors through his grace making them so.


See HAWKERS: Gadarenes



A place and people made memorable by the visit of the Lord Jesus. It was a city of Palestine, so called, perhaps, from being walled, from Cedar, surrounded or trooped in. Here it was, that Jesus met the man with an unclean spirit, who had his dwelling among the tombs, whom no fetters nor chains could bind, and whom Jesus healed. It forms a most interesting miracle, in the account of Christ’s ministry, {See Mr 5:1-30} Who can say, but that the Lord Jesus directed his steps to this very spot, purposely for the salvation of this poor man, and him only? For we are told, that while he sat at the feet of Jesus, (after that the Lord had dispossessed the evil spirit) clothed, and in his right mind: the Gadarenes began to pray Jesus to depart out of their coasts. What higher proofs can be needed to mark distinguishing grace! What an act of mercy had Jesus wrought, not only to the poor demoniac, but to the whole country, in delivering them from his violence and outrage, while under possession of the devil. And yet, though thus freed from all apprehension in future; the presence of Him, that by his sovereign and Almighty power, had wrought the gracious act, is painful to them. "Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways!" {Job 21:14} And awful to say, but too true to be questioned, such is the language of every man’s heart by nature.


A province in Asia Minor. Here the apostle Paul preached, and it should seem that the apostle Peter had done the same, for he directs his first Epistle to the Jews scattered there. Here there were several churches, for Paul expressly sends his Epistle to the churches of Galatia. It should seem by the account which we have, (Ac 16:6 and again, Ac 18:23) that Paul laboured personally with the Galatians, at two different periods, if not oftener. The church of Christ finds cause to bless God for having directed Paul’s mind to this people, which gave rise to this most blessed Epistle. The plan of justification by Christ is so plainly and beautifully set forth in that Epistle, that we have daily reason to adore the riches of grace for the mercy. Neither is it probable, that the church would have known the history of Sarah and Hagar, to have been a type and allegory of the covenants, had not that Scripture said so.


A province in Palestine. Nazareth was a city of Galilee. And as the Lord Jesus was brought up in this city, he was called, by way of reproach, the Galilean. Isaiah, speaking of the gospel, ages before Christ came, pointed to this memorable spot, as comprehensive of all blessings in the advent of Jesus; and Matthew made application of the prophet’s words to Christ. "The land of Zebulon, and the land of Naphtali, by the way of the sea beyond Jordan, in Galilee of the nations. The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light: they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined." {Isa 9:1-2; Mt 4:15-16}


This word is used in Scripture, variously, but in all it means to convey an idea of great bitterness. The drink of bitter sorrow, is called, "the water of gall." {Jer 8:14} And sin is sometimes described under the figure of "the gall of bitterness, and bond of iniquity." {Ac 8:23} Moses, describing the apostacy of any man or woman, or family, or tribe in Israel, calls it, "the root that beareth gall and wormwood." {De 29:18} And elsewhere, speaking of Israel’s enemies, and their sad prospects, strongly marks the bitterness even of their comforts under this figure. "For their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah; their grapes are grapes of gall, their clusters are bitter." {De 32:32} The Lord Jesus, speaking of his sufferings on the cross, noticeth "the gall the Jews gave him to eat, and the vinegar to drink." We are told, that in his thirst they gave the Lord "wine mingled with myrrh." It was a custom with the Romans in their execution of criminals, to blunt their pains in this way. Bitter myrrh, with wine or vinegar, had a tendency, it was thought, to accomplish this purpose. And thus they treated "the Lord of life and glory." But how little did they know, what thirst of soul Jesus felt in that earnestness and vehemeney he endured for the salvation of his people. Solomon had before said, "Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and wine to those that be of heavy hearts; let him drink and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more." {Pr 31:6-7} The strong drink of Jesus was the cup of salvation for his redeemed. To Jesus "a cup of trembling;" to them the cup of rejoicing. Here he was to see "the travail of his soul, and be satisfied." In drinking of this draught, bitter as it was, and to the dregs, Jesus forgot all his sorrows, and remembered his misery no more. Oh! that the drunkards of Ephraim would seriously lay this to heart. Oh! that every follower of the Lord Jesus would now take "the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord."


See HAWKERS: Gallery



I should not have paused at this word, but for the better apprehension of what the church saith of "holding the king in the galleries." {Song 7:5} The proper idea of the gallery in the eastern buildings is necessary, in order to enter into the sense of this passage. Dr. Shaw in his Travels, page 274-5, tell us, that the court in the summer-season, among persons of rank, is sheltered from the heat, or inclemency of the weather, by a velum umbrella, or veil; which being expanded upon ropes from one side of the parapet wall to the other, may be folded or unfolded at pleasure. The Psalmist seems to have an allusion to this, when speaking of the covering above, he describes the Lord as "spreading out the heavens like a curtain." {Ps 104} This court is, for the most part, surrounded with a cloister or colonnade, over which there is a gallery erected of the same dimensions with the cloister, having a balustrade of carved or latticed work. From the cloister and gallery, there is a passage into large and spacious chambers. It should seem, therefore, that by the act of"holding the king in the galleries"is meant, that here the church detained Jesus for sweet communion and fellowship. And here they had frequent meetings, unnoticed and unknown to others; in which the Lord opened to his church the secrets of his love, in leading her into the chambers of his covenant mercy and grace; and the church held him fast in those galleries, not suffering him to depart until "that she had brought him whom her soul loved, as she saith elsewhere, into her mother’s house, and into the chamber of her that conceived her." {Song 3:4}

That this is the sense of the expression of "holding the king in the galleries" seems plain, from another consideration; namely, that the word held signifies being bound as a prisoner with chains and fetters. And this corresponds to the whole passage; yea, to the whole song. For while the church is made blessed in Christ, as her Head, which is said to be upon her "like Carmel, and the hair of her head like purple;" meaning, that Christ being the Head of his body the church, high, like the lofty mount Carmel, all the innumerable members on him beautiful as the purple coloured hair, the most lovely and valued among eastern women, the Lord praises his church with saying, "How fair and how pleasant art thou, O love, for delights! Thou hast ravished my heart, my sister, my spouse! thou hast ravished my heart with one of thine eyes, with one chain of thy neck." {Song 4:9}

The reader will indulge me, I hope, with barely adding, that if such was the sweet result of Jesus being held by the church in the galleries of old, surely, believers now ought to take confidence and delight to detain the Lord in the galleries of ordinances; from whence, while they hold him fast by the lively actings of faith and prayer, like the wrestlings of their father Jacob of old, {See Ge 32:26} they may be led by him into the chambers of rich communion, in the high privilege of near and familiar enjoyment of all covenant blessings. It is by these gracious acts the Lord acknowledgeth the church, and, consequently, every individual of the church to be his bribe, when as the church elsewhere saith, "The king hath brought me into his chambers." {Song 1:4} For there Jesus manifesteth himself to his people otherwise than he doeth to the world. {Joh 14:21-22} And until that he brings them home to the marriage-supper of the Lamb in heaven, while upon earth, having espoused them to himself, he brings them by faith into his chambers, opens to them more and more of his unsearchable riches, gives a foretaste of the glory hereafter to be revealed, and by the gracious influences of his Holy Spirit, induceth all those blessed effects in the soul which the apostle Peter so delightfully describes: "Whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now you see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable, and full of glory; receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls." {1Pe 1:8}


The name of a ship used in the early days for annoyance, and not trade. Mention is made of it by Isaiah, {Isa 33:21} Since navigation hath in modern times been carried to such an extent, the idea of a galley with oars is not calculated to make much alarm. But in the remote age of the church in which the prophet ministered, a galley with oars was as formidable as now a fleet of ships of war. Who could have thought, that in the first attempt of joining a few rafters together to float around the creeks and shores of the sea, an idea would ever have been started in the human mind, to venture into the open ocean; yea, and to cross the great Atlantic by means of any vessel constructed by human art? And even when long experience had found the measure practicable, and commerce opened her rich invitations to men of different countries and climates to barter with each other their traffic by means of shipping, what imagination was vast enough to have conceived the possibility of making such floating machines instruments for human destruction? Could it ever have entered into the heart of any man to conceive, that the time would arrive when nations would construct vessels of the magnitude we now behold them, stored with implements for war, and that they should meet on the mighty waters purposely for battle? The storms and tempests of the great deep are in themselves at times so tremendous, that the stoutest and strongest built ships are upon these occasions as nothing, when "men are carried up to the heavens, and down again to the depths; and the souls of the mariners are melted because of the trouble." {Ps 107:23-31} Indeed, in the calmest seasons at sea, it may be truly said, that there is but a step between the whole ship’s company and death. {1Sa 20:3}

It is said of Anacharsis, that when he was demanded where the majority of mankind was to be numbered, among the dead, or the living? He said, You must first tell me in which class I am to rank seamen. Intimating by the answer, as if he thought they were in the midway, and belonged to neither. But in vessels of war fitted for destruction, we behold to what a state of presumption and evil sin hath hardened the mind.

There is a beautiful thought suggested in the passage of Isaiah, where he speaks of the galley with oars, which may be in some measure a relief from the distressing views before noticed; and for the introduction of which, indeed, I have mentioned this article, and that is, the peculiar security of the Lord’s presence over his people upon such, and upon every other occasion of alarm. The prophet, when speaking of this galley with oars, was speaking also of Jerusalem, the holy city, as a quiet habitation, a tabernacle not to be taken down. "But there" (said he) "the glorious Lord will be unto us a place of broad rivers and streams, wherein shall go no galley with oars, neither shall gallant ship pass thereby." {Isa 33:20-21} The great beauty of the figure lies in this, that Jerusalem had no rivers of any extent. The brook Kidron, which emptied itself into the Dead Sea, was the only one near it. So that having no sea to keep off an enemy, and no frontiers or garrison-walls to keep and secure it by land, Jerusalem lay open on all sides. But, saith the Lord by the prophet, "the glorious Lord will be, instead of all these to us, a place both of broad rivers and streams." No galley with oars can come into that river, which is God himself. No gallant ship can pass by him, who is purposely there to prevent it. Sweet thought! The tacklings of the enemy may be loosed, but they can neither strengthen their mast, nor spread their sail. "The Lord is our judge; the Lord is our law-giver; the Lord is our king: he will serve us." (See the whole passage, Isa 33:20-24)


Paul’s teacher of the law. His name is probably derived from Gamal, gift; and I-el, my God.


It would be wholly unnecessary to notice the name of garden (taken from the Hebrew word Gan), being so generally understood, were it not that the church of Christ is so frequently represented under the similitude. Indeed, the church is sometimes called gardens, to denote both their number and variety; by which is meant, the particular names of the churches of Jesus, such as the apostles of Christ; yea, Christ himself directed Epistles to the churches at "Rome, Corinth, Galatia, Philippi," and the like, and the seven churches in Asia. But though these were diversified, and scattered abroad in the earth, yet still, after all, the church of Christ is but one and the same. So said Christ himself. "My dove, my undefiled, is but one; she is the only one of her mother: she is the choice one of her that bare her." {Song 6:9} The Jerusalem which is above, and which is the mother of us all, knows but of one church, of which Jesus is the Head; for both Jew and Gentile will ultimately be brought into one fold. And in the meantime all true believers in Christ have one faith, one hope, one spirit, one heart and affections; all united to their glorious Head, and all united to each other, as "members of his body, his flesh, and his bones." {Ga 4:26; Joh 10:16; Eph 4:4-5; 5:30} And what endears the whole, and renders it most blessed is, that Christ the glorious Head, to whom the whole body is united, supplies all, justifies all, sanctifies all, and is himself the all of life and strength, and the portion to his people, in grace here, and glory hereafter. So sung the church, and so all the redeemed know. "A fountain of gardens is my beloved, said the church, a well of living water, and streams from Lebanon." {Song 4:15}

And while we eye Jesus as the source of life and fruitfulness to his garden the church, it is blessed to see how very lovely the similitude of a garden, corresponds to the state of Christ’s church. As first a garden is an enclosure, separated and fenced round; so the church stands in the midst of the world’s wide wilderness, gathered from it by sovereign grace. {Song 4:12; Isa 5:1-2} Secondly, a garden is the property of some owner; it is not alike common or open to all: so is the church. Jesus hath bought it with his blood; the Father hath given it to Christ by grace; and the Holy Ghost hath made it Christ’s, by the sealing act of covenant faithfulness. Thirdly, a garden is distinguished from the common fields or hedges of the highway, by having nothing growing there but what has been planted; exactly thus with the church. Every thing in it is of the Lord’s right hand planting; for Jesus saith himself, "Every plant which my heavenly Father hath not planted shall be rooted up." {Mt 15:13} Fourthly, in a garden there are great varieties of plants and shrubs, and fruit-trees and flowers; so in Christ’s church the fruits of the Spirit appear in a beautiful and regular order, some by the exercise of one grace, and others by another, but "all these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will." {1Co 12:11} Fifthly, a garden is under the eye and inspection of its owner, and very frequently visited by him; and the Lord Jesus is said to have his eyes upon his Judea from the one end of the year even to the other end of the year. Yea, the Lord Jesus walks in his garden the church, and makes this his sacred haunt, where he delights to come and visit his people. The church speaks of her Lord to this effect: "My beloved is gone down into his garden, to the beds of spices, to feed in the gardens and to gather lilies." {Song 6:2} And elsewhere she invites Jesus to come into his garden, and to eat of his pleasant fruits. And Jesus as instantly accepts the invitation, and saith, "I am come into my garden, my sister, my spouse! I have gathered my myrrh with my spice." {Song 4:16-5:1} Sixthly, a garden requires much care in dressing, and pruning, and weeding, and the like; so the church of Jesus hath the constant care of her Lord. He saith himself, "I the Lord do keep it; I will water it every moment, lest any hurt it; I will keep it night and day." {Isa 27:3} And how, through pruning dispensations weeding out the remains of indwelling corruption in the heart, and by the digging round and nourishing the graces of her Lord’s own planting, doth Jesus keep alive and cause to flourish the several circumstances of his church and people. And lastly, to mention no more, as in gardens the owners gather for their use the several productions of their gardens, so Jesus for his own glory gathers the fruits of his own Holy Spirit, planted in the hearts of his redeemed while on earth, gathers their persons at death, and transplants them into his garden above, to flourish under his almighty hand in glory for ever. So very beautiful is the similitude of a garden to the church; and, no doubt, under several other particulars the allusion might be found to correspond. Jesus! I would say, let thy garden thy church be always blessed with thy presence!


The word means a pitcher. It was a hill near Jerusalem. {See Jer 31:39} If this hill was, as it is said to have been, three miles distant from Jerusalem, it serves to give a beautiful idea of the future extensiveness of the holy city. (See Eze 40 &c Zec 2 &c. Re 21:10-27)


The wedding garment of Scripture, particularly spoken of, {Mt 22:11} hath been a subject of so much anxiety to many precious souls, that the matter itself ought to be put in the clearest light possible. The general belief is, that by it is meant Christ’s person, work, and righteousness. And hence the church is represented as singing, "I will greatly rejoice in the Lord: my soul shall be joyful it my God, for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels." {Isa 61:10} And this corresponds to what the Lord Jesus counselled the church of Laodicea to buy of him "white raiment, that she might be clothed." {Re 3:18} Hence, therefore, what is the garment, but Christ’s righteousness, in which all the faithful are clothed, when justified in the perfect salvation of the Lord?



In Scripture these expressions are not limited to the doors, or entrances, into an house, or city; but the term is figuratively made use of to denote place, or person, or people. Thus the gates of hell means hell itself; gates of judgment, the place where justice was awarded. "Salvation will God appoint for walls and bulwarks;" meaning, that all rests upon this bottom, in a way of grace, mercy, and salvation. {Isa 26:1}




A city in the land of the Philistines, from Gath, a press. Hence Gath-opher, to dig at the wine press, from Chaphar, to dig; and Gath, a press. So Gathrimmon, the press of the pomegranate, from Garb, a press; and Rimmon, a pomegranate tree.


Another city in the land of the Philistines. This was given by Joshua to Judah. {Jos 15:47}


Benjamite, {2Sa 16:5} from Gera, pilgrimage.


This record of families which we call genealogy, is termed in Hebrew Sepher Toledoth; or the book of generations. The Jews were particular to an excess, to record their families; no doubt, with an eye to Christ.


This word derived from the same root is much the same as the preceding word genealogy. As it relates to the common act of man in the circumstances of descent from father to son, I should not have though it needful to have detained the reader with a single observation; but in relation to the Son of God, as God, it becomes of infinite importance as an article of faith, that we should have the clearest apprehension which the subject will admit. Here, therefore, I beg the reader’s close attention to it.

The Scriptures in many places have said so much in defining the person of the Father and of the Son, as distinctions in the GODHEAD, that there can be nothing rendered more certain and as an article of faith to the believer, and none is more important. But while this is held forth to us in this view as a point most fully to be believed, God the Holy Ghost hath in no one passage, as far as I can recollect, pointed out to the church the mode of existence, or explained how the Son of God is the Son, and the Father is the Father, in the eternity of their essence and nature. Perhaps it is impossible to explain the vast subject to creatures of our capacities. Perhaps nothing finite can comprehend what is infinite. The doctrine of the eternal generation of the Son of God is therefore proposed as an article demanding our implicit faith and obedience; and here the subject rests.

But while this doctrine of the eternity of the Son of God in common with the Father, is held faith to us in the Scripture as a most certain truth, though unexplained, because our faculties are not competent to the explanation of it, the Holy Ghost hath been very explicit in teaching the church how to understand the phrases in his sacred word, where the Son of God, when standing up as the Mediator and Head of his church before all worlds, is called the "first begotten Son, and the only begotten of the Father," full of grace and truth. All these and the like phrases wholly refer to the Son of God, in his humbling himself as our Redeemer and Mediator, the God-man in one person, Christ Jesus; then begotten to this great design; the first in all JEHOVAH’S purposes for salvation. Here we cannot be at a loss to have the clearest apprehension; because they refer to his office-character. Hence all those titles are very plain. "He is the head of his body the church." {Eph 1:22} The Head of Christ is God. {1Co 11:3} He is JEHOVAH’S servant. {Isa 42:1} and his Father is greater than he. {Joh 14:28} And God is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. {Eph 1:17} All these and numberless expressions of the like nature, wholly refer to the Son of God as Christ; and have no respect to his eternal nature and GODHEAD abstracted from his office-character as Mediator.

See HAWKERS: Begotten.

And I cannot in this place help expressing my wish that the writers of commentaries on the word of God had kept this proper distinction, when speaking of the Lord Jesus, between his eternal nature and essence, as Son of God, which is every where asserted, but no where explained, and his office-character as God-man Mediator, the Christ of God, which is fully revealed. The Scriptures have done it. And it would have been a proof of divine teaching, if all writers upon the Scriptures had done the same. Our almighty Saviour, in a single verse, hath shewn it, when he saith, {Mt 11:27} "No man knoweth the Son but the Father;" that is, knoweth him as Son of God, knoweth him in his Sonship as God, one with the Father, and impossible to be so known but by God himself. And it is in this sense also, that it is said, "No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which lay in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him;" {Joh 1:18} that is, no man hath seen God, as God, in his threefold character of person, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. But when he who lay in the bosom of the Father came forth in our nature, and revealed him as the Father and himself as the Son, equal in the eternity of their nature as God; then the glorious truth was explained. Then was it understood, that the Father, as Father, and the Son, as Son, were from all eternity the same; their existence the same, their nature the same; the Father not being Father but in the same instant as the Son the Son; for the very name of the one in the relationship implies the other, and the eternity of the one including the eternity of the other also. So that both, in union with the Holy Ghost, form the one eternal undivided JEHOVAH, which was, and is, and is to come.


The first book of Moses; so called because it contains the genealogy of the patriarchs. The original name in Hebrew is Berescheth, beginning. It includes a period of near two thousand four hundred years, from the beginning of the world to the death of Joseph.


The Hebrews called the Gentiles, Goyim; that is, the nations who did not receive and acknowledge the law: all such were called Goyim. And in case of the conversion of any to Judaism, they were then called Proselytes of the Gate.


A place rendered memorable by our Lord’s having visited it, and working a miracle there upon a poor creature under possession of an evil spirit. {See Mt 8:28} It is more than probable, that this was the same nation as is called in the Old Testament Girgashites; one of the cities of Canaan beyond the sea of Tiberias.


This in the mount from whence the Lord commanded Joshua to bless the people; while mount Ebal was the mount appointed for the proclamation of the curses. (See De 27, throughout; Jos 8:30-35) Both those mountains were near Shechem in Ephraim, a province of Samaria. It should seem, that Gerizim was very near to Shechem; for Jotham, the son of Gideon, addressed the people of that city from it. {See Jg 9:7} The Samaritans had a high veneration for this mountain; witness the words of the adulteress at Jacob’s well to Christ. "Our fathers (said she) worshipped in this mountain; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship." {Joh 4:20}


This name derives its origin from Ge, or Ghie, a valley; and Shemin, oil. It adjoined the foul book of Kedron, into which all the filth and uncleanness of the temple emptied itself. Here it was also, into this black brook, that the accursed things which the king of Israel destroyed were cast. {See 2Ki 23:12} A striking type of the defilement and guilt emptied upon the person of Christ, as the Representative and Surety of his people, when passing over this brook Kedron, to enter the garden of Gethsemane, when the things typified were all to be fulfilled. Gethsemane was itself a village, at the foot of the mount of Olives; and the garden Jesus of times resorted to, saw part of this village. Gethsemane will always be memorable, and always sacred, to the mind of the true lover of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is impossible to have the very idea of this hallowed spot cross the recollection, without awakening the tenderest emotions. The Jews, unconscious of the cause, called it Gehennon, the valley of hell. It is the same word as Tophet. Here the sorrows of hell compassed the Redeemer. And as in a garden it was, that the powers of hell ruined our nature in the corruption of our first parents; so in a garden Jesus conquered hell. But not so, as without, blood. Witness his soul-agony, and those great drops of blood which fell from his sacred body. I would desire grace, that by faith I might often visit Gethsemane; and while traversing the hallowed ground, call to mind, that here it was Jesus entered upon that soul-conflict with the powers of darkness, which, when finished, completed the salvation of his people. Hail, sacred Gethsemane!

(See HAWKERS: Golgotha.—HAWKERS: Cedron.)


See HAWKERS: Giants



The Scripture speaks of such characters in the old world, Ge 6:4. And in the days of the church going though the wilderness, the king of Bashan, which opposed Israel, is described as having a bedstead of iron of nine cubits long, and four wide; so that the length was fifteen feet and four inches. And yet of later times, even in our own days, Mr. O’Brien, the Irish giant so called, was said to have been nine feet high. {See 2Sa 21:16-22} The term for giant in Hebrew is very singular; it is Nophel: meaning, a monster.



Gibeon was the chief city; so called from Gabah, an hill. The Gibeonites form a very interesting subject in the Scripture history, and lead to an enquiry not less interesting. They were descendants, it is probable, from the Hivites; that is, of the nations of Canaan whom the Lord would drive out before Israel. And yet we find the fear of God was upon them, so as to act wisely to get interest with Israel. (See their history, Jos 9:3 throughout.) And we find in their farther history, {2Sa 21:1-6} that the Lord took part with them when Saul would have destroyed them, and even sent a judgment upon Israel on their account. Were the Gibeonites in those instances a type of the salvation of the Gentile church, brought in by sovereign grace into the privileges of Christ Jesus? Was this nation set apart in those early ages of the church, by way of shewing Christ’s interest in his people, in being "a light to lighten the Gentiles, as well as the glory of his people Israel?" I do not decide upon the subject; I only ask the interesting question. {See Isa 49:6}


See HAWKERS: Gibeon


See HAWKERS: Jerubbaal


I should not have noticed this word, but with a view to speak of God’s highest and best gift. The sweetest feature in the gospel is, that Christ, the great Author of it, is a gift of God; yea, the greatest and most important of all gifts, and including every other. For where Jesus is, there all blessings abound. Where he is not, it matters not what else there is. Hence Paul exclaims, "Now thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gift!" {2Co 9:15}


See HAWKERS: Mount Gilboa


There were several mountains of this name lying eastward of Jordan The term itself is evidently taken from the word Gal, an heap; and Houd, testimony. The balm of Gilead is used in Scripture as typical of Christ. Hence the prophet exclaims, "Is there no balm in Gilead, no physician there?" Yes! both were there. Jesus’ blood is a never-failing balm; and he himself a physician which never failed of a cure. "Why then is not the health of the daughter of my people recovered?" The answer is direct. If this balm be never used, and this physician never known or regarded, how shall the blessings of either be experienced? {Jer 8:22}

I must not dismiss this article of Gilead without first taking notice of a beautiful similitude of our Lord’s in Scripture, when comparing his church to this mount, on account of its loveliness. "Behold, (saith Jesus,) thou art fair, my love, thou art fair; thou hast dove’s eyes within thy locks; thy hair is as a flock of goats, that appear from mount Gilead." {Song 4:1} Perhaps the fairness so often repeated by the Lord concerning the spouse, is to shew how lovely she is in his eyes, from the comeliness he hath put upon her and the high value he hath for her. And the quickness of sight in the dove, shews how much knowledge Jesus imparts by his regenerating grace. The hair, it should seem, is commended for its beauty by the Lord, because of its nearness to the head, and immediately having its root there. So the saints of God are all beautiful in their order, from being united to, and deriving all their life and nourishment from, Jesus their glorious Head. And as the flocks on mount Gilead, high and lifted up, live securely, feed luxuriously, and are lovely in their numbers and good order; so the fold of Christ have their Gilead, that glorious mountain which was once "a stone cut out without hands;" but now filling the earth, where they live and dwell securely. Jesus himself is their food and their pasture, "their munition of rocks, where their bread is given and their water sure; where they lie down in safety, and none shall make them afraid." {Isa 33:16}


There are several sorts of girdles spoken of in Scripture. The Jews, in general, wore girdles. Soldiers wore belts for their swords; {Ne 4:18} and the priests had their girdles also. {Ex 20:4-8} The holy Scriptures, by a beautiful allusion to this strengthener of a man’s loins by the girdle, conveys to the church a most lively and striking idea of God’s strengthening himself in his faithfulness to his people. "Righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins." {Isa 11:5} The meaning is, that as the labourer goeth forth in the morning of the day to his labour, and strengthens himself for the work by bracing up his loins with his girdle; so the Lord, speaking after the manner of men, takes his righteousness for the girdle of his administration, which cleaves to him as the girdle to the loins of a man; and his faithfulness becomes the bandage of his word and truth to all his covenant promises, as the rectitude of his reins. And to carry on the figure—As the Lord is thus clad with both, and they surround him like a girdle, so his people are called upon to take hold of both, or either, as occasion requires, whether before or behind, and hang upon the gracious assurances of a gracious faithful covenant God in Christ. "Wherefore (saith one of the apostles,) gird up the loins of your mind; be sober, and hope to the end; for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ." {1Pe 1:13}


This word is found in Scripture only at the head, or title page, of several Psalms; namely, Ps 8, Ps 81 and Ps 84. Various have been the opinions of the learned concerning it, and for the most part different. Some contend, that it means the wine-presses. Others will insist, that it refers to some musical instruments used in the temple-service. Some derive it from the word Gath; and, therefore, conclude it refers to that city. And another class suppose it means Goliah, the Gittite. But be it what it may, certain it is, that the knowledge of it in the present hour cannot be very important, as God the Holy Ghost hath not thought it essential to be known by the church. The Psalms which bear this name in the title, are not less blessed for our ignorance on this point; though if it be, as it is possible it may have, a reference to the Lord Jesus Christ, it would be gratifying to know it.

See HAWKERS: Musician


We meet with this word very often in Scripture, and we cannot be too particular in our proper apprehension of its meaning. It is not very difficult to understand how JEHOVAH is glorified actively, when we give to him the glory that is due to his holy name. God is said to be glorified, when we honour him in his word, his attributes, his perfections, and in all his dispensations, both in nature, providence and grace. "Whoso offereth me praise, saith JEHOVAH, he glorifieth me." {Ps 50:23} We may be said to glorify God, when we give him the credit due to God in believing him, and especially in that record he hath given of his dear Son. In this view of giving glory to God is included all that self-abasement becoming poor lost creatures, and ascribing the whole of redemption to sovereign, free, and unmerited grace. In short, in every way, and by every means, we may be said to glorify JEHOVAH when Christ, as the Christ of God, is exalted as the only Saviour of a lost world; and the soul lies low at the footstool of the throne of grace, ascribing "salvation only to God and the Lamb." This is to glorify God actively.

But then it should be carefully remembered at the same time, and never lost sight of, that all this, and ten thousand times more, in giving glory to JEHOVAH, doth not in fact add an atom to his glory. God is all-glorious in himself, whether his creatures praise him, or do not. Resting in his own eternal glory and all-sufficiency, nothing can add to, or take from that glory. Sooner might light be added to the sun by a faint taper of the night, or sound to the thunder by the human voice, than that JEHOVAH can receive additional glory from any act, or from all the acts of his creatures, put them all together in one. No! the giving glory to God is spoken of in accommodation to human apprehension, and after the manner of men, to intimate the suitable and becoming frame in man towards God, and his sense of divine goodness.

But beside this glorifying God actively, there is another method by which the Lord is said to be glorified by his creatures passively; namely, when under suited impressions of his goodness the soul lies passive, and comes to receive, and not to give; and from the Lord’s grace thereby to minister to the Lord’s glory. And this is as blessed a way as the former, and in which the Lord is truly glorified.

When God in Christ gives out of his fulness mercy, pardon, grace, yea, imparts of himself the suited supply to the wants of the millions of his people, this is to his glory. He doth, indeed, get himself a glorious name, and is glorified in all the gracious acts by which his love and rich mercy is thus made known. And if poor needy creatures had but such views of the clemency of heaven, they would see what encouragement it gives to faith, to be always looking up to God’s free bounty in Christ, to receive from his fulness, and grace for grace. When a poor believing soul can say, it is the glory and perfection of a God in Christ to be laying out upon his redeemed of his infinite and inexhaustible fulness; and Christ in God is as much glorified by my poor heart, when passively receiving from his grace bestowed upon me, as when I actively praise him with joyful lips, when by his Holy Spirit he enables me to bring my poor boon of love and thankfulness. This is to glorify God.

The reader will be pleased to observe, that in all I have here noticed of glorifying JEHOVAH, I have hitherto confined the subject to that part of the divine glory given to him by his church and people, under those two branches of it, actively and passively. But a yet far higher view of glorifying the Lord remains to be considered. The transcendent glory of JEHOVAH is in the person of Christ, as God-man Mediator. Here the whole glory of JEHOVAH, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, centres. In Christ that glory shines out in one full constellation. The Holy Ghost, by the apostle, describes it in a short verse, when speaking of Christ’s person. "In him dwelleth all the fulness of the GODHEAD bodily." {Col 2:9} But what angels or men can describe this? And in Christ’s ministry, offices, character, work, and relations in the accomplishment, who shall undertake to set forth the glory of the Father in the Son, and the glory of the Son by the Father, through the efficient operation of God the Holy Ghost?

I will only add, that it forms a part of that glory which all the persons of the GODHEAD are concerned in, and will be loved, and praised, and adored for, to all eternity by the church, when the church is glorified and made everlastingly happy, from her union with her glorious Head Christ Jesus, and brought home through a life of grace here, to a life of unspeakable nearness, felicity, and glory in Christ Jesus hereafter, and to rest in the uninterrupted enjoyment of it for evermore. This also is to the divine glory.


This is a term we meet with in Scripture, taken from the former, and is applied to the Lord as solely his. But the church, considered from her union with Christ as part of himself, is also spoken of as glorious in him. Moses’s song celebrates the Lord’s glory in relation to his perfections. "Thy right hand. O, Lord, is become glorious: who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders." {Ex 15:11} So the church, in consequence of her union with Christ, is said to be all-glorious within. {Ps 45:13} And the great object of redemption is said to be, that Jesus might present to himself a glorious church. {Eph 5:27} But it should ever be remembered, that all the glory of the church is with an eye to Christ. If she be without spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing, and made comely, it is only "from the comeliness Jesus hath put upon her." {Eze 16:14}


This word in the abstract, properly speaking belongs only to God; for there can be glory in no other. Hence the prophet speaks to the church, "Thy God thy glory." {Isa 60:19} So that JEHOVAH, in his threefold character of person, is truly and strictly glory. Hence, when the Lord is speaking of the great works of creation, in creating the heavens and stretching them out, and spreading forth the earth; and also of the wonders of redemption by his Son; he confirms the oneness in nature, work, and design of Christ, and the adoration due to him as one with himself; and saith, "I am the Lord, that is my name, and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images." (Isa 42:5-8.) Where by the way, it may be observed, here is the highest confirmation of the GODHEAD of Christ. For in the same moment that JEHOVAH declares his jealousy of his name and glory, and that he will not give his glory to another, neither his praise to graven images, he commands both praise and glory to be given to his dear Son, whom he gives as a covenant to the people, that he may have all the praise and glory of redemption. A plain proof that in JEHOVAH’S esteem Christ is one with the Father, "over all, God blessed for ever." Amen. {Ro 9:5} The glory of JEHOVAH, though, no doubt, existing personally in the essence of the GODHEAD, can only be known by his creatures in the manifestation of it. "He dwells in that light, or glory, which no man can approach unto." So that all we can know or conceive of his glory, must result from such manifestations as he hath been pleased to make of himself in his works. Thus when Moses desired, that the Lord would shew him his glory, the Lord said, "I will make all my goodness pass before thee; and I will proclaim the name of the Lord." {Ex 33:18-19} His name, which is his person, therefore is, in the abstract; glory; and the manifestation of it is in his ways and winks. Hence the church is said to be his glory, inasmuch as the Lord is glorified in her salvation. For as the glorious Head of his body the church in his mediatorial character, "is the brightness of his Father’s glory, and the express image of his person;" so the brethren, the messengers of the churches, are said to be the glory of Christ, 2Co 8:23. And the Lord promiseth to be to the church, not only "a wall of fire to defend round about, but the glory in the midst." {Zec 2:5}

Names are sometimes given by the vanity of men to creatures concerning glory, but the holy Scriptures express their total disapprobation of it. Thus the Lord, speaking of the pride of the king of Assyria, {Isa 8:7} declares, that all his glory shall come to nought. And the Lord Jesus speaking of Solomon’s glory, describes it as nothing compared to the humblest lilies of the field. {Mt 6:28-29} And hence that gracious precept of the Lord by the prophet: "Thus saith the Lord, Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might; let not the rich man glory in his riches; but let him that glorieth, glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth me, that I am the Lord which exercise loving kindness, judgment, and righteousness in the earth; for in these things I delight, saith the Lord." {Jer 9:23-24}

I cannot forbear requesting the reader’s attention, under this article, to a sweet and interesting feature of Christ, as the Glory-man Christ Jesus. I say, as the Glory-man; for I would beg to be understood, that this name is peculiarly belonging to our Jesus, and to him only. His people in him, and through him, will hereafter be brought to glory, and will be, we are told, in point of glory as the angels. {Mt 22:30} But though glorious from a derived glory from Christ, yet not glory, in the abstract, in themselves. This is peculiarly and personally his; so that Jesus is the Glory-man, as the God-man Mediator. If the reader would wish to see the Scripture authority for this name, he will find it Joh 17:5 where the glory Jesus then speaks of as Mediator, was unquestionably the glory in which he stood up at the call of God when "the Lord possessed him in the beginning of his ways before his works of old, and when his delights were with the sons of men." {See Pr 8:22-31}

I would only beg to add one thought more upon this subject, and to observe to the true believer in Jesus the blessedness the heart of that man feels, who, to such views of the divine glory, can set to his seal the truth of it in his own personal experience, when with the apostle he can say, "God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ." {2Co 4:6}


This animal was one of the clean beasts, and used in the Jewish church both for food and sacrifice. {Le 16:5} and the veil of the tabernacle was made of the hair of the goat. {Ex 25:4} But in the after ages of the church, the goat became figurative of the ungodly. And, perhaps, this arose from the calves and devils (literally goats), which Jeroboam set up for idol worship. {See 2Co 11:14-15} Hence the Lord is represented by the prophet, as punishing the goats; that is, the worshippers of those dunghill idols. {Zec 10:3} Hence also another prophet exclaims, "Hell from beneath is moved for thee, to meet thee at thy coming; it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth;" The margin of the Bible hath it, even all the great goats of the earth; meaning the princes and great men. {Isa 14:9} Hence our blessed Lord, in describing the solemn events of the last day, describes the wicked and ungodly as goats on his left hand, destined for destruction. {Mt 25:33}

I have been more particular on this subject, in order to explain wherefore it is, that as the goat was by the Lord’s own appointment of the clean beasts both for good and sacrifice, that the Lord Jesus and his servant should make the goat a figure, or emblem, of the reprobate, and as distinguished from the sheep of his fold. And this the account of the goat set up as an idol by Jeroboam, and sacrificed to by the people in direct opposition to the God of Israel, very fully explains.

While I am upon this subject of the goat, it may not be unacceptable to the pious reader, to say a few words on the very striking ceremony appointed by the Lord of the scape goat on the great day of atonement. I need not describe the ceremony itself, for the reader will find a full account thereof, Le 16. There is somewhat most wonderfully interesting when this service of the scape goat is considered with an eye to Christ. The high priest laying both his hands on the head of the beast, and making a confession over him of all the iniquities of the children of Israel, with all their transgressions in all their sins, as if transferring both the sin and guilt from themselves to another; certainly this had no meaning but in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ; and certainly, beheld in allusion to him, the whole service becomes plain and obvious. The Suretyship of Christ is hereby most blessedly shadowed forth; and both the law of God and the justice of God in that Suretyship evidently satisfied. Indeed, the type falls short of the thing itself in one point; for the scape goat was altogether passive in the act, but Christ, in his voluntary surrender of himself, manifested a willing offering. On the part of God the Father, the type, and the thing signified by the type, became one and the same. For though it is out of any creature’s power, to make a transfer of sin to another, yet it is not beyond the sovereignty and prerogative of God. And when the Lord Jesus, at the call of God, stood up from everlasting as the covenant Head of his people, his voluntary offering gave efficacy to the whole. In this he undertook to answer for all their sins, and to do away the whole of their guilt and pollution by the sacrifice of himself. Hence JEHOVAH is represented by the prophet, as "laying upon him the iniquity of us all." {Isa 53:6} And Jesus is no less represented as saying, "Lo, I come to do thy will, O God." {Ps 40:7-8}

I would just ask the reader, whether such a view doth not bring comfort to the soul, in thus beholding the transfer of sin, with all its defilement, taken from our poor nature, and put upon the person of Christ. How blessed must it have been in God the Holy Ghost, to have had the representation made of it in an age so distant from the thing itself, as if to testify the Lord’s approbation of it in the people’s safety. Though the Scriptures are silent upon it, yet the history of the scape goat among the Jews, has handed down by tradition the account, which is not uninteresting. It is said, that when the two goats were led into the inner court of the temple and presented to the high priest, according to the Lord’s appointment of casting lots, {Le 16:8} the scape goat, or as the margin of the Bible expresseth it, the Azazel, had then a fillet, or a narrow piece of scarlet, fastened to its head, which soon became white. And hence the prophet is supposed to allude when saying, "though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool." {Isa 1:18} The scape goat was then sent away, by the hand of some fit man, or as the margin of the Bible hath it, by a man of opportunity, into the wilderness. Some of the Jews say, that the edge of the wilderness had a precipice where the Azazel fell over, and was dashed to pieces. But the "wilderness which no man went through, and none inhabited," carried with it the same idea, that "the iniquity of Israel when, sought for, there should be none; and the sins of Judah, and they should not be found." {Jer 50:20} When the Lord puts away sin, in Scripture language it is said, "that he remembers it no more." (Heb 8:12 with Jer 31:34)


We enter with profound veneration and holy awe upon any attempt to explain what is in itself beyond the grasp of men or angles to apprehend. When we pronounce the glorious name of God, we desire to imply all that is great, gracious, and glorious in that holy name; and having said this, we have said all that we can say. The Scriptures have given several names, by way of expressing all that can be expressed of him; that he is the First and the Last, and the Author and Creator of all things. It is worthy observation, that the Lord speaking of himself to Moses, {Ex 6:2-3} saith, "I am JEHOVAH: And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty (El Shaddai,) but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them." By which we are not to imagine, that the Lord was not known to the patriarchs as their Creator, and as self-existing; but the meaning is, that he had not so openly revealed himself. They know him in his adorable perfections, but not so clearly in his covenant relations. So that the name itself was not so different, as the great things implied in the name. For certain it is, that very early in the church men began to call upon the name of JEHOVAH, {Ge 4:26} And Abram told the king of Sodom, that he had lifted up his hand unto the Lord, the most High God. Here we have both the names expressly used by Abram, Ge 14:22. But certain it is, that never until this revelation by Moses, did the church understand how the incommunicable name of JEHOVAH became the security of fulfilling all the promises.

And this seems to be more fully revealed from the very manner in which the Lord communicated it to Moses. I AM that I AM; that is, I have a being in myself, and, consequently, I give being to all my promises. And it is worthy farther of remark, that the very name JEHOVAH carries this with it; for it is an Hemantick noun, formed from Hayah, he was; as expressing his eternity. The Jews had so high a veneration for this sacred name, that they never used it but upon memorable occasions. We are told by Eusebius, that in his days the Jews wrote the holy name in Samaritan characters, when they had occasion to mention the name of the Lord, lest that strangers, and not of the stock of Israel, should profane it. And in modern times it is generally observed by the seed of Abraham, when marking the number fifteen (which in the ordinary way of doing it by letters would take the Yod (10,) and the He (5.) forming the incommunicable name of Jah,) they always take the Teth and the Vau, that is the 9 and the 6, instead of it, to make the number fifteen by. A plain proof in what high veneration the sacred name was held by them. It were devoutly to be wished, that men calling themselves Christians were always to give so lively an evidence of their reverence to that "glorious and fearful name, THE LORD THY GOD." {De 28:58}

It is said in the history of the Jews, that after their return from Babylon, they lost the true pronunciation of this glorious name JEHOVAH. And certain it is, that none know the real and correct manner in which it should be pronounced. But what a precious thought is it to the believer in Jesus that "if any man love God, the same is known by him." {1Co 8:3} I only add, that in confirmation of the blessed doctrine: of our holy faith, it is our happiness to know, that this glorious name is equally applied to each and to all the persons of the GODHEAD. To God the Father, Eph 1:3; to God the Son, Joh 1:1; and to God the Holy Ghost, Ac 5:3-4. And to the whole Three glorious persons in the unity of the divine essence, 1Jo 5:7.

(See HAWKERS: Jehovah .)



Gog, whose name signifies roof, or covering, it should seem, was some prince; and Magog not a person, but the kingdom. So that it is Gog, and prince of Magog. Some have thought, that these names are general names for the enemies of the church, because they are spoken of both in Ezekiel’s prophecy, and the book of the Revelation by St. John. (Eze 38 and Re 20) It will well reward the reader to turn to the prophecy of Ezekiel, at the thirty-eighth chapter (Eze 38, in confirmation of this latter opinion.

The land of unwalled villages, and the people that dwell in the midst of the land, or as the margin of the Bible hath it, the navel of the land, can mean no other than Jerusalem, supposed to be the centre of the earth; and, therefore, the sea that bounds the borders in these parts very properly called the Mediterranean. And let the reader judge for himself how suitable it was, and proper, that when the Lord Jesus came on earth to do away the sin and guilt of all nations, the solemn transaction of his "one all-sufficient sacrifice and obedience unto death" should be set forth in the center of the earth, that like the sun in the midway of the heavens which illumines both east and west; so Christ, the sun of righteousness, might extend the efficacy of his light, and life, and warmth in every direction to his people; and his blood, as from the high altar of his own divine nature, flowing down, might wash away, from the morning of creation to the end of time, the whole of human transgression.


I should not have paused over this word, had I not recollected in the moment of reading it, that the Holy Ghost is graciously pleased to make use of it as a figure to represent the Lord Jesus by, in several parts of the divine word; and also the church is spoken of, from her union with her Lord, by the same similitude. "His head (said the church, when commending the beauties of her Lord,) is as the most fine gold." {Song 5:11} "His hands are as gold rings set with the beryl." {Song 5:14} And the Lord Jesus, speaking of his church, made comely in his comeliness, saith, "Thy cheeks are comely with rows of jewels; thy neck with Chains of gold. We will make thee borders of gold, with studs of silver." {Song 1:10-11} As gold is the richest and most valued of all metals, so by this figure is meant to say, that the Headship of Christ is every thing that is rich, valuable and glorious to his body the church. Yea, as the Scripture saith, when referring to the Lord Jesus as God-man Mediator, "the head of Christ is God." {1Co 11:3} It is probable, that an eye to God the Father, under this similitude, might also be meant. For though in respect to the divine nature, Christ is "one with the Father, over all, God blessed for ever." {Ro 9:5} Yet in respect to his human nature, the Father may truly be said to be the head of Christ; for he saith himself, "A body hast thou given me, or prepared me." (Ps 40:6 with Heb 10:5)

But it is very blessed to eye the Lord Jesus under this figure. As the Head of his body the well be compared to the most fine gold; for the Psalmist saith, in allusion to his royal dignity and power, JEHOVAH put "a crown of pure gold upon his head, When he made him most blessed for ever." {Ps 21:1-7} And as all this, and infinitely more to the same effect, is spoken of Christ in allusion to his mediatorial character, the Head of his church and people, so this endears Jesus the more, inasmuch as all his people are so highly interested in all that belongs to him. Gold is a proper figure to represent the glories of his person, the excellency of his kingdom, the purity and spiritual nature of it, the durableness of it and the splendour and everlasting glory of it; for all his people are made kings and priests, by virtue of his riches and glory to God and the Father. {Re 1:6} And as Christ’s head is compared on all these, and the like accounts to gold: so his hands to rings of gold set with beryl, from the liberal manner in which he bestows gifts and graces to his redeemed. "In his right hand, saith Solomon, is length of days, and in his left hand riches and honour." {Pr 3:16} The beryl was one of the precious stones in the breastplate of the High Priest. {Ex 28:20} And John tells the church, that the beryl was among the foundation-stones of the new Jerusalem. {Re 21:20} What those precious stones implied cannot need inquiry, since elsewhere we are told, that Christ is the foundation-stone JEHOVAH hath laid in Zion; and the church, both in heaven and earth, rests wholly upon him, the chief corner stone, "in whom all the building fitly framed together, groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord." {Eph 2:20-21}

It is blessed to behold also the church spoken of under the same similitude, from her union and oneness with her Lord. The neck and cheeks of the church, the parts connected with the head, made comely with jewels and chains of gold, may be supposed to mean those graces, with which her Lord hath adorned her, "more to be desired than gold, yea, than much fine gold." And when a soul is blessed in the everlasting covenant with all spiritual blessings in Christ Jesus, there is a loveliness indeed, which is as an "ornament of grace unto the head, and as chains about the neck." {Pr 1:9} And what tends to endear the whole is, that all the persons of the GODHEAD concur in this vast work of adorning the church with blessings, more valuable than the "golden wedge of Ophir." It is said, "We will make thee borders of gold, with studs of silver;" meaning, surely, the joint work and grace of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in whose joint names all true believers in Christ are baptized, and blessed upon earth, and everlastingly made happy and glorious in heaven. {Mt 28:19; 2Co 13:14; Re 7:9-12}

Golden Candlesticks

The view which the beloved apostle had of the Lord Jesus as related to the church. {Re 1:10-20,} makes it proper to notice something of what seems to have been highly emblematical in our Lord’s appearing in the midst of the golden candlesticks. I detain the reader, therefore, in this place, to take a short notice of it. Of the Jewish church we read of one candlestick of gold, with six branches, in the tabernacle, {Ex 25:31-32} But here we read of seven candlesticks, and the Lord Jesus in the midst. We can easily conceive concerning the one, that it was intended to prefigure the church, which until Christ came and gave light to it, like a candlestick which is a receiver only, and hath no light in itself, is as nothing. And when in the gospel church we behold seven candlesticks and the Lord Jesus in the discover that from the coming of Christ, when having finished redemption-work he returned to glory, he sent down the Holy Ghost in his seven-fold gifts to illumine the whole church of God with the revelation of his grace: so that the gracious office of the Holy Ghost in his unceasing agency is very blessedly set forth. And I do not think, that the Lord Jesus, in his high priestly office, could have been more strongly represented than by appearing thus in the midst of the candlesticks, his churches. For as it was the office of the Jewish high priest to trim the wicks and supply the oil, so Jesus, our great High Priest, supplies the whole by his blessed Spirit both to his ministers and people.


Or perhaps better read Gulgultha, a skull. This was the memorable spot where the Lord Jesus was crucified; a mountain north-west of Jerusalem. The Romans called it Calvarea, which we translate Calvary. And the tradition in the eastern world concerning it was, that this name was given to it from Adam having been buried there. So that the men of Syria called it Cranium, the skull. But be this as it may, here it was the Lord of life and glory offered up that holy sacred oblation of himself, for the sin and transgression of his redeemed, by which he obtained eternal redemption for all them that are sanctified. Sweet and solemn the meditation, when from Gethsemane to Golgotha the believer by faith traverses the sacred ground. If Moses with such earnestness desired to see the goodly mountain, and Lebanon, as he tells us he did, {De 3:24-25} because, that there he knew He whose "good will he had begun to enjoy at the bush," would go through the whole of redemption work, and finish it; what may be supposed the favoured contemplations of the faithful now at Gethsemane and Golgotha where they know Jesus did, indeed, according to the most sure prophecies concerning him, complete the salvation of his people! Here would my soul delight to wander, and often review the sacred ground. From hence it was, that clear and distinct views were first taken of the city of the living God. Golgotha’s mount opened the perspective of the New Jerusalem, and gave to the eye of faith not only clear and distinct prospects of the certainty of the place, but also as clear and distinct assurances of the believer’s right and interest by Jesus to the possession of it. And from that period to the present hour, and so on to the end of time, these views have never since been darkened. The song of faith is still the same, and the triumphs in the cross furnish out the same soul-reviving notes. "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance, incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away." {1Pe 1:3-4}

See HAWKERS: Gethsemane.


The gaint of Gall, one of the sons of Amak. His name signifies an heap, from Galah. The size of this man was enormous. "Six cubits and a span." So that supposing what is the common allowed measure of the cubit to have been, "one and twenty inches," and that a span was half a cubit, this man was eleven feet and four inches high. The armour he wore bore a correspondence to the greatness of his stature. His coat is said to have weighed five thousand shekels. A shekel was half an ounce. And if all the other parts of his armour carried a proportion to this, in his "helmet of brass, and the greaves of brass, and the target, and his spear’s head, six hundered skels of iron," what an astonishing man must he have been in such an astonishing ponderous armour, in carrying that for exercise and slaughter which few strong men could lift from the ground! {See 1Sa 17 throughout.} But how soon David the stripling conquered him, when armed and lead on to victory by the Lord. But in reading the history of this battle we stop short of the chief glory of it, if we do not eye the Lord Jesus Christ, the almighty David of his Israel, conquering hell, death, and the grave, in all his Goliahs which come forth to defy the army of the living God. Oh! how blessed it is in all to behold Christ going forth "for the salvation of his people!"


The purchased wife of the prophet Hosea. She is said to have been the daughter of Diblaim—whether Father or mother—for it might the either. Her name signifies to finish or complete. (See Ho 1:2-3 and Ho 3:1-3) The history as it is given to us in the Bible, both of the prophet and this adulteress, appears very singular and surprising. But some light is thrown upon it from the account given us by writers concerning the customs of the east. Contracts for marriages, it is said, were never formed without giving with the woman a certain measure of corn, as well as money, for a marriage portion. The corn intimated the hope of fruitfulness in children. But it should seem in the case of Hosea, that the portion here was not given by the parents, but by the prophet; and that this was of the Lord. The Lord said unto Hosea, "Go take unto thee a wife of whoredoms." And hence the prophet saith, "So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of silver, and for an homer of barley, and an half homer of barley." {Ho 3:2}

The spiritual sense of it is more plain than the literal. For the marrying an adulteress, and by the Lord’s command, and the union of a prophet of the Lord with such a character, seems a measure not easily explained. But as typical of the Lord’s being married to his adulteress Israel, the subject is not only clear, but highly instructive. We see in it God’s grace amidst all our undeservings; and that "where sin hath abounded grace doth much more abound." To what a degree of spiritual adultery and fornication was our nature gone, when Christ betrothed that nature to himself! Here surely the prophet typified Christ, when he said, "Go yet, love a woman (beloved of her friend, yet an adulteress) according to the love of the Lord toward the children of, Israel." {Ho 3:1}


The city of the plain destroyed by fire. {Ge 19:24} The name seems suited to the place. Om, or Am, a people; Morah, or Marah, of bitterness. We have the awful relation of the event of Sodom and Gomorrha’s overthrow in the chapter before referred to. And certain it is, that it was intended as a standing monument in the church of divine judgments. Israel is reminded of it De 29 throughout. And in allusion to the fire of Gomorrha, the apostle Jude describes the sad ruin of sinners under the image of suffering eternal fire. {Jude 7} And Peter to the same effect. {2Pe 2:6} And in the Revelations the everlasting torments of the damned are described by the same image, in reference to Sodom and Gomorrha—"in a lake that burneth with fire and brimstone." {Re 21:8}

Had there been ten righteous men in Sodom and Gomorrha, the Lord’s grace would have been manifested in the salvation of the place. Blessed be our God, there is one in the Gomorrha of our world whose name is Wonderful, and for whose sake it stands to the present hour, and who will be the cause of his people’s salvation to all eternity!


Perhaps so called from Goshen, rain, or the dew of heaven in blessings. For this place being nearer to the Mediterranean sea than Upper Egypt, had plentiful showers to make it fertile. Here it was Jacob and his children dwelt, when brought down into Egypt. {Ge 47:1-6} Perhaps there might have been even in those days, a remote idea to the times of the gospel in the name of Goshen; for even now in the present hour, that is truly a land of Goshen where Christ is truly known, and where heaven hath shed and is shedding its blessed influences, in the showers of his Holy Spirit; while all the earth is as Egypt in the dryness, where no rains are known, and where the gospel of Christ is not.


Or God’s spell. This is a Saxon word, meaning good tidings. The Greeks called the gospel evangelical; hence the writers of it are called Evangelists. The word itself, as used in modern language, means the proclamation of pardon, mercy, and peace, in and through Jesus Christ our Lord. And so infinitely important and interesting is it in the eyes of all men that are made partakers of its saving grace, that the very feet of them that are commissioned to preach it are said to be beautiful. "How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace, that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation, that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth!" {Isa 52:7} And, indeed, the gospel is, without exception, the best news JEHOVAH ever proclaimed to man, or man ever heard. Angels thought so, when at the command of God they posted down from heaven, at the birth of Christ, as if ambitious to be the first preachers of it to a lost world, and in a multitude of the heavenly host met together, to proclaim the blessed tidings to the Jewish shepherds, saying, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth, peace, good will towards men." {Lu 2:13-14}


Jonah’s gourd makes the thing itself memorable, which without the circumstance referring to him, would have formed nothing more important in the church than any other plant. The Hebrews called it Kikajon. The wild gourd is of another genus, and called Pekaah. It is said to be so bitter, that it is called "the gall of the earth." Some have thought, that Jonah’s gourd is the same as the Palma Christi.

See HAWKERS: Palm Tree.

I would only observe under this article of Jonah’s gourd, how beautiful a lesson was the prophet taught (and, consequently, we ought to learn from it,) had he been wise to have improved it, how little to be valued are all earthly comforts, which even a poor worm of the earth may destroy. A night brings forth our worldly enjoyments; and a night is more than enough to destroy them. Oh! how blessed to live upon an unchangeable God in Christ, "the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever!"


The name of a river. {2Ki 17:6}


This word hath a variety of meanings in the word of God, as it relates to the divine power, and as it relates to man. When we speak of grace in relation to God, it hath a vast comprehension of meaning. The whole gospel is called the grace of God. And the application of it, in any individual instance of its saving power, is called "the grace of God. By grace ye are saved (saith the apostle,) through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God." {Eph 2:8} The grace of God is free, like the light, or the dew of heaven. Grace acts from itself to itself; nothing of human power, Or merit, disposing to it, nor of unworthiness keeping from it. So that every thing by Christ is grace; and to suppose any one pre-disposing act in the creature, or any merit in the creature, would altogether alter and destroy the very property of grace. {See Ro 11:6} What is meant by grace in man, means altogether favour and affection. Thus Joseph found grace; that is, favour in the sight of his master. (Ge 39:4. So Abraham, Ge 18:1-3. The case is similar in the case of Lydia, Ac 16:15)


The Scripture speak of two sorts of grapes, the true, and the wild. And while the former is both good for food and delight, the other is poisonous and destructive. The blood of the grape is spoken of by the dying patriarch Jacob, {Ge 49:11} perhaps not without reference to the sacramental ordinance of the Lord’s Supper. Moses beautifully contrasts the vineyards of the wicked with the vineyards of the Lord of hosts. "Their vine (saith he,) is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrha; their grapes are grapes of gall, their clusters are bitter." {De 32:32} Whereas the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is compared to the "rich clusters of Engedi." {Song 1:14} We are told by an ancient writer, that so luxurious were the branches and clusters of grapes in the eastern world, that there have been seen some of ten and twelve pounds. Indeed, in our own country in hot houses, clusters of many pounds have been gathered. I cannot, under this article, forbear remarking the kindness of that precept in Israel concerning the vineyard, that when the Israelites gathered in their vintage, the gleanings should be for those that had no vineyard {Le 19:9-10} And it should seem, that in the gleaning season the vineyards were thrown open, for the traveller passing by to have the benefit of it. I leave the reader to make his own comment; but I cannot but think, that there was much of gospel veiled under this precept. The gleaning season in Christ’s church is all the year. Thousands going by have found gleaning seasons to their souls daily; and the invitation, indeed, is to the highways, and lanes, and hedges of the city, to call in "the poor, and the maimed, and the halt, and the blind." And even when these are come, and their souls have been filled, "still there is room." So infinitely full and so infinitely gracious is the great Lord of the vineyard, that all application ceases before that any diminishing is found in him and his vineyard, to supply. {Lu 14:21-22}

See HAWKERS: Cluster


The prophet. His name is derived from Chabak, signifying, one that embraceth. Of his descent and family the Holy Ghost is silent. His prophetical writings are truly scriptural, and are contained in three chapters, which we have in our Bibles. They carry evident marks with them of divine inspiration. The apostle Paul makes a quotation from Hab 2:4. {See Heb 10:38} Some have endeavoured to soften the story, by supposing the dinner Habakkuk is said to have carried Daniel was his writings, particularly that passage in them where it is said, "The just shall live by his faith." But this is rather giving countenance to a story that ought to be refuted, and by no means admissible. The very Jews themselves deny the tale.


This word is of gracious import. In reference to the sweet promises of God, as indwelling in his people, and they living by faith upon the gracious truth, nothing can be more delightful. "Lo, I come; and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the Lord." {Zec 2:10} And in one of the richest promises of the Bible, our blessed Lord Jesus speaks to the same effect: "If a man love me (saith Jesus,) he will keep my words; and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him." {Joh 14:23} And the apostle Paul following the gracious words of his divine master, saith, that the whole spiritual building the church, is for "an habitation of God through the Spirit." {Eph 2:22}


The father of Nehemiah the Tirshatha. His name is compounded of Chakah and Jab, signifying a waiter upon the Lord. {See Ne 1:1}


Sarah’s handmaid: she was an Egyptian. Her name Hagar signifies a stranger. We have her history at large, in the sixteenth and twenty-first chapters of Genesis; and a very interesting history it is. But we never should have known the spiritual import of it, had not God the Holy Ghost graciously taught the church, by the ministry of his servant the apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Galatians. From thence we learn, that the whole of those transactions respecting Sarah and Hagar was an allegory, or figure, of the covenants; the one of bondage in nature, the other of freedom by grace. Without this divine illustration the mind of man never could have conceived such an idea, neither have entered into a proper apprehension of the subject. Indeed, from the tendency of every man’s mind by nature, to take part with flesh and blood rather than spiritual objects, we should have felt disposed to consider Hagar hardly dealt with, and Sarah unkind and cruel. But taught by divine instruction, from this beautiful allegory we learn the vast importance of being found belonging to a covenant of grace, and not with the bond-woman under the law of works. As the subject is so very highly interesting, I venture to persuade myself, that it will not be tedious to the reader, neither, under grace, will it be unprofitable to consider it yet a little more particularly.

The apostle was commissioned to tell the church, that this allegory represented the two covenants. Hagar and her son Ishmael, the law-covenant, gendering to bondage; Sarah and her son Isaac, the gospel-covenant, leading to freedom. And agreeably to this statement of the apostle, all the features of both correspond.

Ishmael, Hagar’s son, was born in the ordinary course of nature; Isaac, Sarah’s son, was born out of it, and contrary to the general laws of nature. Ishmael was the natural result of things; Isaac the child of promise. The one born without an eye to the covenant; the other wholly on account of the covenant. Had Ishmael never been born, no interruption would have taken place in respect of the promised seed; but had Isaac never been born, the promise itself could not have been fulfilled; for so the terms of the charter ran, "in Isaac shall thy seed be called." {Ge 21:12} And though a period of somewhat more than twenty years had elapsed between the promise given to Abraham and the fulfilment of it, yet the thing itself was as sure and certain as the promise concerning the coming of Christ himself. "To Abraham and his seed was the promise made. He saith not unto seeds, as of many, but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ." {Ga 3:16} And how striking was the difference in the gift of these two sorts to Abraham! Ishmael was the product of lust; Isaac a child of prayer. "Lord God, said Abraham, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless? Look now (said God,) towards heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them. And he said unto him, So shall thy seed be. And he believed in the Lord; and he counted it to him for righteousness." {Ge 15:2-6} It may not be improper to add, that as in the two covenants the one is in direct opposition to the other, so in the allegory the same is manifested. "He that was born after the flesh, persecuted him that was born after the Spirit; even so it is now." The everlasting hatred of nature to grace was then strikingly set forth, by the mocking of the bond-woman’s son. And as Ishmael, as well as Isaac, was circumcised, the allegory hereby manifested, (what hath not been so much noticed as it deserves,) that the persecution of the true seed doth not arise only from the world, but from those who profess the same faith. A faith, like Ishmael’s, of nature, but not, like Isaac’s, of grace. But what a blessed thing it is, when by a true saving grace we are led to know our birthright, and as sweetly to enjoy it. When we can say with the apostle, "Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise." And surely, the bond-woman and her son cannot be heir with the son of the free-woman; for all of the Hagar, the mount Sinai covenant, are in bondage. They are under the precept of a broken law; they are subject to the condemning power of that law; and they are exposed to the penalty due to the breaches of that law. Oh! the blessedness of being for ever freed both from the guilt and condemnation of it in Christ. Well might the apostle comfort the church with that sweet assurance, "so then, brethren, we are not children of the bond-woman, but of the free." {Ga 4:31}


The descendants of Hagar. They dwelt chiefly in Arabia.


The prophet, who lived after the Babylonish captivity, and at the time of building the second temple. His name signifies a feast of the Lord, from Chagag, a feast; and Jah, the Lord. His prophecy is but short, yet most blessed in pointing to Christ.


This word is not used in the Bible, but, nevertheless, as it hath been used by the Jews in a way of distinction concerning certain parts of the word of God in the Old Testament Scripture, it may not be improper to notice it in a work of this kind. The word Hagiography, which means holy writings, is generally applied, by the Jews to all the books of the Old Testament, excepting the Law and the Prophets. For though, as Maimonides saith, it is the general consent of their nation, that several of the sacred writings, such as Daniel; and the Book of the Psalms, were written by the influence of the Holy Spirit, yet they say, not by prophecy; thus making a distinction between the works of the Spirit, than which nothing can be more absurd. The reason of denying that those writings were prophetical is easily seen, because they are so pointed to the person of the Lord Jesus, that when fulfilled in him, as they evidently were, and in such a way as they never could be fulfilled in any other, must have left the Jews without the least excuse, if they confessed them to have been prophetical. And yet what a poor and flimsy covering they find in denying the Spirit of prophecy to be in them, and yet allowing them, to have been written by the influence of the Spirit. The prophecy of Daniel in particular, was so exact in pointing to the time of the Messiah’s coming and the object of his sufferings, that one of the Rabbins who lived about fifty years before the coming of Christ, asserted, that the time of the Messiah, as signified by Daniel, could not be deferred longer than those fifty years. Maimonides himself owns, that Daniel, and the other writers of the Hagiography, may be called prophets. Aben Ezra saith much to the same amount. And Josephus doth not scruple to say that Daniel was one of the greatest prophets. But enough hath been said on this subject. The reader will, I hope, clearly understand what is meant by Hagiography in the Scripture, and wherefore the Jews so distinguished them from the five books of Moses and the prophets.


See HAWKERS: Allelujah


The Son of Noah, brother to Shem and Japheth. Of these three sons of Noah was the whole earth overspread; for it doth not appear, that Noah had any other children. {Ge 9:18-19} The prophecy of Noah concerning his three sons is very remarkable, and was literally fulfilled. Ham is called Canaan in the prediction, and declared to be a servant of servants. When Joshua conquered Canaan this was literally accomplished. {Jos 9:23} The blessing of Shem is striking, and the manner of it. God is blessed on Shem’s account, and is called the Lord God of Shem. And as Christ after the flesh sprang from Shem, it is truly interesting to behold this preacher of righteousness, for so Noah is called, thus preaching and predicting Christ. {2Pe 2:5; Heb 11:7} And the blessing of Japheth is not less to be noticed. The prophesying father declared, that God would enlarge Japheth, or, as the margin of the Bible expresseth it, would persuade him to dwell in the tents of Shem; meaning, that the race of Japheth, in the Gentiles, should come into the fold of the Lord Jesus. For none but the Lord can persuade, and none but him, by his Holy Spirit, can render all persuasions successful. So that we see, from the ark in this man’s family, how effectually the Lord provided for the eventful circumstances that were to follow the new world. Ham and his posterity are declared to be cursed. Shem hath the deposit of all the promises; and Japheth, the father of the Gentiles, it was said, should be brought over to the knowledge of salvation, and to take part in the blessings of it. God will enlarge. {See Isa 49:1-6}


A false prophet, in the days of Jeremiah, whose history, though short, is so very striking and awful, that the Holy Ghost hath been pleased to appoint a whole chapter in the writings of Jeremiah to record it; as if the Lord the Spirit intended it to be frequently read in the church. Indeed, it cannot be read too often, and especially by all that minister in holy things. The chapter is the twenty-eighth of Jeremiah’s {Jer 28} prophecy. I make no farther comment in this place upon it, unless it be to observe, that Hananiah’s name but ill corresponded to this character. The word signifies the grace or gift of the Lord, from Chen or Chanan, grace; and Jah, the Lord. Hanan-Jah.


It was so much the custom in the eastern world to do great and interesting actions by the motions and signs of the hand, that we find in Scripture continued expressions to this amount. The "giving of the hand," as in the instance of Jehu and Jehonadab. {2Ki 10:15} The "washing of the hands," as in the case of Pilate. {Mt 27:24} The "stretching out of the hands," by way of entreaty, as mentioned Pr 1:24 and again Isa 65:2. All these, and much more to the like import, plainly shew, that the manners of the east were such as to carry on important concerns by the ministry of the hand. Indeed, in the western world, and in our own country, the action of the hand is not unfrequently made use of to testify the consent of the mind. The ceremony of putting the fight hand on the New Testament in the administration of oaths, and the ordinary salutation of friends, by the shaking of the hand, are proofs in point. But what I would yet more particularly remark on this subject, is the sacredness of the action in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ. The right hand of JEHOVAH is well known to be one of the names by which the Mediator, as Mediator, is mentioned in Scripture. {Ex 15:6} And his return to glory is spoken of under this expression of "sitting down on the right hand of God." {Ps 110:1; Heb 1:3} Hence, therefore, with an eye to Christ, the church is represented as looking to Jesus, and stretching forth the hand to Jesus, in all those expressions of the word of God where the ministry of the hand is used, in all the earnest actions of faith. "I have set the Lord always before me; for he is on my right hand, that I shall not be moved." {Ps 16:8} So again it is said, "The Lord shall stand at the right hand of the poor, to save him from those that condemn his soul." (Ps 109:31.) I only detain the reader yet farther to remark, what a peculiar blessedness is in the subject, considered with reference to the hand of Jesus over his people. All that we read in the word of God of the hands, and eyes, and ears of the Lord, as continually engaged for his church and redeemed, is spoken of Christ in his human nature; and most blessed are those things in relation to Christ. By thus representing the Lord Jesus in those familiar acts of our own nature, it implies, what the church never should lose sight of, that sympathy of Jesus to our nature, whose hands are unceasingly stretched forth to lead, guide, and defend, and whose ears are always open to the cries of his redeemed, and whose eyes are upon them for good, for his delight, and their happiness. How sweet to this purpose are those Scriptures: "I know the thoughts I think towards you, saith the Lord; thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end." (Jer 29:11. So again, Jer 32:41) "Yea, I will rejoice over them to do them good, and I will plant them in this land assuredly, with my whole heart, and with my whole soul."


A town on the frontiers of Ethiopia. Some have thought it the same as Tahapanes. {See Isa 30:4; Jer 2:16}


The wife of Elkanah. Her name signifies gracious; and she was, indeed, a very gracious woman. We have her history in 1Sa 1 and 1Sa 2. Her hymn is truly spiritual, and forms a blessed song concerning redemption. It is worthy remark, that though the patriarchs, and other holy men of old, before the days of Hannah, spoke of the Lord Jesus under various characters belonging to him, yet Hannah is the first that was commissioned by the Holy Ghost to speak of him as the Messiah, the Anointed. {See 1Sa 2:10} This was her honour. It is worthy remark, that the Lord so distinguished this Old Testament saint: to be the first preacher of Jesus as the Anointed, and Mary Magdalen, in the New Testament, to be the first preacher of Jesus in his resurrection. {Mr 16:9}

And while I remark it in her history, I beg to call the reader’s attention to an infinitely more important consideration on the subject. If the Lord Jesus was thus anointed, and called as such the Messiah (which is, in fact, the Anointed), so many ages before his incarnation, as the glorious Head of his body the church, was not the church, the body of that glorious Head, anointed also in him? Could the Head, in this instance, be considered detached and separated from the members? Surely Christ, as Christ, that is, Anointed, could not have been thus called, had not the Holy Ghost virtually and truly, in the secret councils of JEHOVAH, anointed him as much as God the Father called him. {See Isa 42:6} And as such the church was as much called and anointed in him as his body, and that from everlasting; and in the everlasting love of God, the Holy Ghost presented to the Father the object of his everlasting love thus anointed, sanctified, and set apart, for his glory, and the spouse of the Lord Jesus. "A body hast thou prepared me." {Heb 10:5} Oh! what a sweet and precious thought, or rather numberless thoughts of rapture and delight arise out of this one view of the church’s oneness and connection with her glorious Head and Husband before all worlds! Eyeing Jesus thus, as the Anointed, in his secret name and character, before the open display of it in time, was, without all doubt, in relation to his spouse, the church. Had not the Father given his dear Son a church, Jesus had not given himself to the church, and for the church, neither would the Holy Ghost named him as the Messiah, the Anointed, before his incarnation; neither after would he have anointed him and given him without measure of his influence. But as we find the same name given of the Anointed before, as after, he became man, and tabernacled in the substance of our flesh, nothing can be more plain, in confirmation of this blessed truth, than that God the Holy Ghost had an everlasting love to the church, as the body of the Lord Jesus, before the world began, and anointed the glorious Head, and the church in her glorious Head, watched over her, protected her, blessed her, and set her apart, in all and every member of her, as "the church which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all." {Eph 1:22-23}


See HAWKERS: Shadrach

Hardness of Heart

We meet with this expression very often in the word of God, and for the most part connected with the blindness of the heart. Thus, it is said, {Mr 3:5} the Redeemer was grieved for the hardness of their hearts; the margin of the Bible renders it the blindness of their hearts. So again, in Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, {Ro 11:25} it is said, that "blindness in part is happened to Israel."In the margin, blindness is rendered hardness. And in 2Co 3:14,  there the expression is, that "their minds were blinded." From these, and the like passages, it is plain, that the terms are one and the same, and both mean hardness of heart unfavourable to the reception of divine impressions. But what I beg the reader yet more particularly to mark in the phrase that not unfrequently in Scripture this blindness and hardness of the heart is ascribed to the Lord’s act. Thus in Isaiah the church in her prayer saith, "O Lord! why hast thou made us to err from thy ways, and hardened our heart from thy fear!" {Isa 63:17} And in Joh 12:39-40. it is said, that "they could not believe, because that Esaias had said, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their hearts." This memorable passage of the prophet Isaiah, which is in Isa 6:9-10, hath been considered so very important by God the Holy Ghost, that he caused it to be quoted by all the four Evangelists, once in the Acts of the Apostles, and once in the Epistle to the Romans. {Mt 13:14-15; Mr 4:12; Lu 8:10; Joh 12:39-40; Ac 28:25-27; Ro 11:8} But it is remarkable, at the same time, in those quotations, how the hardening the heart by the Lord is blended with the hardening of the heart by themselves. In the passage as quoted by Matthew, it is expressly said, that their eyes they have closed. And the same expression is used by Paul in his quotation. {Ac 28:27} And is there the least contradiction in the account? Most certainly not; the very original passage in the prophet explains itself. "Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes." And may not the Lord be said to do this, when in a fulness of blessings of his providence the tables of such men are so flowing over, that the bountiful hand which spreads the whole is lost and hidden from their view in a cloud of his own gifts? And when men become intoxicated, and over fed, and their eyes bloated with fatness, so that they neither discern the Lord’s hand, yea, sometimes they see not one another, may not the Lord be said to make their heart fat, and their eyes heavy, by thus furnishing the means, while the beasts themselves, by abusing the bounties of the Lord (which, if rightly used, would have made them his blessed instruments in disposing of them to feed the hungry bellies of the poor), may be truly said no less to close their own eyes, and to harden their own hearts?

I must not dismiss this article without taking with it the observation, how suited the Lord. Jesus is to remedy all the evils of a hardened heart, and the blinded eye, in that lovely commission of his, "to heal the broken in heart, and to give sight to them that were blind." A broken heart, in the full sense of the word, is a dead heart, and the blind in Scripture is where the eyes are put out, as in the instance of Zedekiah. {See Jer 52:11} And in the similar case of Samson, whose eyes were bored out, for so the expression hath it in the margin of the Bible. {Jg 16:21} And where the Lord Jesus exerciseth his grace, his almighty work is described under the strong term of making a new heart, taking away "the heart of stone, and giving an heart of flesh; making all things new." Hence the apostle saith, "If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature." {2Co 5:17} Thus without Christ the heart of all men is for ever hardened. And with Christ’s sovereign grace, he, and he alone, can make every faculty "willing in the day of his power." {Ps 110:3}


We cannot be at a loss for the Scriptural meaning of this word, for the word of God, in this instance, corresponds with the general sentiments and customs of mankind in all ages. A harlot is the same name as a prostitute, a woman of ill fame, or as we say, a woman of the town. {Pr 29:3} The Lord makes use of the name by way of shewing the spiritual fornication of Israel. "Thou hast played the harlot with many lovers, yet return again to me, said the Lord." {Jer 3:1} It hath supposed by some, that in the case of Rahab the harlot, it was not intended to imply the character of a woman of ill fame. But certainly there is no authority for supposing any other. The original Hebrew Zona, {Jos 2:1} means a harlot. And Septuagint, in the Greek Porne, can admit no translation. Both Paul and James use this and our translators have most faithfully rendered it, by the word harlot. {Heb 11:31; Jas 2:25} The objection respecting Salmon, a prince Israel, marrying her, is so far from an objection to her being a prostitute, that it should seem rather confirmation. We find the Lord commanding Hosea the prophet to marry an adulteress. {See Ho 3:1} And as a figurative representation, by type, of Jesus marrying our adulterous nature, nothing could be more striking. Strange, indeed, to our view, are all the ways and works of God! But it is not more marvellous that Christ, after the flesh, should spring from Rahab, than from Thamar by Judah. {Ge 38:12-30.} The former was by an harlot: in the instance of the latter it was incestuous. But certain it is, that both, after the flesh, were in the genealogy of the Lord of life and glory, how strange soever it appears to us.


This word is so very plain in its simple meaning, and so universally understood, that there would have needed no observation upon it, but for an expression of our Lord’s concerning it, which appears to me, according to all the commentators I have seen or read upon it, to have been totally mistaken. The passage in which our Lord hath spoken concerning hatred is Lu 14:26. Where Jesus hath said, "If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple." The hatred of father, and mother, and the like, they say, is in contradiction to the divine command, and, therefore, they have conceived, that the expression means no more than by a comparative statement, to say, that none can be the disciple of Jesus who loves his earthly friends equal to this heavenly one. But certainly this is not our Lord’s meaning; for here is nothing said in the whole passage by way of comparison. And every one that knows the original word here made use of to express the verb hate, knows that Misei can mean no other than to hate. Neither is the doctrine, when duly considered, contradictory to the whole design of the gospel. All the claims of nature are, for the most part, unfavourable to the pursuits of grace. And the love of our near and dear connections in nature, every one knows that is brought acquainted with the feelings of his own heart, is but too often leading us on the confines of sin and corruption, Hence, to hate whatever opposeth the best and purest desires of the soul, is among the clearest evidences of a follower of the Lord Jesus Christ. And the latter clause in this expression of our Lord serves to explain the whole; "yea, and his own life also." Self-loathing, and self-abhorring, mark the true believer’s character. And wherefore doth a child of God loathe his own flesh, but because that flesh is always rising up in rebellion against the Spirit. Hence, therefore, if my own body becomes a rebel, and an enemy to my own soul, so that I cannot do the things I would, certainly I hate it; and if I hate my own flesh, from the opposition it is continually making to a life of grace, in the same sense, and upon the same account, I must, and do hate all the opposers of the divine life, be they who they may, or what they may. Nothing is to come into competition with Christ in our affection. I believe I may venture to affirm, that many of God’s dear children look forward to the humiliation of the grave with holy joy on this very account, as knowing that then, and not before, they shall drop this body of sin and death, which now so often makes them groan. It is blessedly said of Levi, that in his zeal and love to JEHOVAH’S Holy One he said, "of his father, and his mother, I have not seen him, neither did he acknowledge his brethren, nor knew his own children." {De 33:9} I venture, therefore, upon the whole, to accept the words of the Lord Jesus in this Scripture by the Evangelist. {Lu 14:26} precisely as the words themselves express this solemn truth. And since every thing in nature is hostile to a life of grace, so that my own corrupt heart is a much greater enemy to my soul’s enjoyment in Christ, than either the world, or the powers of darkness, I do hate all, and every tie of nature, yea, and my own life also, in every degree, and by every way in which they are found to oppose, or run counter, to the pursuit of the soul in her desires after the Lord Jesus Christ.


The villages of Jair, so called from being in the lot of Jair the son of Manasseh. {Nu 32:41}


His name is derived from Chazah, to see; and the El joined to it means to see God. We have his history, and the effect wrought upon the mind of the prophet Elisha in beholding him with his prophetic spirit, foreseeing the cruelties of Hazael on the children of Israel. {2Ki 8:15} The circumstance of Hazael’s spreading a cloth dipped in water over the face of Benhadad, hath been thought by some to have been done not with the design to kill him. Historians tell us, that it is the custom in the east, in those violent fevers called Nedad, to make use of chilling methods for their recovery. The patients drink cold water, and a quantity of water is thrown upon them. So that whether Hazael wished the death of his master, or not, the dipping the cloth in water and covering his face with it, was among the methods used on those occasions for recovery. Be this, however, as it may, Hazael stands on record for a very awful character, and his name was highly unsuitable to his conduct. All that the prophet Elisha foretold literally came to pass; and he, that, while the servant of the king his master, stood astonished at the bare mention only of the cruelties Elisha admonished him of, actually perpetrated the very murders which he had shuddered at, when he became clothed with the royal purple. {See 2Ki 13:3-7} Oh, what an awful representation doth his history afford of the sin and iniquity lurking in the human heart! In the whole nature of man it must be the same, for the seeds of sin are alike in all; and that they do not ripen and bear the like deadly fruit in all, is wholly owing to the preventing and restraining grace of God. The heart that is not conscious of this, is not conscious of the preciousness of the Lord Jesus Christ.


The place where Israel, in their journey through the wilderness, encamped. {Nu 11:35} This name, like some others, Hazerim, Hazar-addar, {Nu 34:4} Hazah-gadda, {Jos 15:27} mean one and the same thing. Hazer signifies the entry to the place, or village. Thus Hazezom-Tamar, the entrance to the city of palm trees, the same as Engedi. {See Ge 14:7}


It would have been unnecessary to have noticed this article in the general acceptation of the word, since every one cannot but know, that as the head of the body, in every thing that liveth, is the prime mover of the body; and, indeed, is sometimes put for the whole of the body, so is it in common conversation considered as the first and pre-disposing cause of all life and action, whether considered individually, or in a community at large. But the term Head when applied to the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Head of his body the "church," opens so sweet a subject for contemplation, that in a work of this kind it would be unpardonable to pass it by. Indeed, the subject even looks farther than this, and directs the mind of the truly regenerated believer to behold JEHOVAH, in his threefold character of person, as being the Head of Christ, considered in his mediatorial office, and giving truth to all the glorious purposes of salvation in him. It was the Lord JEHOVAH, in the great scheme of redemption, before the earth was formed, that set up Christ as the Head of his church. All the persons of the GODHEAD engaged in this plan of grace, and set the wheels agoing from all eternity; and hence God the Father is called the God and Father"of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family, in heaven and earth, is named." {Eph 3:14-15} And as to God the Father is peculiarly ascribed the calling, of Christ, as the Head of his body the church, {Isa 42:6} so to God the Holy Ghost is peculiarly ascribed no less the anointing of Christ to the special office of Mediator. {Isa 48:16-17} And hence, in conformity to this order of things, the apostle tells the church, when speaking of this subject, "I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is the man, and the head of Christ is God." {1Co 11:3}

Next, in the order of things, we may view the Headship of Christ to his church, and a most blessed and interesting subject it becomes to our view. The Scriptures are full of this most delightful truth. Jesus, as Mediator, is the Head the Surety, the husband, the all in all, of his people. He is the source of life, of light, of salvation, of grace here, and glory forever. So that in this view of the Lord Jesus, and the church in him, it is incalculable in how many ways, and by what a variety of communications, this Headship of Christ becomes a source of continual joy and comfort to all his redeemed. They have an unceasing, communion with him whether they are conscious of it or not; and it should be among the highest felicities of the soul to go every day, and all the day, in the perpetual actings of faith upon the glorious person of the Lord Jesus, as the Head of his body the church, "the fulness of him that filleth all in all." {Eph 1:22-23}


The heart in all languages is considered as the leading principle of action and of character.

"A good man, (saith the Lord Jesus) out of the good treasure of his heart, bringeth forth that which is good; and an evil man, out of the evil treasure of his heart, bringeth forth that which is evil; for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh." {Lu 6:45} Hence a change of circumstances in spiritual concerns, from darkness to light, is called"the taking away the heart of stone, and giving an heart of flesh, turning the heart of the fathers to the children, and the children to the fathers."Hence the Lord saith, in reference to his whole church, "I will give them one heart, and one way, that they may fear me for ever." {Jer 32:39}



are expressions generally made use of to denote the more immediate place where JEHOVAH hath fixed his throne. For thus it is expressed in Scripture. "Thus saith the Lord, The heaen is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? and where is the place of my rest?" {Isa 66:1} But Solomon breaks out in an expression, as one overwhelmed with surprise and wonder in the contemplation: "But will God indeed (said he) dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven, and the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee!" {1Ki 8:27} But what would this mighty monarch have said, had he lived to have seen the Lord of heaven and earth tabernacling in the substance of our flesh?

But, though, according to the language of Scripture, we call that place heaven which John saw opened, and where the more immediate presence of the Lord is gloriously displayed, yet it were to limit the Holy One of Israel to suppose, that JEHOVAH dwelleth in any place, to the exclusion of his presence or glory elsewhere. In the immensity of his GODHEAD, and the ubiquity of his nature and essence, he is every where; and, consequently, that place is heaven where JEHOVAH’S presence, in grace, and favour, and glory, is manifested. How little do they know of heaven, or of the divine love and favour, that conceive, if they could get to heaven in the crowd, though they know not how, and I had almost said, they care not how, provided they could get there, how little do they know in what consists the felicity of the place! Alas! an unsanctified, unrenewed, unregenerated heart would be miserable even in heaven. Sweetly doth David speak of the blessed work of assurance and grace in the soul respecting heaven, and in that assurance describes the suited preparation for it. "I shall behold (said he) thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied, when I awake; with thy likeness." {Ps 17:15}

Heaven of Heavens

See HAWKERS: Heaven


See HAWKERS: Mount Hebron


The Hebrews called it Sheol. Some apply it to the grave; but the most general acceptation of it, according to Scripture language, is a place of torment. Thus the Psalmist saith, "The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God." {Ps 9:17} And our blessed Lord, three times in one chapter, speaks of it in alarming terms. "If thine hand offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands, to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched: where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched." {Mr 9:43-48}

Some, however, have ventured to call in question the reality of hell torments, and the very existence of the place itself. But there is nothing so weak and so impious as disputes on these points; for unless men could satisfy their minds, that God cannot punish sin, or that he will not, it becomes a matter more presumptuous than becoming, to enquire the very particulars in which that punishment shall consist. The Lord hath declared, that the "wicked, and those that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and the glory of his power." {2Th 1:8-9} Here is sufficient account to certify every one of the reality of the thing itself. And the fact itself being once admitted, the method may surely be well supposed, that it will be such as infinite wisdom, joined with infinite power, shall appoint and accomplish. Here let us rest—only following up the conviction with a prayer to Him that hath the keys of hell and death, that he will keep our souls from going down into hell, and preserve us to his everlasting kingdom. Amen.


The mother of Manasseh was called by his name. {2Ki 21:1} But it is infinitely more interesting to consider, that the Lord calls his church by this name, and the cause for which he did, namely, because the Lord delighted in her. The name itself conveys as much, from Chaphatz, to will: as if the Lord had said by Hephzibah,. My will is in her.


The church of Christ hath, in all ages, been persecuted and divided by heresies. Indeed, the apostle Paul saith, that "there must be heresies among you, that they which are approved may be made manifest among you." {1Co 11:19} Our Lord himself speaks of the Nicolaitanes, Re 2:15. The Scriptures do not tell us in what their heresy consisted, but evidently in a departure from the truth, and probably in practices unsuitable to the purity of the gospel of Christ. But the last days’ dispensation, we are told, will be distinguished by great departures from the faith; and, we may truly say, already do they appear. {1Ti 4:1, &c.}


We find the Lord frequently speaking, in his holy word, concerning the heritage of his people. Canaan is all along described as the heritage the Lord had designed for Israel. {Ex 6:8} And we find also the people not unfrequently delighting themselves in it. "The lines are fallen unto me (said one of old) in pleasant places; yea, I have a goodly heritage." {Ps 16:6} But the Lord himself, over and above these things, is spoken of as the heritage of his redeemed. In the same sweet psalm, the sacred writer takes comfort in this assurance, and saith (Ps 16:5.) "The Lord himself is the portion of mine inheritance, and of my cup: thou maintainest my lot." So again the Lord, as the security of his people, saith himself, that "this is the heritage of the servants of the Lord, and their righteousness is of me, saith the Lord." {Isa 54:17} And as the Lord is the heritage of his people, so his people are said to be his; hence in times of trouble, the church is heard to say, "They break in pieces thy people, O Lord, and afflict thine heritage." {Ps 94:5} See some other sweet Scriptures to this amount: {Joe 2:17; Mic 7:14-18; Isa 58:14}

But when the reader hath duly pondered the blessed thought of beholding the Lord and his fulness as the heritage of his people, and his people as his heritage of delight, both in nature, providence, and grace, there is one thought more the subject of heritage proposeth to the meditation that ought not to be forgotten, The customs and manners of the eastern world differ so widely in many points from ours, that unless due attention be had to them we lose much of the sense and spirit of the things spoken of. Thus on the subject of heritages or inheritance. By virtue of alliance and relationship, these things were unalienable, and not liable to be lost to the right heirs of them. A child had an undoubted right, whether by natural birth or adoption, when once lawfully acknowledged as such, to the heritage of his birthright; neither could he be dispossessed by the caprice, or will, of his father. And there was another distinguishing property in the rights of heritage among the customs and laws of the eastern world, namely, that a son needed not to wait the death of the father for the possession of his heritage. He might at any time, when of age, claim it. And this throws a light upon the subject of the younger son in the parable. {Lu 15:11-12} And although, as in that instance, the father foresaw the abuse and misapplication of his heritage, yet by the laws of the east, the father could not withhold his portion from him.

Now, if we make application of these customs of the eastern world to the phrases and expressions we meet with in Scripture, which of course, as they were written there, had an eye to them in those writings, what beauties do we find they frequently give to the sense of Scripture on many points, which we should otherwise overlook and be ignorant of. Thus for instance, on the subject of heritage now before us. The heritage of Christ’s children cannot by those laws be ever lost, or become alienable. Jesus hath adopted them as his, both by his Father’s gift, and by his own purchase, and by the conquests of his grace; nothing therefore, can dispossess their undoubted right in Jesus and his fulness as their heritage for ever. Hence David saith, {Ps 119:111} "Thy testimonies have I claimed, as mine heritage for ever; for they are the rejoicing of mine heart."

Neither is this all: the heirs of God in Christ do not wait to a distant period for the possession of their heritage. Their God and Father never dies to render their rightful enjoyment necessary. He lives to put them into possession: and this they have not by reversion, but by present inheritance, here by grace through faith, and hereafter in glory. And though too often, like the prodigal in the parable, we waste and abuse the bounties of our heritage, yet, like him, the eye of our God and Father is always on the look-out for our return, and when by grace brought back, as he was, we are graciously received, and made happy in the pardoning mercy and love of our Father.

And as our person, so our mortgaged inheritance; both are secured from the same cause and fullness of salvation. As we have sold ourselves for nought, so are we redeemed without money. {Isa 52:3} Jesus our elder brother, our nearest of kin, hath ransomed both person and property. Our inheritance was not alienable for ever, but only to the year of jubilee. God our Father commanded him to open his hand wide to his poor brother, and he hath done it; so that we are brought into the full liberty wherewith he makes his redeemed free, and brought home also, at length, into the possession of an inheritance infinitely surpassing the one we originally forfeited, even "an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away." "Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the goodness of God!" See those Scriptures, {Le 25:25; De 15:7-8; 1Pe 1:3-5; Ro 11:33}


The sacred hill of Hermon is often spoken of in Scripture, and furnisheth out sweet subject to the Hebrew poetry. David describes the love and unity of brethren as like the dew of Hermon. {Ps 133:3} The falling of the dew of Hermon upon the hill of Zion was very natural, for Zion joined to it. And travellers describe the dew of this place as falling plentifully like showers.


It may be proper, for the better apprehension of the name of Herod to state some short account of the several we meet with in the New Testament. There are several mentioned, but they are different men. Indeed, but for their history being incorporated with the history of our Lord and his apostle, their names would not be worth recording, but their memory might have perished with them.

The first Herod made mention of in holy Scripture, was called Herod the Great. He reigned in Judea at the time of our Lord’s birth. {Mt 2:1} His name, according to the Greek language, signified the glory of the skin. But it became a very unsuitable name for the miserable end he made, according to the historians of his time, for he died of an universal rottenness. He reigned more than thirty years, and by his death, as we read Mt 2:19, gave opportunity for the return of the Lord Jesus, to depart from Egypt about the third year before we begin the date of Anno Domino. I mention this the more particularly, to guard the reader against the mistake into which some have fallen, in confounding this Herod with the Herod mentioned Acts. xii. which was his grandson.

The second Herod we meet with in the Bible, is Herod called Philip. (See Mr 6:17 and Lu 3:1) This Herod, as history informs us, was son to the former. And the third Herod went by the name of Antipas. This man was also son of Herod the Great, and brother to Philip. And this was he who, during the life of his brother, had married Herodias, his brother’s wife; and John the Baptist faithfully reproving him for the shameful deed, Herod, at the instance of her daughter, whom she had by Philip her first husband, caused John to be beheaded. {See Mt 14:1-12; Mr 6:14-29}

The fourth Herod we meet with in Scripture, is the one mentioned with such everlasting infamy in the twelfth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. His name was Agrippa, but surnamed Herod; the son of Aristobulus and Mariamne, and grandson to Herod, the Great. So much for the Herods! An awful though short account of such awful characters; while living, a terror to all around them, and when dead, lamented by none!


Were a sect of Jews, so called, perhaps, from appearing at the time of Herod the Great, and not before; though some have thought, that by way of complimenting Herod they assumed the name of Herodians. Certain it is, that Herod affected to be thought of the seed of David, though there could be but little doubt, that he was, by nation, an Idumean. But as the general expectation of the Jewish nation, at that time, was on the tiptoe for their king the Messiah to appear, to deliver them from the Roman yoke, and to raise an empire that should conquer the world, Herod was glad to fall in with this popular idea, not doubting but that they would regard him as the person. His disappointment at the birth of Christ, and the account the wise men who came from the east to Jerusalem, to seek for the new-born Prince, explains what we read of him, and his infamous cruelty. {Mt 2:1-18} This sect was evidently the creatures of Herod, and as such bore his name. Their endeavours to entangle Jesus in his talk, and to accuse him before the Roman government, very plainly prove how inimical they were to the doctrines of Christ. {Mt 22:15-16}


King of Judah, the son of Ahaz and Abi. His name is striking, Hezek and Jah, signifying the strength of the Lord. We have his history 2Ki 18; 2Ki 19; 2Ki 20. And so very important was the life of this prince considered, to form a part in the records of the church, that the Holy Ghost directed the prophet Isaiah to give it again in his prophetical writings. {See Isa 36; Isa 37; Isa 38; Isa 39} The miraculous effect wrought on the sun-dial, in confirmation of the Lord’s promise to Hezekiah, is an evident testimony of the Lord’s favour to this prince. Hezekiah’s hymn is beautiful, Isa 38:10-20.


See HAWKERS: Hidden



I pause over these words merely to remark, that in Scripture they express a great deal. It was the custom very generally through the eastern world, to secrete and bury their treasures and valuables. We are told by a certain author, that there are a set of men who make it their business to go about in search of treasure supposed to have been hidden; and so general is the idea, that vast treasures are concealed in the earth, by men who died without making discovery of them to their friends, that this employment of digging in pursuit of wealth is a common thing. This will throw a great light upon those expressions in the word of God, which enjoin an earnest pursuit after the knowledge and love of the Lord. "If thou seekest after wisdom (saith Solomon,) as silver, and searchest for her as for hid treasures, then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, and find the knowledge of God." {Pr 2:4-5} Nothing could be more happily chosen to intimate that earnest unwearied pursuit after Jesus, as men seeking for what lay buried out of sight. And when that life, which the apostle saith, is hid with Christ in God, {Col 3:3} is discovered, yea, in the smallest degree, this is like what the Lord said to Cyrus: "I will give thee the treasure of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places." {Isa 45:3} Views of Jesus, to the discovery by God the Holy Ghost, lead the soul to the enjoyment of him, "in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge." {Col 2:3}


The Bethelite of Jericho. His name implies, the life of God; from Chajak, to live; and El, God. I refer the reader to those two passages in Scripture, for the short but striking account of this man, whose boldness, in face of the curse Joshua pronounced, led him to so daring an act as that of building Jericho, and whose rashness the Lord so fully punished, in conformity to his servant’s prediction. (See Jos 6:26 with 1Ki 16:34)

See also HAWKERS: Elisha

High Places

We meet with frequent mention in the Bible of high places. Perhaps in the original design of them, they had been made sacred spots, and hallowed to the service of the true God of Israel; but, in process of time, they were used for idol-worship. The people called them Bamah, or, perhaps more properly, Bamoth, {See Eze 20:29} Those places were continued to the days of Christ, and called Proseuchy, or prayer-houses. Some of the kings of Israel, though going a good way in a spirit of reform, had not courage enough, or wanted the grace, to abolish those places of idol-worship. See {1Ki 22:43} Of good king Josiah, much praise was due to him on this account. See {2Ki 23:15}


The father of Eliakim, {2Ki 18:18} His name signifies, the Lord is my portion, from Cheleath, a portion; and Jah, the Lord. So also the father of Jeremiah was called by this name, {Jer 1:1} and the son of Amaziah. {1Ch 6:45}


We meet this name, with peculiar emphasis of expression, in the title of the twenty-second Psalm; and whoever reads that psalm, as it is evidently written, prophetically of Christ, will not hesitate to conclude, that he is the hind of the morning, to which the whole psalm refers. Hunted as a hind, or a roe upon the mountains, from the morning of his incarnation to the close of his life on the cross. "Dogs (as he said) compassed him about, the assembly of the wicked enclosed him; they pierced my hands and my feet," said the meek Redeemer.

And if we consider the quality and character of the hind, we discover strong features of resemblance whereby Jesus might be pictured. The hind is up with the first of the morning, at break of day. So was our Jesus first in the morning councils of eternity, when, at the call of God, he stood forth the Surety for all his people. Moreover, the sweetness of the hind is almost proverbial. "Be thou" (saith the church to Jesus), "be thou as a roe, or a young hart, upon the mountains of Bether." {Song 2:17} And who shall speak of the earnestness of the Lord Jesus to come over the mountains of sin, and hills of corruption, in our nature, when he came to seek and save that which was lost? Who shall describe those numberless anticipations which we find in the Old Testament of Jesus, in appearing sometimes as an angel, and sometimes in an human from? as if to say, how much he longed for the time to come, when he should openly appear, in the substance of our flesh, as "the hind of the morning!"

And there is another beautiful resemblance in the hind, or roe, to Christ, in the loveliness as well as swiftness of this beautiful creature. Nothing can be more lovely than the young roe, or hart. And what equally so to Christ, who is altogether lovely, and the "fairest among ten thousand?" He is lovely in his form and usefulness; hated indeed, by serpents, but to all the creation of God excellent. His flesh the most delicious food—"whose flesh is meat indeed, and his blood is drink indeed." "Be thou," (said the church,) "like to the roe, or to the young hart, upon the mountains of spices." {Song 8:14}


The valley Gehennon, called also the valley of Tophet. Gehennon is the Syriac word for hell. The same is meant by Tophet. These several names it should seem, were all equally applied to the same place. The prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah both speak of this awful spot. {Isa 30:33; Jer 7:31} And it is said, that Josiah, the good king, "defiled the place;" that is, he destroyed it for the purpose for which it had been used, by those wretched parents who had been deluded to sacrifice their children to the idol-god Molech, in this spot. {See 2Ki 23:10} For by destroying it, that cruel, unnatural, and impious practice could no more be done there. Some have thought, that the name Tophet took its rise from Thoph, a drum; for it is supposed, that this, and perhaps other musical instruments, were loudly sounded upon those occasions, to drown the piercing cries of the poor children. The name of Hinnom is derived from the sons of Hinnom. {Jos 15:8}

See HAWKERS: Molech


King of Tyre. A name rendered memorable from his friendship with Solomon. His name, according to the Hebrew phraseology, Huram, signifies a lifting up. {See 1Ki 5:1}


In Scripture language, our nature is frequently spoken of as an hireling. "Is there not an appointed time to man upon earth? are not his days also like the days of an hireling?" {Job 7:1} By the law, the Lord made a gracious provision for the hireling, commanding that his wages should not abide all night, until the morning. {Le 19:13} Under the gospel, the term of hireling is and also as a mark of worthlessness. Thus faithful servants of the Lord, in the ministry of his word and ordinances, are described as labourers sent into the vineyard by the Almighty Householder, and who, after the labour of the day, are called home to receive their hire; beginning from the last to the first. So that solemnly engaged in Christ’s service, and hired to the work, they are supposed to labour in the word and doctrine with a single eye to the Lord’s glory. They are, as instruments in the Lord’s hand to break up the fallow ground of the hearts of their people, and to water the garden of Jesus. {Mt 20:1-16} Whereas the mere hirelings, who enter the service of the Lord Jesus, not for love to the Lord, nor affection to his people, are represented as engaged only for filthy lucre’s sake. These seek the fleece, not to serve the flock. They look for gain, every one to his own quarter; for so the prophet describes them. {Isa 56:11} Our Lord, in his unequalled manner, hath strikingly defined their character. {Joh 10:12-13}


In the general acceptation of this word, as we now use it, it is universally, I believe, considered as a mark of reproach or contempt. And we find, that it was so used from the earliest ages. The patriarch Job, {Job 27:23} saith, that the hypocrite shall be so confounded, that men shall clap their hands at him, and shall hiss him out of his place. And the Lord declared, that if the people departed from following him, he would cause the house which Solomon had built for the Lord to become a proverb and a bye-word, and men should hiss at it as they passed by. {1Ki 9:7-8} But, beside this acceptation of the word, certain it is, that it is also used in a favourable point of view, and sometimes means the call of the Lord to his ministers and messengers, for the performing his sovereign will and pleasure. Thus the Lord saith, that he will "lift up an ensign to the nations from far, and will hiss unto them, that is, will call them from the end of the earth." {Isa 5:26} So again the bee of Egypt, and the bee of Assyria, meaning the armies of those nations, the Lord saith, he will hiss for: that is, will call them. {Isa 7:18} But the ultimate object of this hissing of the Lord, in his sovereign command, is, to bring on the perpetual reproach of the ungodly. "I will make this city desolate, and an hissing: every one that passeth thereby shall be astonished, and hiss because of the plagues thereof." {Jer 19:8}


Son of Jethro, and brother-in-law to Moses, His name signifies, beloved, from Chabab, to love.


Of the tribe of Manasseh. {1Ch 5:24} His name is compounded of Hod, praise, and Jah, the Lord.



In Scripture language, strictly and properly speaking, these terms are only applicable to the Lord. In short, the very term means JEHOVAH himself, for he, and and he only, is holy in the abstract. Hence it is, that we so often meet with those expressions descriptive of his person and character. "Thus saith the Lord, the Holy One of Israel. Thus saith the High and Lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, I dwell in the high and holy place." {Isa 57:15} Hence the term is applied to all the persons of the GODHEAD distinctly and separately, and to all in common; the Father speaks of it with peculiar emphasis, yea, confirms his promises by the solemnity of an oath, and does this, by pledging his holiness as the fullest assurance of the truth: "Once have I sworn by my holiness, that I will not lie unto David." {Ps 89:35} The Son of God is also spoken of with peculiar emphasis, as essentially holly in himself, in his divine nature, "being One with the Father, over all God blessed for ever, Amen." {Ro 9:5} Thus in special reference to the Lord Jesus, as the Son of God, when the prophet is speaking both of the Father and the Son, he joins in one verse the person of each, and gives to each the distinguishing character of the GODHEAD. "Fear not, thou worm, Jacob, and ye men of Israel: I will help, saith the Lord, and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel." {Isa 41:14} In like manner, God the Holy Ghost is peculiarly and personally considered under this Almightiness of character, his Holiness; and the same divine perfection declared to be essentially his, in common with the Father and the Son. Indeed, as if to define the glory of his person, Holy is the essential and incommunicable name by which the Eternal Spirit is known and distinguished throughout his sacred word. Hence, in his offices it is said of him, that by his overshadowing power acting on the body of the Virgin, at the conception of Christ, that Holy Thing, so called, should be born. {See Lu 1:35} So again, at the baptism of Christ, the blessed Spirit seen by Christ, decending like the hovering of a dove, and lighting upon the person of Christ, and thus distinguished in point of personality from God the Father, whose voice from heaven, in the same moment, declared Jesus to be his beloved Son, in whom he was well pleased. {Mt 3:16-17} And holiness is essentially and personally ascribed to God the Holy Ghost, in that gracious office of his, when it is said of the Lord Jesus, that God the Father anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost, and with power. {Ac 10:38}

But what I beg the reader particularly to observe with me, under this glorious distinction of character, belonging to each and to all the persons of the GODHEAD, is the very peculiar manner in which the holiness of JEHOVAH is spoken of in Scripture. While each person of the GODHEAD is thus plainly said to be holy, in the abstract of the word, and in a way of holiness that can be ascribed to no other; the worship and adoration of the Holy Three in One is peculiarly offered up in this very character. When Isaiah saw Christ’s glory, (see Isa 6 compared with Joh 12:41) the acclamations of the heavenly host resounded to the praises of JEHOVAH, under thrice ascriptions of the same, to the holiness of the Lord. So in like manner in John’s vision. {See Re 4:8} Certainly (this Trisagium,) this peculiar adoration of JEHOVAH in the holiness of his nature, rather than to any of the other perfections of the Lord, must have a meaning. Wherefore this divine attribute should be singled out, rather than the faithfulness of JEHOVAH, which we know the Lord delights in, {see De 7:9} or the eternity of JEHOVAH, which the Lord describes himself by, {see Isa 57:15} I dare not venture even to conjecture. We are commanded to worship the Lord, indeed, in the beauty of holiness. {Ps 96:9} And Moses’s song celebrates the Lord’s praise, in being glorious in holiness. {Ex 15:11} And no doubt, as in the portrait of a man, to behold it in its most complete form, we should take all the prominent features of beauty, so the holy Scriptures of God, when sketching the divine representation, do it in all that loveliness of character, so as to endear the Lord to every heart, Hence David made this the "one great desire of his soul,"to dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of his life, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and to enquire in his temple." {Ps 27:4} I must not forget, under this article yet farther to observe, that the thrice ascribing holiness to JEHOVAH in the song of heaven, hath been uniformly and invariably considered by the church, as the suited adoration to each person of the GODHEAD, and, at the same time, to all, collectively considered, in the one glorious and eternal JEHOVAH, existing in a threefold character of persons,"Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. {1Jo 5:7}

Having thus briefly considered the subject, as referring to the holiness of JEHOVAH in his own eternal power and GODHEAD, the subject must now be considered in reference to the person of the God-man Christ Jesus, and then to the church in him.

As strictly and properly speaking, the term "holy" can belong to none but JEHOVAH, and so the song of Hannah beautifully set forth, {1Sa 2:2} so none but the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Christ of God, can be holy. The highest order of created beings, angels of the first magnitude, have only a derived holiness from the Lord, as the moon’s brightest light is only borrowed from the sun. The holiness of creatures can be no other than as the shadow to the substance. Hence we are told, that in the very moment of adoration "angels veil their faces," as if to testify their nothingness in the presence of the Lord. {Isa 6:2} But, by the union of that pure holy portion of our nature which the Son of God hath united to himself in the GODHEAD of his nature, he hath communicated an infinite dignity to that nature, and made it holy as himself. In fact, it is truly and properly himself; for in Christ, God and man in one person, dwelleth "all the fulness of the GODHEAD bodily." {Col 2:9} And hence, in proof, we have these blessed Scriptures. Daniel, when speaking of Christ as coming "to finish transgression, and to make an end of sin," saith, that this is "to anoint the Most Holy." {Da 9:24} And another prophet calls Christ, as Christ, the Holy One. "Thou shalt not suffer thine Holy One to see corruption." {Ps 16:10} And the Lord Jesus had this name specifically given him before his incarnation, the Holy Thing. {Lu 1:35} And Peter, in his sermon, peculiarly denominates the Lord Jesus Christ, in his mediatorial character, the Holy One, and the Just. {Ac 3:14} All which, and more to the same amount, are expressly spoken of the Lord Jesus Christ, in his person and character as the Head of his body the Church, God and man in one person. "For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens." {Heb 7:26} Such, then, is the personal holiness of the Lord Jesus Christ—an holiness higher than the angels, be cause the infinite holiness of the GODHEAD in him is underived. Hence of angels, it is said, the Lord "chargeth them with folly;" {Job 4:18} that is, with weakness, and the possibility of sinning. But of the Son, he saith, "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever;" that is, his mediatorial throne, as is plain by what follows: "Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore, God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows." {Heb 1:8-9} Here is a double proof that this is said to Christ, as Christ; for in the first place, the anointing of the Lord Jesus could not have been as God only, but as God and man in one person. And, secondly, this anointing with the oil of gladness is expressly said to have been, "for, or above his fellows," that is, his body the Church; evidently proving hereby, that he is considered, and here spoken of, as "the glorious Head of his body the church, the fulness of him that filleth all in all." {Eph 1:22-23}

Next, we must take a view of the term holy and holiness; as relating to Christ’s church, made so only by virtue of her union with him. And this becomes a most interesting part to be considered, because without an eye to the Lord Jesus, nothing in the creation of God can be farther from holiness, than poor, fallen, ruined, undone man. I beg the reader’s particular attention to this, as forming one of the sweetest features of the gospel. The whole Scriptures of God declare, that the great purpose for which the Son of God became incarnate, was to destroy the works of the devil, and to raise up the tabernacles of David that were fallen down, and to purify to himself "a peculiar people, zealous of good works." One of the apostles, in a very interesting and beautiful manner, describes the Lord Jesus in this endearing character, as engaged in the great work of salvation. "Christ (saith he) loved the church, and gave himself for it: that he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water, by the word, that he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish." {Eph 5:25-27} And hence, in conformity to this gracious design of the Lord Jesus, we find the church of God, beheld as in oneness and union with her glorious Husband, spoken of, in all ages of the church, under this precious character. "Ye shall be (saith Moses to the true Israel of God) a peculiar treasure unto me above all people; and ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation." {Ex 19:5-6} And hence the gospel-charter, corresponding to the same as the law by Moses had typically represented, makes the same proclamation. "Ye are (saith Peter) a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people, that ye should shew forth the praises of Him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light." {1Pe 2:9} And if it be asked, as well it may, how is it that the church of the Lord Jesus, which in every individual member of it is continually complaining of a body of sin and death, believers carry about with them from day to day, how is it that such can be called holy before the Lord? The answer is at hand, and perfectly satisfactory: They are so, from their union with, and their right and interest in their glorious Head; for if he was made sin for them, who knew no sin, it is but just that they, who in themselves have no righteousness, should be made "the righteousness of God in him." {2Co 5:21} And if the church be commanded, as that the church is, and by God the Father himself; to call Christ "the Lord our righteousness," equally proper is it, and by the same authority also, that the church should be called the Lord our righteousness, as the lawful wife bearing her husband’s name. (Compare Jer 23:6 with Jer 33:16) And all this because the Lord Jesus hath married his church, hath made her holy in his holiness and is become to her, by God the father’s own covenant-engagements, "wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption; that, according as it is written, he that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord." {1Co 1:30} Such, then, are the beautiful Scripture views of holy and of holiness, in the lovely order of it. First, as beheld in the persons of the GODHEAD, in the very being of JEHOVAH. Secondly, as the same in the personal holiness of the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Christ of God, and the glorious Head of his body the church. And thirdly, as making holy the whole body of the church in Jesus, and from Jesus, and by Jesus, united to him. And hence, from this union, every thing that is called holy in Scripture, derives that sanctity. The temple, the holy of holies, the vessels of the sanctuary, the ordinances, sacrifices, and all that belonged to the Jewish church. And, under the Christian dispensation, every thing found in the simple services of Christ’s church is no otherwise holy, than as it derives that purity from Christ’s person; Christ is all, and in all. Yea, heaven itself, into which Jesus is gone as the forerunner of his people, hath all its holiness and blessedness from him. John tells the church, that "he saw no temple there, for the Lord God Almighty, and the Lamb, are the temple of it." {Re 21:22}


See HAWKERS: Holiness

Holy Ghost

Besides referring back to the former article (See HAWKERS: Holiness) concerning this almighty Lord, it may be proper to subjoin some of the names and offices by which God the Holy Ghost is known in Scripture. I say some, for to bring forward all is perhaps beyond the power or the province of man. Our blessed Lord, over and above the sacred names the Holy Ghost hath in common with the Father and the Son in the essence of the GODHEAD, hath graciously taught his church the special titles and appellations by which the Lord the Spirit is known. He is called the "Spirit of truth, by Jesus that leads his church into all truth." {Joh 14:17} Jesus speaks of him as a "Witness to testify of him." {Joh 16:26} And his servant, the apostle Paul, following the steps of his divine Master, calls the Holy Ghost by the same name. See a beautiful account of the almighty Spirit to this amount. {Ro 8:1-16} As the Holy Ghost the Comforter, the Lord Jesus most blessedly describes him. {Joh 14:16-26} Indeed, this is his great work; for under whatever divine operations the Lord the Spirit brings the people of God, the first and ultimate design of the whole, is for consolation. Hence Paul prays for the communion and fellowship of the Holy Ghost to be with the church. {2Co 13:14} And it is most blessed to every child of God, when brought into the fellowship and communion of the Holy Ghost, to discover how that almighty Comforter opens a communication between Christ and the soul, and keeps it open by the exercises of his grace; so that, while the person of the Father, or the Son, is coming forth to bless the soul, he draws forth and leads out the actings of the soul’s faith and love upon the glorious persons of the GODHEAD, and gives "a joy unspeakable and full of glory."

The Lord Jesus also points to the person and office of the Holy Ghost, as a Leader and Guide to his chosen, Joh 16:13; as a Glorifier of Jesus, Joh 16:14; as the Remembrancer also of Jesus, Joh 14:26. And as the prophet Isaiah had been commanded to tell the church of this sovereign Lord, under his almighty offices, as acting with "a spirit of judgment and a spirit of burning," {Isa 4:4} the Lord Jesus more fully opens the nature of these heart-searching works of the Holy Ghost, in shewing that it consists in "convincing of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment." {Joh 16:8-11} In short, so many, so diversified, so constant, and so unremitting are the operations of the Holy Ghost on the hearts and minds of the Lord’s people, that it must with truth be said, that he, and he only, is the almighty minister in the church of Christ, and to him alone the who efficiency of the gospel, both in work and blessing, is committed.

And, indeed, the beautiful order in the covenant of grace, and the economy of redemption, makes it necessary so to be. For, as the whole Three persons of the GODHEAD all concurred in the vast design, and all guaranteed to each other concerning the several offices in the departments of grace, so it became essential, that in the carrying on and completing the work, each almighty person should be engaged in it in his own specific office and character. The Father gave the church; the Son redeemed the church; and God the Holy Ghost sanctifies the church. God the Father appears in the Old, Testament dispensation, holding forth the promised Saviour with all his blessings, as coming for salvation; God the Son takes up the wonderful subject under the New Testament dispensation, as thus coming and finishing all that was promised in the Old; and now that the Son of God hath finished transgression, made an end of sin, and is returned unto glory, God the Holy Ghost is come down, agreeably to Jesus’s and his Father’s most sure promise, to render effectual the whole purpose of redemption, by his divine offices in the hearts of the redeemed. And thus the church is taught to give equal and undivided praise and glory to the united source of all her mercies, in the Father’s love, the Son’s grace, and the Spirit’s fellowship.

It would be little less than the brief recapitulation of the Bible, to go over all that might be brought forward concerning the agency of God the Holy Ghost in the church. From the first awakenings of grace in the heart, until grace is consummated in glory, believers are taught to look to that Holy and eternal Spirit, for his leadings and influences in and through all. The regeneration by the Holy Ghost, in the first motions of the spiritual life, Joh 3:3; the baptisms of the Spirit, so essential in the spiritual life, 1Co 12:13; the illuminations of the Spirit, 2Co 4:6; the "indwelling residence of the Spirit," Joh 14:16-17; the "receiving of the Holy Ghost," Ac 8:15-17; the "walking in the Spirit," Ac 9:31; the "renewing of the Ho1y Ghost," Tit 3:5; the sealings and earnest of the Spirit, Eph 1:13; 2Co 5:5. All these, and infinitely more to the same effect, prove his sovereign and unceasing agency. But having already swollen this article beyond the usual limits, I must close these observations with only praying that holy and eternal Teacher in the church of the Lord Jesus, to grant some sweet and precious token of his grace and power, by setting his seal in the heart both of the writer and reader, that the truth of his ministry may be known, and felt, and adored, to his glory, and to our comfort and joy. "May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost." {Ro 15:13}


There is frequent mention made in Scripture concerning honey. It is made, indeed, by the Lord himself, a type of the promised land. And the manna from heaven, that the Lord fed the church with in the wilderness forty years, is said in taste, to have been "like wafers made with honey." {Ex 16:31} Notwithstanding this, it is somewhat remarkable, that the Lord forbade the offering of it upon the altar. {Le 2:11} The Lord Jesus, in commending the loveliness and sweetness of his church, compares her lips to the "droppings of the honeycomb." {Song 4:11} We may well suppose the figure is just, as well as beautiful, because Christ himself useth it. And when the church is in public prayer, or a believer is in private devotion, and the Holy Ghost is leading the soul in those sacred exercises, it is indeed "sweet as the honeycomb to the soul, and health to the bones." {Pr 16:24} And when Jesus’s name and salvation are the gracious themes of the believer’s exercise; whether in prayer or praise or reading the word, or religious conversation; every act, like the sweetness of honey, is grateful. The prophet describes the blessed effect in a very lively manner. {Mal 3:16-17} "Then they that feared the Lord, spake often one to another, and the Lord hearkened and heard it; and a book of remembrance was written before him, for them that feared the Lord, and that thought upon his name. And they shall be mine, saith the Lord of hosts, in that day when I make up my jewels; and I will spare them, as a man spareth his own son that serveth him."



In the strict and proper sense of the word, this is Christ; for He, and He only, as the prophet hath described him, "is the Hope of Israel, and the Saviour thereof?" {Jer 14:8} And, indeed, this view must be uniformly preserved and kept up, because, without an eye to Christ, there can be no such thing as hope, for all our whole nature is, in its universal circumstances, "without God, and without hope in the world." {Eph 2:12} And it is very blessed to turn over the Scriptures of God, and behold the Lord Jesus Christ set forth under this endeared character, in a great variety of figures and representations, throughout the whole Bible.

Jesus was the grand hope of all the Old Testament believers before his incarnation. They all, like Abraham, saw "his day afar off," rejoiced and were glad; and, like him, amongst all the discouraging circumstances they had to encounter"against hope, they believed in hope." Hence, though the longing expectation of the church, as Solomon expressed it, was like "hope deferred, which maketh the heart sick;" {Pr 13:12} yet, as Jeremiah was commissioned to tell the church, there was still "hope in the end, saith the Lord, that the children of Christ should come to their own border." {Jer 31:17}

Christ, therefore, being held up to the church’s view as the hope of his redeemed, is set forth under various similitudes corresponding to this character. His people are called "prisoners of hope." {Zec 9:12} And the apostle Paul, under the same figure, calls himself the Lord’s prisoner, and saith, it is for "the hope of Israel, I am bound with this chain." {Ac 28:20; Eph 4:1} And elsewhere, he described it under the strong metaphor of "an anchor to the soul, both sure and steadfast." {Heb 6:19} In short, Christ is the only hope of eternal life, to which we are "begotten by his resurrection from the dead. In him our flesh is said to rest in hope," when returning to the dust; and all our high expectations of life and immortality are expressed, in "looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the Great God, and our Saviour, Jesus Christ." (See those Scriptures, Tit 2:13; 1Pe 1:3; Ps 16:9)

As Christ then is the only true hope the Scriptures speak of, it is very evident, that every other hope, not founded in Christ, is and must be deceitful. The world is full of hope, and the life of carnal and ungodly men is made up of it. But what saith the Scripture, of all such. "The hope of the hypocrite, saith Job, shall be cut off, and his trust shall be as a spider’s web." {Job 7:14} So that the hope of the faithful, which is Christ himself, affords the only well-grounded confidence for the life that now is, and that which is to come. And this "hope maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in the heart by the Holy Ghost." It is founded in Christ, and is, in. need, Christ formed in the heart, "the hope of glory." {Ro 5:5; Col 1:27}


One of the sons of Eli. His name signifies to cover, from the Hebrew Chaphah. This man’s history is a very awful one, as we read it, 1Sa 2; 1Sa 3; 1Sa 4. His brother Phinehas, or Pinehai more properly, and which signifies a countenance or face, from Panah, to behold, was another such a character as himself. Both lived in the commission of the same sins, and both died under the same judgment of God. The infamy of these men while ministering before the Lord, the Holy Ghost hath faithfully recorded; and their history presents itself as a monument in the church, to be read by all that minister in holy things. Oh, that the Lord may cause it to operate as an alarm in the Lord’s holy mountain!

The sin of those priests respecting the sacrifice is not, at first view, so generally understood. The peace-offerings, as prescribed by the law, {Le 3:1, &c.} give directions for the fat of the beasts offered in sacrifice, and also for the parts to be taken away. The portion allotted to the priests Moses directed. {Le 7:31-34} For the servants, therefore, to demand the portion for his master before the Lord’s portion, was irreverent and unbecoming. Add to this, they were not content with the priest’s portion, it should seem, but took more, and that, if not immediately given, by violence. They were what the prophet called "greedy dogs, that never could have enough." {Isa 56:11} The irreverence of the priests brought contempt, as might well be supposed, upon the offerings of the Lord. Alas! what accumulated evils follow the commission of sin in the service of the sanctuary!



The mountain where Aaron died, the fortieth year of Israel’s departure from Egypt. The name of Hor means, who conceives.


The memorable place where the visions of God began with Moses. Here it was, that this great leader of the armies of Israel had his first view of God in Christ. That this was Christ, the Angel of the Covenant, who manifested himself to the man of God, there can be no question, by comparing the account of this solemn interview, as it is related in Exodus, chap. iii. and as it is explained by Stephen, Ac 7:30-32. Horeb, and mount Sinai, were so close to each other, that they both, at a distance, appeared but as one mountain. Here it was, that Moses struck the rock at the foot of Horeb. {Ex 17:6-8} And Rephidim was near at hand. From hence the progress of the rock that followed Israel took its rise, and which the apostle to the Corinthians plainly declares was Christ. {1Co 10:4} So that Horeb, which in its original sense signifies a desert and dryness, was admirably suited both to Moses and Israel, to teach them that from the dry and desert state of our fallen nature ariseth the very cause of finding springs in Christ. It is from our misery Christ takes occasion to magnify the glory of his mercy; and from the drought of Horeb, the rock that follows Israel, even Christ, furnished a fulness of living water to the soul. The name of Rephidim, which is in the plural number, and signifies places of rest, from Raphab, rest, is esentation of our nature resting in itself, without any thing in our own power to give satisfaction to the dry soul. Here will be always "Massah and Meribah, that is, temptation and chiding," till Christ, the rock of living water, is discovered and enjoyed.

See HAWKERS: Sinai


An ancient people, who dwelt in mount Seir. {Ge 14:6} Perhaps, in latter days, they were mingled with, and lost their name in the Edomites, or children of Esau. {De 2:1, &c.}



This word in Scripture doth not seem to be very generally understood. Certainly it is more than once spoken of in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus JEHOVAH saith, "I will make the horn of David to flourish," meaning Christ. {See Ps 132:17} And Zacharias celebrates Christ to the same amount in his song, when saying, "the Lord hath raised up an horn for salvation for us, in the house of his servant David." {Lu 1:69} But when it is said, that the Lord "will cut off the horns of the wicked, and the horns of the righteous shall be exalted," {Ps 75:10} here it appears, that the expression is in allusion to somewhat of a man’s own, and not simply with an eye to Christ. Perhaps the word may be considered as referring in general to strength. Thus the son of "Chenaanah made him horns of iron, and said, with these shalt thou push the Syrians." {1Ki 22:11} And, indeed, the prophet describes the Lord as having "horns coming out of his hand, when before him went the pestilence." {Hab 3:4} Hence also we read of the horns of the altar. {Jer 17:1; Re 9:13} But whether these had reference to any thing ornamental, or to objects more important, when "the sacrifice was bound with cords even to the horns of the altar," I cannot determine. {Ps 118:27}


We read of this insect a particularly commissioned by the Lord, to punish and drive out the enemies of Israel. In hot countries, it may easily be conceived, how formidable a swarm of such creatures armed with stings must become to any people, and especially when sent, like the flies of Egypt, in judgment by the Lord. {See De 7:20; Jos 24:12} But some, beside the history of the fact itself, in the hornets the Lord literally and truly sent to drive out before Israel their enemies, take the expression also in a figurative sense, and consider hornets from the Lord as the buzzing and stinging effects of a guilty conscience. And these age still more formidable and alarming. "I will send my fear before thee, saith the Lord." {Ex 23:27-28} And where the Lord sends his fear, a man’s own feelings will make him flee.

See HAWKERS: Flies




The Hebrews read it Hoshiah-na. The meaning is, "Save me, I beseech you;" from Jahash, to save; and Na, I pray you. It is hardly necessary to tell the reader, that it was with this salutation the multitude hailed Christ, in his public entrance into Jerusalem, five days before his death. The prophet Zechariah had predicted of the Messiah, that he should so come; and none but Christ ever did so. (Compare Zec 9:9 with Mt 21:1-11) It was prohesied also by David, that "prayer should be made for him continually." {Ps 72:15} And here we find the unceasing cry Hosanna, which is a form of blessing and prayer included; as if they had said, "Preserve, Lord, this son of David!" And the spreading of their garments in the way, and strewing the road with branches of trees, were all figurative of laying every thing at the feet of Jesus. The feats of Tabernacles was so celebrated, to denote holy joy in the gathering in all the Lord’s blessings; and some have thought, that this feast was particularly typical of this entry of the Lord Jesus; for it is somewhat remarkable, that at this feast they carried branches, which they called Hosannas. I cannot dismiss the consideration of this article, without subjoining one thought more, to remark the conduct of the Jewish children upon this occasion. For what but a divine overruling power could have produced such an effect, that in the moment their fathers, and the scribes and pharisee’s were moved with indignation, those little children should join the Redeemer’s train, and mingle their infant voices in the Hosanna of the multitude! And the reader will not overlook in this account, I hope, how thereby that blessed prophecy was fulfilled, and which Jesus himself explained and applied. "Have ye never read, Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise?" {Mt 21:16; Ps 8:2}


—the Prophet. His name is the same as that of Joshua, and signifies a Saviour. He was the son of Beevi. He is placed the first of what is called the minor prophets; not so called as if the writings of those holy men of old were considered less important than others—not so—but the reason of their being called minor prophets, was on account of the bulk of their prophetical writings being less. Very highly indebted hath the church been, in all ages, for their ministry; and believers in the present hour, find daily cause to bless God the Holy Ghost, for the instrumentality of those men. Hosea began to prophecy very early in the church, prehaps, as some think, the first of all the prophets whose writings have been preserved in the canon of Scripture; and he continued through several reigns, as the preface in his first chapter shews. On the subject of his marriage with Gomer,

(see HAWKERS: Gomer)

some have thought, that this was a parable, and only intended by the Lord in a figurative way, to shew the Lord’s grace to his adulterous Israel and Judah. But certainly the thing itself is real. And wherefore should it be more improbable, in the case of Hosea’s marrying an adulteress, than in Jeremiah’s instance, and in the case of Ezekiel also, being continued types of the doctrines they were directed to deliver to the people.

I cannot take leave of the history of Hosea without first desiring the reader to remark with me, what numberless things we discover in this man’s writings, pointing to the person, offices, relation, and ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. What grace, mercy, love, and condescension in the Lord marrying our adulterous nature! What blessedness is set forth in that betrothing nature, for ever! What sweet views of Jesus doth this man’s writings give concerning his recoveries of his people under all their backslidings, and departures, and rebellions, and ingratitude! Surely, it is impossible for any enlightened eye to read the records of the prophet, and not perceive the Saviour in almost every chapter and verse, from beginning to end, And how blessed was it and gracious in God the Holy Ghost, in those distant ages from Christ, when the prophecy of Hosed was delivered; and how blessed and gracious now in our day, upon whom "the ends of the world are come;" that this man’s ministry should be made instrumental to comfort and refresh both, concerning the glorious person, love, grace, and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ. Oh, what a sweet proof of the constant and unceasing love watching over and blessing the church of Jesus, by God the Holy Ghost, {See Isa 27:3}

There was another Hosea in the church, who was last king of Israel. {See 2Ki 17:1}


The mother of Jezaniah. His name is a compound of Hosha and Jah, from Jasha, Saviour; and Jah, Lord, (See Ne 12:32.)


The apostles strongly recommended this virtue to the church. "Use hospitality one to another without grudging," saith Peter, {1Pe 4:9} And Paul begged the Hebrews," {Heb 13:2} not to be forgetful"to entertain strangers, for thereby, he said, some had entertained angels unawares? alluding very probably, to the case of Abraham and Lot, as related Ge 18:3 and Ge 19:2. And Moses commanded the same gracious conduct, upon another account: "Love ye the stranger, for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt." {De 10:19} But how infinitely higher are the motives enforced in the consideration, that Jesus, the heavenly stranger, came to visit us in our ruined state, and so journeyed among us as a wayfaring man for a little space, that we might dwell with him for ever! And how blessed also, on the other hand, is the consideration, that when this divine Samaritan, as a stranger, passed by, and saw our whole nature robbed and plundered by the great enemy of souls, he took us up, and brought us to the inn of his church and ordinances, and hath there commanded us to be well taken care of until his second coming, when he will recompense every minute act of kindness shewn us for his sake! Such views of Jesus enforce hospitality indeed, in the highest extent, and compel by a motive of the most persuasive nature. The "cup of cold water" given in the name and for the sake of a disciple, cannot be given unnoticed, neither pass unrewarded. Jesus hath already left it upon record, what he will say in that day when he cometh to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all that believe me in; naked, and ye clothed me; I was sick, and ye visited me; I was in prison, and ye came unto me."And when the conscious sense of the littleness of services, and the unworthiness of the doer, shall make the souls of Christ’s people exclaim,"Lord, when saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in; or naked, and clothed thee; or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? The Lord Jesus will graciously explain the seeming impossibility in manifesting, before a congregated world, the oneness between himself and his redeemed. "Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me." {Mt 25:34-40}



We do not find any particular method made use of in the Old Testament Scripture, for dividing the hours of the day in one regular plan. The Hebrews made four parts in each day—morning, noon, the first evening, and the last evening. And the night was again formed into three parts—the night watch, the midnight watch, and what was called the morning watch, to the break of day. Hence David beautifully speaks of the waiting of his soul on the Lord, "more than they that watch for the morning;" yea, said he, repeating it with earnestness, "yea, I say, more than they that watcheth for the morning." {Ps 130:6} The dial of Ahas is the first account we have in Scripture of the method the Hebrews had to mark down the progress of time; and this it should seem, was by marks or lines of degrees, and not of hours. In the New Testament we find our fathers then arrived at some method of calculating hours; and certainly then they did, as we do now, divide the day into twelve hours. Hence Jesus said, "Are there not twelve hours in the day?" (Joh 11:9. see also Mt 20:3-5). But the time of reckoning always began at six in the morning; and the seventh was the first hour. The reader of the New Testament should always keep this in remembrance. Hence when we read, {Ac 3:1} that Peter and John went up together into the temple at the hour of prayer, being the ninth hour, that was three in what we call the afternoon; and, consequently, the twelfth hour was six in the evening.

While I am upon this subject of the Jewish hours, I cannot forbear calling the reader’s attention to one circumstance, which I think, now in the present day of the church, still equally interesting as it was of old always regarded, I mean the time of the evening sacrifice. If the reader will turn to the first account of any appointed sacrifice, even the lamb of the Passover, {Ex 12:5} he will find, that the whole assembly of the people were to kill this lamb of the first year without blemish in the evening, or, as the margin of the Bible hath it, between the two evenings, that was what we should call three o’clock in the afternoon; and to this precise time all the sacrifices of the evening corresponded. Hence, we are told, {1Ki 18:29} they prophesied till the evening sacrifice. Ezra saith, "I sat astonied until the evening sacrifice, and at the evening sacrifice I arose up from my heaviness." {Ezr 9:4-5} Hence David also prays, "Let my prayer be set forth before thee as incense, and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice," {Ps 141:2} And Daniel tells the church, that the man Gabriel touched him about "the time of the evening oblation." {Da 9:21}

Now what I beg the reader particularly to notice in all these instances, is the uniformity as to the time of the hour; and then let him turn his attention, and look at the cross of Christ, and behold the Lord Jesus at that very hour fulfilling the whole in the sacrifice of himself. The Evangelists are all particular to remark, that there was darkness over all the earth, from the sixth hour (twelve at noon) until the ninth hour, (three in the afternoon.) And then it was Jesus, cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. Now let the reader pause, and consider the subject attentively. Who was it but God the Holy Ghost, that caused the evening sacrifice, from the first moment of appointed sacrifices in the church to the glorious finishing of all sacrifices in the death of the Lord Jesus, thus minutely to correspond? And what a sacred hour that was all along considered in the divine mind, when not the sacrifice only, but the very hour of offering it was so scruptulously regarded! Think then reader, how infinitely momentous must be the thing itself, when the mere shadow of the substance was so solemnly attended to; when through a period of more than fifteen hundred years the evening lamb was regularly sacrificed in the very hour which, in after ages, Christ, the Lamb of God, should offer himself in a sacrifice to God, to take away the sins of the world! Lord, I would say, for myself and reader, cause this hour of the afternoon, which was so sacred in the Jewish church, to be sacred to my soul also; and wherever I am, or however engaged, at the sounding bell at three in the afternoon, call my forgetful wandering thoughts to the hill of Calvary. Let me as often as the circumstances of my poor, empty, and unsatisfying life will allow, by faith, do as Peter and John did, indeed, go up to the Lord’s house at the hour of prayer, the three o’clock hour; and there may my soul meet the Lord of Peter and John, and like the cripple healed in Christ’s name at the gate of the temple, may my feet and ankle bones receive strength in the name of Jesus; and while the Lord himself takes me by the hand, may I, as he did, leap up and stand, and with Jesus enter into his temple walking, and leaping, and praising God. {Ac 3}




The word house, in Scripture, means somewhat more than the mere residence of a family; indeed, it hath various significations. Heaven is called the house of God, "an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." The grave is called "the house appointed for all living." {Job 30:23} The church is called "the house of the living God." Ye also, saith Peter, speaking to the faithful, "are built up a spiritual house." {1Pe 2:5; Heb 3:6} But in a more general way, a family is called an house, such as the house of the Rechabites, {Jer 35:2} the house of David, {Zec 13:1} But amidst all these, and more to the like import, that undoubtedly is the highest and the best sense of the word which considers the Lord Jesus Christ himself as the High Priest and Head of his body the church, and the bodies of his people the temple of his indwelling residence by his Spirit. And the conscious sense of his presence, in upholding, acting upon, comforting, refreshing, stengthening, and witnessing to the soul, and for the Lord in the soul, these are among the most blessed evidences in the enjoyment of the household of faith. Here, in the fullest sense of the expression, the church, and every individual believer forming a part in that church, may and is called the house of the living God. "Lo! I come, said JEHOVAH, and I will dwell in the midst of thee;" {Zec 2:11} and this scriptural sense of the word may serve to shew why it was the patriarchs, and holy men of old, were so anxious concerning their households and brailles. Thus the faithful Abraham, after that the Lord had revealed himself unto him in vision, and said, "Fear not, Abraham, I am thy shield, and thine exceeding great reward;" the patriarch felt a boldness to ask of God concerning his household. Abram said, "Lord God! what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of ray house is this Eliezer of Damascus?" {Ge 15:1-2} meaning, that he was not born of his bowels, but Damascus born, probably a black. Now as it is well known, that every black slave when freed by his master, was always after known by the name of "the child" of the house, (for so the phrase steward of my house means,) it is likely, that Abram felt some jealousy concerning this freed slave being his heir. And the very name Eliezer was not a little in countenancing this idea, which signified the help of my God. But I leave the reader to his own views of this subject, only remarking farther, that the Lord’s gracious answer concerning Isaac seems a confirmation, that it was in this, or some such like sense, the house or family was regarded. See Ge 15:4-6.


A city in the tribe of Asher. {Jos 19:31} probably Chakak, so called, meaning statutes, writings.



The son of Abram. {Ge 10:23} The name means infirmity.


The prophetess, the wife of Shallum. Her name is the same as the Hebrew name for the world. Josiah consulted her on account of the book found in the house of the Lord. {2Ki 22:14} We cannot sufficiently admire the firmness of this woman, in the answer she returned to king Josiah. Tell the man that sent you, thus saith the Lord, "Behold, I will bring evil upon this place; but because thine heart was tender, and thou hast humbled thyself before the Lord, thine eyes shall not see all the evil which I will bring upon this place." It is a blessed thing to be found faithful both to God and man!


This was a city of Judah. {Jos 15:54} Humtah is the Hebrew word for snail.


One of the old Lexicons for the Bible speaks of hunting as the apprenticeship of war; and certain it is, that the transition from hunting beasts is easily made to that of hunting men. It seems to be no unfair inference, that he who can take pleasure in tearing poor timid hares to pieces by dogs, would not melt into tears in beholding men torn to pieces by horses, Nimrod is the first hunter we read of in history, and of him it is said to a proverb, that he was a mighty hunter before the Lord. {Ge 10:9} And as the beginning of his kingdom was Babel and Erech, and other places, it is very probable, that be was a mighty conqueror also of men, It is worthy remark, that when the Lord speaks: of sending a scourge upon the earth, he speaks of his instrument to punish under the character of hunters. {Jer 16:16} And it is still worthy of farther remark, that at a time when the Lord delivered David from his enemies, he describes the deliverance under the name of "the snare of the fowler?" {Ps 91:3}


He that went up with Moses and Aaron to the Mount when Amalek fought with Israel. {Ex 17:10} His name signifies a cavern, from Chur.


I should not have made the pause of a moment over this word, neither have deemed it necessary to have said aught by way of explaining a name so familar, had it not been for the special relationship of this character, when considered in reference to the Lord Jesus Christ, But looking up to him as the Husband of his people, in the union of our nature, it becomes a most interesting subject, and demands the clearest apprehension by every true believer in Christ. Now the Scriptures with one voice concur in the relation of the fact itself. "Thy maker is thine husband, the Lord of hosts is his name; and thy Redeemer, the Holy. One of Israel, the God of the whole earth shall he be called." {Isa 54:5} And to the same amount do all the Scriptures declare. {See Jer 3:14; Ho 2:19-20} And the New Testament writers follow up the same blessed doctrine, telling us, that Christ "took not on him the nature of angels, but he took on him the seed of Abraham." {Heb 2:16} Indeed as the Surety and Sponsor of his church and people, it became essentially necessary that he should take our nature,"and be in all things tike to his brethren, sin only excepted." Agreeably to all this, as settled in the council of peace before all worlds, he stood up as the covenant-head and husband of his people. As the husband of his church he under took to pay all our debts to God which by sin we had incurred; he engaged to disannul all our former contracts, and to divorce our poor hearts, which sin, Satan, and the world had captivated, and by his Holy Spirit to win over our affections, and make us willing in the day of his power. He engaged both for our debt and for our duty, and promised, as the husband of his church, that he would beat down all our foes before our face, and at length bring his bride home to "the marriage-supper of the Lamb in heaven."

These were among the obligations into which the Son of God put himself, when at the call of his Father he came forth the bridegroom of his church. And when the fulness of time was come, Jesus came, full of grace and truth, and in his holy gospel proclaimed the wonderful proposal, that the Son of God, desired to woo our nature and unite it to himself, in grace here, and glory hereafter. He sent all his servants also with his royal decree, that God the Father had made a marriage for his Son, and now expected that the bride should make herself ready. A thousand, and ten thousand love tokens, the Lord Jesus accompanied his offer of marriage with to his spouse the church. And when, at any time, in a single instance, he hath by his Holy Spirit espoused and united a soul to himself, he gives a dower, and an interest in all that belongs to him; and after continued manifestation of his unalterable love and affection to his fair one, made fair in his comliness, he at a length brings home, to his house in heaven, his bride, where she lives with him forever. Happy and blessed is it, in any and in every single instance, when the church can look up to Jesus and call him Husband, and say as of old: "This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O ye daughters of Jerusalem!" {Song 5:16}


The Archite, David’s friend, {2Sa 16:16} The name signifies one hastening, from Chush.


It is somewhat remarkable, that the Hebrews have no peculiar or specific name for an hymn. A Canticle, or Song, or Psalm, they have words for. Perhaps those which are called Hal-lah might mean as much, for the Hallelu-Jah of David’s psalms imply as much.


The general acceptation of this word, and the character of the person under the influence of hypocrisy, is not well understood. We perfectly, well apprehend, that an hypocrite, and especially in religion, means one that wishes to be thought what he is not, and takes pains to impose upon others a seeming sanctity of character, which, in fact, his heart is a stranger to. This is the supposed meaning of an hypocrite, and this, as far as it goes, is right; but this is not all. For the full arid complete description of the character is, when he imposeth upon himself also: this is the finishing of the term hypocrisy. And very awful is it to say, that the deception is but too possible. Our Lord’s expression is solemn to this amount. {Lu 12:1-2} "Beware ye of the leaven of the pharisees, which is hypocrisy: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; neither hid, that shall not be known." Hence that most interesting desire of the soul as expressed by David, "cleanse thou me from secret faults." {Ps 19:12}


From Esob, an herb. The Lord pointed to the use of this shrub for sprinkling at the Passover. {Ex 12:22} The shrub itself is a very humble, not to say uninviting plant; like him to outward appearance "who had no beauty that we should desire him;" but like him, the fragrancy of it is sweet, though mingled with bitter. Christ and his cross are two that cannot be separated, but must be received together. Reader! depend upon it, both are blessed guests worth receiving; and however painful to flesh and blood the cross may be, yet, like the waters of Marah to Israel, Jesus’s presence sweetens and sanctifies.


I is but a letter, yet as expressive of person is as important a one as can be, and when used with peculiar and special respect to JEHOVAH, and spoken by himself, is infinitely dignified indeed. JEHOVAH in his threefold character of person graciously proclaims himself in his holy word by it, and in many instances repeats it both in identifying his person and being, and to express the glorious, incommunicable, and distinguishing nature of his existence. "I, even I, am the Lord, and beside me there is no Saviour." {Isa 43:11} So again,"See {De 32:39} now that I, even I, am he, and there is no God with me: I kill, and I make alive, I wound, and I heal; neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand."And this distinguishing feature in identifying JEHOVAH, is equally made use of by all the persons of the GODHEAD. See (Ex 3:14 with Joh 8:58; Mr 14:62. See also in reference to the identity of God the Holy Ghost, Ac 10:19; 13:2,4) In a subordinate sense, and by way of distinguishing both persons and things, all the creatures of God may be supposed to speak. Thus Moses, speaking of himself, saith "Who am I, and I should go unto Pharoah, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt?" {Ex 3:11} And thus inferior creatures {Nu 23:30} yea, even inanimate things, {Jg 9:9,11,13}


This name was given by a dying mother, in the moment of her departure, to her new-born-son. The sense is, "the glory is departed, or alas! the glory; from Kabod, glory." {1Sa 4:19 &c.} What a solemn question ariseth out of the subject—On how many places may the word Ichabod be written?


A place rendered memorable from Paul’s preaching. (See Ac 13 and Ac 14)


See HAWKERS: Idolatry



These things have been generally confined to the idea of the worshipping of creatures or images, but, in fact, may be properly applied to every thing which men set up in their hearts to regard, and which tend to the lessening their reverence for the Lord. {Ex 20:3-4; Eze 14:1,5}


I should not have thought it necessary to have noticed this word, being in the general acception of it so very plain and obvious, had it not been so peculiarly made use of in relation to the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, as "the Image of the invisible God." He and he only, is the image of the invisible God, "the first born of every creature;" and though not openly revealed, yet secretly, and in reality set up from everlasting. Hence, as Christ, thus the glory-man, is declared to "be the brightness of his Father’s glory, and the express image of his person." {Heb 1:3} So this is the very person in whose likeness, Adam the first open man, was created and made; "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness." {Ge 1:26}


See HAWKERS: Emmanuel


See HAWKERS: Immortality



Strictly and properly speaking, this can only be applied to JEHOVAH in his threefold character of person; for of Him, it is justly said, "who only hath immortality." {1Ti 6:16} But in Him, and by Him, and from Him, the church is said to have rendered to it "glory and honour and immortality, eternal life." {Ro 2:7} But then, the striking and essential difference is here; JEHOVAH hath immortality in himself. It is His very Being—The church hath it by gift, and enjoys it only from her union with Christ. Of what nature or kind that immortality is, which distinguisheth the state or existence of the miserable in hell, Scripture hath not said. It is said, indeed, "their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched." {Mr 9:44,46,48} How ought true believers in Jesus to rejoice in the consciousness of their interest in him, to join the hymn of the apostle; "Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever, Amen." {1Ti 1:17}

Imposition of Hands

We find this a very ancient custom among the Jews, and it should seem to have its use, founded in somewhat of a divine authority. The dying patriarch blessed the sons of Joseph, putting his hands significantly upon the head of each. {Ge 43:13-20} But in the striking act of laying on of hands on the day of atonement, and which was done by the express appointment of the Lord, we discover yet more of its importance. {See Le 16:21-22} So again, by the same express command of the Lord, Joshua was ordained by the laying on of the hand of Moses, his successor. The ceremony must have been most solemn and affecting, as related Nu 27:15-23. But what endears this service to the church most is those instances in which our adorable Redeemer used it. How lovely Jesus appears in receiving little children, and putting his hands on them, and blessing them! {Mr 10:13-16} We find the apostles in Jesus’s name, using the imposition of hands, and the Lord confirming this act, by his accompanying it with the blessing of the Holy Ghost. {Ac 8:17; 19:6} But how far the Lord hath honoured it in the after ages of the church, I presume not to speak.


See HAWKERS: Impurity



Under the law of Moses, we find many circumstances spoken of respecting legal impurity. Thus touching a dead body, or any creature deemed unclean by the law: touching a living person when under uncleanness; a leper, or one with a running sore, and the like; or garments unclean, &c. And this impurity attached itself to the person so touching any thing of uncleanness, though it was done involuntarily, and himself unconscious of it. And the law which pointed to these acts of impurity, prescribed the modes of cleansing; some by bathing, others by sacrifice. No doubt many of these things had a gospel signification, and preached Christ the only laver and fountain for sin and for uncleanness. But what blessed views ought all true believers in Christ to have of these things, when reading at any time the law of Moses, in beholding the whole done away in the person, work, and finished salvation of Jesus. Think how dear, and endeared in every way, and by every means, is the Lord Jesus Christ when brought home to the heart, and formed "in the heart the hope of glory."



This word, and the sense of it, according to the gospel, forming so important an article in the faith of a believer, I have thought it highly proper that it should have a distinct place of attention in a work of this kind. To impute is to charge a thing upon a person whether guilty or not, as the circumstances hereafter are proved, or not. Thus Shimei intreated David, that he would not "impute iniquity to him" for some former transaction. {2Sa 19:19} And the apostle Paul {Ro 4:8} declares them blessed to whom the Lord "will not impute sin." This is the general sense of imputation. But in the case of the imputed righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ to his people, and their sins imputed to him; the sense of imputation goes farther, and ascribes to Christ, and to the sinner, that which each hath not, but by the very act of imputing it to them. Hence the apostle Paul explains it in the clearest manner in two Scriptures: the first, in 2Co 5:21, where speaking of this imputation of our sins to Christ, and his righteousness to us, he refers it into the sovereignty and good pleasure of God the Father. For speaking of Christ, it is used, "God hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him." Here the doctrine of imputation is most plainly and fully stated. Christ is the imputed sinner, or rather sin itself in the total abstract, and in the very moment when he knew no sin. And the sinner is said to be righteous; yea, the righteousness of God in Christ; when in the same time he hath not a single portion of righteousness in himself, or in any of his doings. This is, therefore, to impute Christ’s righteousness to his people, and their sins to him. The other Scripture that explains the doctrine is but in part, namely, respecting the imputation of sin."Christ {Ga 3:13} hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us." Here Christ stands with all the curse of a broken law charged upon him, as the sinner’s Surety; yea, as the curse itself. And consequently, as in the doing of this, he takes it from his people; they are redeemed from it. The original debtor, and the Surety, who pays for that debtor, cannot both have the debt at the same time charged, upon them. This, therefore, is the blessed doctrine of imputation. Our sins are imputed to Christ. His righteousness is imputed to us. And this by the authority and appointment of JEHOVAH; for without this authority and appointment of JEHOVAH, the transfer could not have taken place. For it would have been totally beyond our power to have made it. But surely not beyond the right and prerogative of God. And if God accepts such a ransom; yea, he himself appoints it: and if the sinner by Christ’s righteousness be made holy: and if the sins of the sinner be all done away by Christ’s voluntary sufferings and death: if the law of God be thus honoured; the justice of God thus satisfied; all the divine perfections glorified by an equivalent; yea, more than an equivalent, inasmuch as Christ’s obedience and death infinitely transcend in dignity and value the everlasting obedience of men and angels; surely, here is the fullest assurance of the truth of the doctrine of Christ’s imputed righteousness, and the perfect approbation of JEHOVAH to the blessed plan of redemption. Well, therefore, might the apostle, when speaking of the faith of Abraham on this point, declare the cause of it: "Abraham believed God, and it was imputed unto him for righteousness. Now (saith the apostle) it was not written for his sake that it was imputed to him: but for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead; who was delivered for our offences, and raised again for our justification." {Ro 4 throughout.}

If I have succeeded in thus stating the gospel sense of imputation, in the transfer of our sins unto the Lord Jesus, and the imputation of his righteousness to us: nothing can be more blessed than the doctrine itself, and nothing more important than the cordial belief of it, to bring consolation and joy to the heart of every believer.



Son of Omri. {1Ch 9:4} There was another of this name in the church. {See Ne 3:2} The name is from Marah, bitter.



See HAWKERS: Heritage


See HAWKERS: Music



We meet with but one passage in the Bible where the word Intercessor is used, namely, Isa 59:16, though by virtue of the office of interceding as our great high priest, it is a well known character of Christ. But though the name and title is but once mentioned, being implied in that of his priestly office, yet the Lord Jesus, in his sweet employment as our Advocate with the Father, is held up to the view of the church in this most endearing character every where throughout the word of God. He is said "to make intercession for the transgressors when he was numbered with them and bare their sins." {Isa 53:12} And the apostle Paul as blessedly points to Jesus in his priestly office, when he encourageth the poor sinner to come to him, because "he ever liveth to make intercession for them, and is able to save to the uttermost all that come to God by him." {Heb 7:25} And God the Holy Ghost is careful to shew the church how the Lord Jesus carrieth on this gracious office. First by personally appearing, "in the presence of God for us." {Heb 9:24} John saith, that he saw him in the midst of a throne as "a lamb that had been slain." {Re 5:6} intimating, that his wounds still appeared fresh and flowing, to denote the everlasting efficacy of it. And secondly, the Lord Jesus carrieth on this high office not only by a naked appearance in the presence of JEHOVAH for his people, but by pleading the merits and worth of his sacrifice and righteousness. Paul the apostle calls Christ’s blood a speaking blood, {see Heb 12:24} and so it certainly is; for if, as the Lord said to Cain, "The voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto me from the ground," {Ge 4:10} what a voice must there be in Christ’s blood, crying as it cloth for mercy and salvation! Surely it speaks to God of God’s faithfulness to his promises, and Christ’s claim to his merits; and it speaks from God for our sure pardon, and all the blessings of redemption to JEHOVAH’S glory and Christ’s and his church’s triumph and happiness. Such are the blessed views of Christ in his intercessional character.

I would beg yet farther to observe, that this blessedness is abundantly heightened when we consider that he who intercedes, and he with whom intercession is made, are one in the same design and end. The divine glory is the first cause, and the final issue of all. The church, made up of redeemed sinners, is originally the Father’s gift to the Son. {Joh 17:6} The son hath purchased the Church with his blood. {Ac 20:28} Hence, therefore, all the persons of the GODHEAD are engaged and interested in the same concern. And as Christ is God the Father’s dear Son, so is the church the dear children of God in Christ: so that what our blessed Lord Jesus saith, when speaking of this very subject, comes home to the heart of the believer with the strongest and sweetest recommendation of tenderness. "At that day ye shall ask in my name, and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you; for the Father himself loveth you, because you have loved me, and have believed that I came out from God." {Joh 16:26-27} These are blessed views both of the Father’s everlasting love, and Christ’s unceasing intercession. And it is highly important to remark, and a point that should never be lost sight of, that Christ in all his intercessions never once prayeth for the Father’s love to the church, but for the fruits and effects of that love and his own merits and death. Yea, Christ himself, with all his fulness, blessedness, and glory, is the gift of the Father; for the express doctrine of the gospel in its first and leading point is, "that God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." {Joh 3:16} For a farther illustration of Christ’s office of Intercessor,

see HAWKERS: Advocate


See HAWKERS: Intercession


We meet with this word twice in the history of Joseph. {Ge 40:8; 42:23} and once in the history of Job, {Job 33:23} The office of an interpreter, in the general acceptation of the word, is not difficult to apprehend. It means, in our present use of the term, merely a person who explains to each party between whom he acts what each saith, because they do not understand one another’s language, and this interpreter understands both. But in the Scripture sense of the word, the character of an interpreter riseth much higher. The original word, translated interpreter, {Ge 42:23} which is Malats, means something that is persuasive, smooth, or to soften, like our English word mollify. And the person that did this office between Joseph and his brethren is supposed, by the expression and the name of Malats, by which he is so called, to be a softener of Jacob’s sons’ speeches, by way of conciliating the favour of Joseph. And it would have been no violence to the passage if, instead of reading it as it is in our Bibles, it had been read, "and they knew not that Joseph heard them, for the Advocate was between them." The character of an interpreter in this sense, is truly interesting, and throws a great beauty upon this oriental history; and no less upon the similar passage in Job, for the word is the same in both. Indeed, some have not scrupled, in this last passage, to translate Malats, mediator, as conveying much nearer the sense of the passage, than that of an interpreter, unless it be remembered that in the eastern world a Malats, or interpreter, advocated the cause he interpreted.

And this view appears still more striking from Joseph’s history as related to us in our own translation. For beside this interpretation given by the Malats to Joseph, it is plain, that Joseph and his brethren conversed together without the medium of an interpreter, as we read in the twenty-fourth verse: for there it is said, "that he turned himself about from them and wept; and returned to them again and communed with them." Hence, therefore, it should seem, that in the eastern countries this office of interpreter was, as the very name implies, a very affectionate, tender, and interesting office. And though I would not go so far as to say, that the glorious Mediator of his people was prefigured in every use of it, yet I do venture to think it was peculiarly significant on this occasion amidst the brethren of Joseph. The church of Christ now, which those sons of Israel then represented, when standing before our governor, do not always know, that our Almighty Joseph knows, hears, and regards all; and yet, while carrying on his many offices, how often doth he commune with his people, both with and without mediums! Well might John behold him with his many crowns upon his head; for surely every office of his, in every individual sinner saved by him, demands a new crown of glory. {Re 19:12}


One of the distinguishing attributes of JEHOVAH. {1Ti 1:17}


He who arrested Jermemiah. {Jer 37:13} His name means, the fear of the Lord; from Jarah, to fear; and Jah, the Lord.


Abraham’s son, the child of promise.

See HAWKERS: Hagar


The prophet, the son of Amos. Highly, under God the Holy Ghost, is the church indebted to the ministry of this man. Amidst many events in this man’s life, was that of this walking three years barefoot and naked. {See Isa 20:2} Was not this also typical of Christ’s three years ministry? His name signifies salvation of the Lord; from Jashah, salvation; and Jah, the Lord. I cannot forbear mentioning the commonly-received opinion, that Isaiah was sawn asunder, in the beginning of the reign of Manasseh, and that his body was buried near Jerusalem, under the fuller’s oak near Siloam. And the tradition concerning this event is, that it was brought upon him by the event of his publishing his vision, (Isa 6) in which he saith, "he saw the Lord sitting on a throne high and lifted up." Manasseh said, that this was blasphemy, as Moses had recorded the Lord’s words, Ex 22:20. "No man shall see me and live."

Isaiah prophesied many years, not less than threescore, though some make his ministry to have extended to four-score. Who can read the prophecy of Isaiah without the most profound admiration! It is not only unequalled in point of language, but it contains so much of Christ, that it looks more like an history than a prophecy. It is more like the writings of a person who was present at Pilate’s hall, and Herod’s judgment-seat, when describing the sufferings of Jesus, than of one who wrote those events, by the spirit of prediction, more than seven hundred years before the things there spoken of came to pass. St. Jerom calls Isaiah’s prophecy, an abridgment of the holy Scriptures. And Grotius prefers Isaiah to all the writers of Greece and Rome. But how truly blessed are the predictions of Isaiah to the believer who hath lived to see the whole fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ, and by the Holy Ghost is led to discover not only the correspondence between them, but his own personal interest therein.


A name peculiarly suited to the traitor Judas: for the word means, a man of murder; from Ish, a man; and Corath, he that cuts off.


The son of Ob, {2Sa 21:16-17} The meaning of the name is, he that sits in the word, or prophecy, from Isheba, to sit; beth, in; neba, the prophecy.


The son of Saul; {2Sa 2:8} a man of shame; from Ish, a man; and bosh, shame.


We meet with this word Ho 2:16. Our translators have thought proper to preserve the word in its original, giving the meaning of it in the margin, my husband. And it becomes a subject of no small concern to ask the cause wherefore the translators have thought proper to do so? I do not presume to speak decidedly to the point, and to determine what their designs were; yet I venture to conjecture, and shall give the reader my opinion.

Let the reader first observe, that the prophet was commissioned to tell the church, that in the gospel-day, when the glorious Messiah, whom the church had been all along expecting, should come, the church should know the Lord by this name Ishi, my husband, or my man; and should drop the common name of Baali, my Lord: as if this was not sufficiently expressive of the nearness and dearness between them. The church was then to know here Lord in his human nature, as well as his GODHEAD, and in the union of both as her Lord her Righteousness. Now then, saith the Lord Jesus, (for observe it is Jesus himself that is the speaker in this chapter) now then, thou shalt call me by that tender and endearing name, in the nature that I shall then openly appear in among you, my man. I have been from everlasting the Husband and Head of my church, in the secret transactions of covenant redemption; but in that day when I shall openly manifest myself in that character I will be called Ishi: "for my people shall know my name, therefore they shall in that day know that I am he that doth speak, behold, it is I!" {Isa 52:6} Reader think if of the love and tenderness of thy Jesus! Was there ever such grace manifested as by him? Who but must love him? Who but must delight in him? Yes, Lord, I will do as thou hast said, and call thee Ishi, my Husband, my man, and also the Lord my Righteousness!



The son of Abraham and Hagar. His name is derived from Shamah, to bear; and El, God. {Ge 16:1}


An inhabitant of man of Tob, a country north of mount Gilead, where Jephtha resided. {See Jg 11:3} The name is a compound of Ish, a man; and Tob, good: so that to say, an inhabitant of Tob, seems to have been proverbial for a good man.


A person in the days of Hezekiah, to whom the king intrusted the offerings of the temple. {2Ch 31:13} The name signifies, one joined to the Lord; for Samach, to unite; and Jah, the Lord.


-Or more properly, as it is rendered, Ishrael, the name given to Jacob by the Lord himself, on his wrestling with God in prayer and prevailing. {See Ge 32:21-28} from Sharah, to subdue or govern; and El, God. The whole people of God are frequently in Scripture called by this name. (Ex 3:6-7. So again, Ex 6:6-7) But what endears this name yet infinitely more is, that the Lord Jesus himself, as the glorious Head of his church and people, including both Jew and Gentile, calls himself by this name; and JEHOVAH doth the same by Christ. (See Isa 49:1-6 and Isa 44:1-5) And hence the whole church of the Lord Jesus are called Israelites. {Ro 9:4} and the Lord Jesus, when speaking of his sheep under one view, saith, that they shall be brought into "one fold under one shepherd." {Joh 10:16}


The son of Jacob, by Leah. {Ge 30:14-18} His name signifies a price of hire; and so it is rendered in the margin of our Bibles, derived from Shachar, a price. The most remarkable circumstance in the history of Issachar, is his father’s prophetical blessing of him. {Ge 49:14-15} "Issachar (said the dying patriarch) is a strong ass, couching down between two burthens; and he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and become a servant into tribute." If the sense of this passage (as most of the other blessings Jacob when a-dying bequeathed to his children are) be spiritual, there is much of Jesus, and his person and salvation in it. Issachar, like all true Israelites, bends between the two burthens of sin and sorrow, for they are inseparable; and no rest but Jesus can be found, to deliver from the dreadful pressure. He is, indeed, "the rest wherewith he causeth the weary to rest" from the burden. Easy will be the tribe of a redeemed heart to the Lord, to bless him for his mercy. We find similar beauties in the blessing of Moses, the man of God, over Issachar, if explained in the same gospel-sense. {See De 33:18-19}


The fourth son of Aaron. {Ex 6:23} His name signifies, island of the palm tree, from Tamar, a palm tree, on Ai, an island. We have nothing particularly interesting in the Bible concerning this man.


The son of Jesaiah. {Ne 11:7} The name signifies, with God; from Eth, with-and El, God.


One of David’s worthies, {1Ch 11:46} Perhaps the name means admiration; from Thamah, to admire.


A province of Syria. {See Lu 3:1} The meaning is, what is guarded; from Thur, to keep.


The son of Kohath and father of Korah, (Nu 16:1.) The name signifies light, from Itzar.


This is spoken of in Israel's journey when they went from Beeroth. (De 10:6.) If it be a place, perhaps it was so called from the meaning of the word Canan, rest; otherwise, if referring to the children of Jaakon, we might have expected the name would have been Bene Jaakan, the sons of Jaakan.


We meet with this name several times in the Bible, (2Ki 25:23; Jer 35:3; Eze 8:11 and Eze 11:1) The name itself is a compound of Jazen and Jah, the Lord will hear.


See HAWKERS: Jubal


A brook on the other side Jordan, rendered memorable from being near the spot where Jacob wrestled with the angel, {Ge 32:22-24} The name signifies to make empty.


A city beyond Jordan, in the half tribe of Manasseh. {1Sa 11:1}


King of Caanan. A mighty oppressor of Israel, {Jg 4:2-3} His name signifies to understand, from Binah.


The name of a pillar in Solomon’s temple.

See HAWKERS: Boaz (2)


The ever-memorable name of the ever-memorable person, concerning whom it hath pleased God the Holy Ghost to say so much throughout the whole Scripture. His name signifies a supplanter; but after the memorable scene at Jabbock, when Jacob wrestled with the angel and pevailed, the Lord himself changed his name to Israel, a prince. {See Ge 32:27-28} For his history I refer to the book of Genesis, from Ge 15 to the end.


The wife of Heber the Kenite. Her name is a compound of Jah and El. Her history is but short, yet truly blessed. We have it Jg 4:17-24. And the Holy Ghost hath recorded her heroic act of faith, Jg 5:24-27. Some have wantonly traduced the character of Jael, and charged her with a breach of hospitality in slaughtering one who fled to her for protection, and especially as she had taken Sisera into her haram. And it hath been farther said, that the refreshment Jael gave him was, according to the custom of eastern nations, a pledge of friendship. But to both of these I answer, it becomes no breach of hospitality to destroy the known foes of God. Besides, Sisera asked for refreshment, and requested her to tell a lie. It was not Jael’s offer, neither did she give him a promise of security. The tyranny of this man, and zeal for God’s glory and his people’s safety, prompted her generous mind to deliver Israel from his oppression. Add to these, the Lord’s hand must have been in this transaction, as Deborah the prophetess foretold the event, Jg 4:9. But let men say what they may, God the Holy Ghost hath honoured her memory for ever, and declared it blessed. And I cannot but conclude, that she is one of those worthies, of whom the Holy Ghost hath again spoken so hononrably in the New Testament, "who through faith subdued kingdoms." &c. {Heb 11:33}


One of the glorious incommunicable names of JEHOVAH. We find it joined with many Hebrew names in the Scripture. The grand Anthem hymn is called Hallel-Jah, praise the Lord, which we pronounce Hallelujah. So again, when speaking of JEHOVAH in his covenant-relation in Christ, we say Adon Jah, or Adoni, my Adoni Jah. And hence the Hebrews were so fond of calling their children by some name that took in and comprehended somewhat of this name. Thus Isaiah, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Zechariah, &c.

See HAWKERS: Jehovah



There is but onc mention made of these persons in holy writ, namely, {2Ti 3:8} and the apostle when recording their names gives this short but awful history of their characters—they withstood Moses. Some have supposed, that they were the magicians who for a while confronted Moses, when, at the command and in the name of the Lord, he wrought miracles before Pharaoh and his court. But if it be so, certain it is, the Holy Ghost thought it not of importance to tell the church, or it would have been noticed. The most important circumstance to the believer to remark is, that the magicians were permitted to resemble somewhat of what Moses wrought to a certain point purposely, that when this permission was withdrawn, they might the more readily be compelled to see and acknowledge the finger of the Lord. This they did; and thereby became the unwilling witnesses for God, and to their own confusion. Oh, that the opposers of God’s truth and God’s Christ, in all ages, would tremble in the recollection of James and Jambres!


One of the apostles of Christ. There were two of this name, and both apostles; one the son of Salome, the other of Mary. Hence by way, of distinction, they are called James the Elder, and James the Less. The former was the brother of John, {Mt 4:21} the latter is called by Paul the Lord’s brother, {Ga 1:19} not so in reality, as we now mean by the term brother, but as the custom then was, from tribes and families, Mary, James’s mother, was sister to the blessed Virgin. James the Elder was the son of Zebedee; James the Less the son of Alpheus, {Mt 10:2-3} The former was killed by Herod,; {Ac 12:1} the latter we have no scriptural relation of his death. It is to this man, under God the Holy Ghost, that we are indebted for that gracious Epistle which bears his name.


See HAWKERS: Jambres


The son of Noah; not, as some have supposed, the younger of his sons, because placed last, {see Ge 9:18-19} for Moses expressly calls Ham the younger. {Ge 9:24} The prophecy of his father Noah concerning Japheth is very striking: "God shall enlarge Japheth, and shall dwell in the tents of Shem." {Ge 9:27} Yes! it is none but God that can enlarge or persuade. And as from Shem, after the flesh, sprung Christ; so Japheth, who is supposed to be the father of the Gentiles, and as such, in this prophecy, may be supposed to represent the whole body of the Gentile church given to the Lord Jesus Christ, could only be brought into Christ’s fold by Christ’s power. {See Isa 49:6; Ps 110:3}


There was a city of this name, {Jos 19:12} and there was a king of this name, Japhia king of Lachish, {Jos 10:3} And David had a son named Japhia. {2Sa 5:15} The name perhaps is derived from Japha, to enlighten.


See HAWKERS: Jarmuth



This was one of the cities of Judah, which lay in the way to Jerusalem. Joshua, in his battles, killed the king of Jarmuth. {Jos 10:5}


The name the Lord gave to Solomon; meaning beloved of the Lord. {2Sa 12:24-25}


The heap of witness; so rendered in the margins of our Bibles. {See Ge 31:47-55.} Jacob called it Galeed and Mizpah; as if he had said, let the Galeed be witness, and this Mizpah be witness, There is something very tender and interesting in this parting of natural ties never to meet again. Such will be the everlasting separation in every instance of nature, where our affinities are not new-formed in grace.


There are two sons of kings of this name in Scripture—Jehoahaz, son of Jehu. {2Ki 13:1} and Jehoahaz, or Shallum; son of Josiah, king of Judah, {Jer 22:11} The name is a compound, signifying, from Achaz, a possession of the Lord.


The son of Jehoiakim.  This is the man whom the prophet had it in commission from the Lord to write childless. {Jer 22:24-30} His name is also a compound, signifying from the root to prepare, that the Lord would prepare. But how seldom do we find, notwithstanding the striking names given by the Hebrews to their children, that they answered to them. In what sense Jehoiachiu was written childless, I cannot determine; somewhat different from natural things it must have been, for certain it is, that he had several sons. {See 1Ch 3:17-18} But what the sentence referred to besides, I know not. I should have thought it had respect to the promised seed, and that the writing this man childless might have been in other words to say, the Messiah shall not be in his family. For this was the great desire of all the tribes of Israel; and for the accomplishment of which they all earnestly longed for a numerous progeny of children. But this was so far from being the case, that in the generations of the Lord Jesus Christ after the flesh, we find his son Salathiel enumerated. {See Mt 1:12} Some have thought, that the expression childless meant in relation to his kingdom, that he should have no successor in his family to sit upon the throne. And if this be the meaning, it was literally fulfilled; for Salathiel was born in Babylon, and so was his son Zorobabel. {See Mt 1:13} But here I leave the subject.


Son of Jehosaphat. {2Ki 3:2-3} The meaning of the name is, exaltation of the Lord; from Ram, exaltation; and Jah, the Lord.


King of Judah. {1Ki 22:42} His name meaneth, the Lord judgeth; from Shephat, to judge; and Jab, the Lord. There was a valley of this name, but it is undetermined where situated. Some have thought, near the mount of Olives. {See Joe 3:2,12}


The glorious incommunicable name of the I AM THAT I AM. In addition to what was offered under the article God, (which see) I would beg to observe, that this ineffable and mysterious name belongs to each glorious person of the GODHEAD, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and is used in common by each and by all. It implies every perfection of the divine nature, in the eternity, immensity, sovereignty, omnipotency, invisibility, &c. of the Lord. We find it sometimes joined with certain leading characters of the GODHEAD, all descriptive of the divine glory, as for example:

Jehovah Nissi

Jehovah Our Righteousness

The margin of our Bible hath preserved the original Hebrew, JEHOVAH Tzidkenu, in both places where meet with this glorious name of the Lord Jesus, {Jer 23:6; 33:16} and a most blessed and soul-comforting name it is for the present and everlasting joy of a poor sinner, conscious that in himself he is void of all righteousness. For doth any one ask the question—Wherefore we call Jesus JEHOVAH? The answer is direct; Jesus is not only JEHOVAH by reason of his own personal GODHEAD, but JEHOVAH the Father hath commanded his people to call him and to know him by that name. And if it be farther asked—Wherefore do you call him your righteousness? The answer is, Because he is so, and is the very righteousness in which all his people become justified before God; and in confirmation of it JEHOVAH hath commanded the people so to call him, and so to apprehend and know him. And reader, do but attend to the several blessed causes by which it is confirmed and assured to the heart and conscience, and very fully will it appear to you, in all its glory, if so be God the Holy Ghost be your teacher. That Jesus is JEHOVAH in common with the Father and the Holy Ghost, the whole Bible confirms. (See in proof if but a single passage, Isa 45:22-25) And that he is our righteousness, the Holy Ghost hath asserted in numberless places of his blessed word. (See but two passages among many that might be brought forward, 1Co 1:30; 2Co 5:21)

But what I more particularly beg the reader to observe with me on this glorious name of our Redeemer, is, that JEHOVAH Jesus our righteousness is the very righteousness of his people. Let the reader remember that Jesus is not said to be a righteous person, but righteousness itself. Angels may be, and sometimes are, called righteous, and so are the servants of God; but none of them can be called righteousness. This belongs only to God our Saviour: all other righteousness is derived, and is from him; but the righteousness of the Lord Jesus is essentially and necessarily his own. He is righteousness itself; and his GODHEAD both proves his righteousness, and his righteousness demonstrates his GODHEAD. This is one sweet feature of this name of our Lord; and there is another included in it, namely, that this righteousness is ours. For by virtue of union and oneness with him, all that he is as the Head of his body the church, he is for and in his people. Hence he is said to have been made sin for them when he knew no sin that they might be made the righteousness of God in him. {2Co 5:21} "And he is made of God to them wisdom and righteousness, sanctification and redemption." {1Co 1:30} And what crowns the whole is, that Christ and his righteousness being so for ever, so must his people be in him. His person being infinite, so must be his righteousness; and therefore, he is said to have saved his people with an everlasting righteousness, by reason of which they shall not be ashamed nor confounded, world without end. Well might the Holy Ghost command the church to exclaim, "Surely shall one say, In the Lord have I righteousness and strength." {Isa 45:24} I would only add, as a farther confirmation of the interest the church hath in Christ and the oneness there is between them, the church also is called the Lord our righteousness, because her glorious Husband is so; thus proving her marriage by taking the name of her husband. {See Jer 33:16} Oh, the blessedness in that one title, JEHOVAH our righteousness!


The margin of our Bible renders it very properly, "the Lord will see or provide." {Ge 22:14} And the general acceptation of the words in the esteem of believers is, that the Lord will do by all of that character as he did by Abraham, and in every critical moment manifest his grace towards them, in proof that he doth both see and provide for them. This is certainly one sense of the titles, and a blessed one it is: but this is not all. Abraham saith, "to this day in the mount of the Lord shall it be seen;" by which it appears, that the mount of the Lord was to be the place where this provision and sight of JEHOVAH was to be seen. Surely there was a prophecy in these words relating to the very spot of Abraham’s mercy, as well as the mercy itself. And was not this with an eye to the Lamb of God, in after-ages to be provided for the whole church, as well as the ram the Lord had then provided for Abraham’s burnt offering? Recollect that this mount Moriah was near the spot, if not the very spot itself, afterwards called mount Calvary. And as Abraham’s offering was wholly typical, surely nothing could be more suited to the expression in calling the place JEHOVAH Jireh. As if Abraham had said, Here shall be one day seen the wonders of redemption! Here God will, indeed, provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering!


{Ex 17:15} The margin of our Bible renders it, "This is the Lord my banner." There is somewhat uncommonly beautiful and striking in this blessed name of our covenant God in Christ. No doubt, Christ himself is his people’s banner; for so the Lord described him, {Isa 13:2} and as a leader and commander to the people. {Isa 55:4} Now in every point of view this is most blessed; for as a banner displayed is a signal of war, so when the believer takes Christ for his banner, he declares war with sin, death, hell, and the grave, and takes to him the whole armour of God; moreover, he fights in sure and certain hope of victory, because Jesus hath already gotten to himself the victory, and his own arm hath brought to him salvation. So that when JEHOVAH Nissi is the banner under which we fight, we are "more than conquerors through him that loveth us." Never may I go forth against the Amaleks of the present day, without JEHOVAH Nissi as my banner; but with him, and under him, wage an everlasting war against the enemies of God and his Christ.


The margin of the Bible renders this title of a covenant God, "The Lord send peace." It was ascribed to the Lord by Gideon, in the prospect of conquering Midian. {Jg 6:24} It proved so then, and it has proved so in numberless instances ever since. But seen with an eye to Christ, it is eminently blessed; here, indeed, JEHOVAH, in the covenant of peace founded in Christ before all worlds, may, and must be called, in the strongest emphasis, JEHOVAH SHALOM.


"The Lord is there." Such is the name of the church in consequence of the presence of her glorious husband. {See Eze 48:35} The prophet is speaking by the Spirit of prophecy, and looking into the days of the gospel; so that here is a mark to know the church by now, and which will be the character of Christ’s church for ever. Without the Lord’s presence there is no church: unless he be in the midst of us, we may go lean all our days. Lord! write JEHOVAH Shammah in our churches, in our hearts, in our houses, in our families!


A well-known king in Israel, raised up in this office to punish the house of Ahab. His name is emphatical, signifing, himself: from pronoun Hua, and this also seems to be from Havah, to be. (See 2Ki 9:1-36. See also 1Ki 19:15-18)

It is a remarkable feature concerning Jehu, that the appointment of Jehu, and his becoming king, occupied a period of more than twenty-two years; which will be seen by comparing the dates of those two Scriptures. There was another Jehu a prophet, the son of Hanani, who flourished in the reign of Baasha king of Israel. (See 1Ki 15:7. See also 2Ch 19:1-3) It should seem, that this Jehu, was a faithful servant of the Lord, in thus reproving both the kings of Judah and Israel. In 2Ch 2:18, it is said, that this prophet wrote the records of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. There are two other Jehus mentioned in Scripture, Jehu the fourth son of Rehoboam, king of Judah, {2Ch 11:19} and Jehu the son of Obed. {1Ch 2:38}


The servant of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, {Jer 36:14} His name signifies, the Lord is my praise.


The wife of Ezra. {See 1Ch 4:18} The name is very striking in the Jah twice—to the praise of the Lord.


One of Job’s daughters. {Job 42:14} The meaning of the name implies, beautiful as the day.


One of the judges who judged Israel. {See Jg 11} His name signifies, one that will open. The vow of Jephtha concerning his daughter, hath exercised the learning of the studious in all ages of the church. Some have decidedly been of opinion, that Jephtha did actually sacrifice his daughter; and others have as flatly denied it. The Chaldee Paraphrase, St. Ambrose, and St. Chrisostom, were of the former opinion; but by far the greater part of the old commentators, as well as modern ones, are in the latter judgment. I shall beg to offer an observation or two upon the subject, and then leave the reader, under grace, to think for himself on this point.

The first thing I beg to observe, is concerning the character of Jephtha. The Holy Ghost, by his servant Paul, hath recorded his name among those worthies who "by faith subdued kingdoms, and wrought righteousness." {Heb 11:32} Hence, therefore, we may safely conclude, that he was a child of God.

The next thing to be observed in his history, is that the vow he made was a solemn engagement between the Lord and his own soul. It was personal; it was himself concerned only to fulfil it; neither could it be supposed to imply, the disposing of what was not his to dispose of. "All souls are mine, (saith JEHOVAH,) as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine." {Eze 18:4} It could not be, therefore, implied in Jephtha’s vow, that he would engage to offer to the Lord what was not his own. The disposal of his daughter’s person in marriage was, indeed, a parent’s right, and frequently done; but this right never extended to the offering a child in sacrifice.

Thirdly, Human sacrifices were prohibited by the law, neither would the priest have offered the daughter of Jephtha; so that, unless it be supposed, that Jephtha invaded the priestly office, and offered his daughter himself, there should seem even hence to have arisen a great difficulty to the belief, that the daughter of Jephtha was really sacrificed.

Add to these considerations, it is well known, that the law had made provision for the redemption of persons by purchase. Thus the Lord enjoined, {Le 27:1, &c.} "And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When a man shall make a singular vow, the persons shall be for the Lord by thy estimation. A male from twenty years to sixty, shall be fifty shekels of silver; and if it be a female, then thy estimation shall be thirty shekels." Hence, therefore, here was at once a provision, and made by the Lord himself, to prevent every human sacrifice by redemption.

Let us suppose, that instead of Jephtha’s daughter, some unclean bird or beast, forbidden by the law in sacrifice, had come forth to meet him—what would he have done in this case? Surely, he could not have offered it: then must it have been destroyed, since it could not have been consecrated to the Lord. The expression in Jephtha’s vow, according to some readers of the Bible, seems to have made a provision for this uncertainty, what or whom he should first meet. "And Jephtha vowed a vow unto the Lord, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hand, then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord’s, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering." {Jg 11:30-31} In the margin of the Bible it is rendered, or I will offer it up; that is certainly by redemption, according to the law concerning redemptions. And it may be farther asked, Is not the expression in the vow, "shall surely be the Lord’s," similar to that of Hannah’s, in dedicating the child she asked of God in prayer. {1Sa 1:11} "And she vowed a vow, and said, O Lord of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but will give unto thine handmaid a man child, then will I give him unto the Lord all the days of his life. And when she had weaned him, she brought him into the house of the Lord in Shiloh, and brought the child to Eli: and she said, For this child I prayed, and the Lord hath given me my petition; therefore also I have lent him to the Lord: as long as he liveth he shall be lent unto the Lord." {See 1Sa 1:11-28}

These are amongst the reasons wherefore it seems probable, that Jephtha’s daughter was not offered in sacrifice. It hath been said, however, by those who suppose she was, that the distress of the father in meeting her at his return home, the expression he made use of, and the request she made him of a given space to be allowed her for lamentation, and his doing with her according to his vow after that time was expired, are proofs in point. But to these suggestions it might be said, that supposing the former opinions right, and that she was not offered in sacrifice, it becomes very easy to explain both her lamentations on the mountains, and the daughters of Israel going to lament yearly on the occasion. For it is one of the most notorious truths, that among the Hebrews no lamentations was equal to that of being doomed to a single unmarried state. For every daughter of Israel had an eye to the promised seed the Messiah; to be devoted, therefore, to an unmarried life totally precluded that hope; and the daughters of Israel going yearly to lament the daughter of Jephtha being so, is a proof of it. Besides, where did they go? It should seem, to visit the daughter of Jephtha, for the margin of the Bible renders it, that the daughters of Israel went yearly "to talk with her:" that is, in her nunnery. {See Jg 11:34-40} But having now stated all I think necessary to state on the subject, I leave the reader to his own opinion, taught, as I pray he may be, by the grace of God, only adding one short observation: how blessed is the condition of God’s Israel now, freed from vows and sacrifices, while looking to, and wholly depending upon that glorious, all-sufficient, all effectual offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all, "whereby he has perfected for ever them that are sanctified." {Heb 10:14}


The father of Caleb. {Nu 13:6} His name means one that beholds—from Phanah, to behold.


The son of Joktan. {Ge 10:26} His name is borrowed perhaps from Jerah, the moon.


The son of Kish. {1Ch 24:29} His name is a compound of Racham, mercy; El, God. There were others of this name. (See 1Ch 2:25, &c. Jer 36:26. And there was a prince so called. 1Sa 27:10; 30:29)


The mournful prophet so called. A man famous in his day and generation as the Lord’s servant, and his memory ever blessed in the church through all ages. His name, it should seem, is a compound—from Ram, exaltation; and Jah, the Lord. The pronoun prefixed makes it, my exalted in the Lord. And exalted indeed he was in the Lord’s strength, though continually buffeted and ill-treated by men. It is blessed to read his prophecy, and under the Holy Ghost’s teachings to enter into the spirit of this man’s writings.

I beg the reader to behold, with suited attention, the account given of him in the first chapter. We find him ordained to the ministry before his birth. And who that reads this account of the servant, but must be struck with full conviction of what is said of his Master, called from the womb of eternity, and set up from everlasting to be JEHOVAH’S servant, to bring Jacob again to him. (See Isa 49 throughout, and Pr 8:12-36) What a decided proof and conviction by the way doth this afford, that if Jeremiah was ordained a prophet to the church before he was formed in the belly, surely the glorious Head of that church, and that church in him, was set up, and Christ in all his offices and characters ordained the Lord God of the prophets before all worlds. {Col 1:15-18} It should seem from the date of the prophet’s commission, when the word of the Lord first came to him, namely, in the thirtieth year of Josiah’s reign, that Jeremiah could not be above fourteen years of age when he preached his first sermon. And what a sermon it is! (See Jer 2; Jer 3; Jer 4 &c.) But what may not a child preach when God the Holy Ghost hath ordained him? Oh, that more of that blessed voice was heard in this our day, which was heard by the church in Paul’s day! {See Ac 13:1-4} It was the lot of Jeremiah to live in an age when the nation was given up to daring impiety, and rebellion against God. Faithfulness at such a time, could not fail of bringing upon the poor preacher the hatred and indignation of all of a contrary way of thinking to himself. We have the relation of the persecution frequently raised against him, in several parts of his writings. The opposition made to him by the false prophet Hananiah, and the sequel of that awful event is recorded at large, Jer 28. (See HAWKERS: Hananiah.) Blessed is the memory of Jeremiah, and will be in the churches to the latest generation. The Lord ordain many such, if it be his holy will, from the womb! There are several of this name in Scripture. (See 2Ki 24:18. See also 1Ch 5:24. Two of the name of Jeremiah in David’s army. 1Ch 12:4,10,13)


The name means, his moon—from Jareac. This is the famous city before whose walls the Lord manifested such a miracle of grace to Israel, in causing them to fall to the ground at the blasting of the rams’ horns. {See Jos 6} It was situated about seven leagues from Jerusalem, and about two from the river Jordan, {Jos 18:20-21} and was called by Moses the city of palm trees; and, no doubt, in point of pleasantness, must have been a lovely place. {See De 34:3} But we find, in the after days of Israel’s history, the barrenness of Jericho spoken of, {2Ki 2:18-22} See HAWKERS: Elisha. There is somewhat particularly striking concerning Jericho being cursed by Joshua before the Lord, and yet that Rahab the harlot should be of this city, concerning whom such blessed things are spoken of in Scripture. (See on the one hand, Jos 6:26 compared with 1Ki 16:34; and on the other, see Jos 2 with Heb 11:31) If the reader will be at the trouble to count the period between Joshua’s curse on Jericho, and the rebuilding of Jericho by Hiel the Bethelite, he will find that near five hundred and thirty-seven years had passed between the one and the other. The Hebrews paid great respect to the Cherem, that is, the curse of Joshua. This anathema was carefully remembered by them; and, no doubt, when Hiel in defiance of it began to build Jericho, the pious believers among the Hebrews felt indignant at the daring attempt, and marked the issue in the event that followed on Hiel’s two sons.


This man’s name is proverbial.—Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. Such is the awful account given of him by God the Holy Ghost. His name seems to be in some measure characteristic of the man—he that rejects—from Jarah to reject; and his history awfully proves, how he rejected the counsel of God against his own soul. His history we have in 1Ki 11:28-14:20. There was another Jeroboam, the son of Jehoash. {See 2Ki 14:23} During this man’s reign, the prophets Hosea, Amos and, Jonah exercised their ministry.


One of the names of Gideon: he was so called for destroying the grove of that idol Baal-Jerub, meaning, that he destroys. (See Jg 6.) This man was evidently led on by the Spirit of the Lord; and his history affords very striking testimonies in the Scripture referred to, and also in the following chapter (Jg 7. Alas! what is the best of men, if for a moment acting without the influence of grace!


The holy city: and so generally known was Jerusalem by this name, that the eastern part of the world never called it by any other name than the Elkuds, the holy. Not that this would have made it so, but it proves the general consent of nations to the title: no doubt, the thing was from the Lord. That the Lord Jesus distinguished it in a very peculiar manner with his love, his lamentation over it proves. {Mt 23:37} And Matthew twice calls it by this name. (Mt 4:5; 27:53.)

Jerusalem was anciently Jehus. Some called it Solyma, or Jerosolyma; but the general name by the Hebrews was Jeruschalem, meaning, the vision of peace; from Rahe, to see; and Shalom, peace. Joshua first conquered it, {see Jos 18:28} but the Jebusites were not totally drawn out of it until the days of David, {See 2Sa 5:5} The history of Jerusalem is truly interesting; but it would form more the subject of a volume than a short notice in a work of this kind, to enter into particulars. If we were to go back to the first account of it in Scripture, we must being with Gen xiv. where we find Melchisedeck king of it, and then called Salem. The church, perhaps on this account, speaks of it as the Lord’s tabernacle, {Ps 76:2} and when we consider, that all the great events of the church were carried on here, no doubt, it riseth in importance to every believer’s view. Here it was the Lord Jesus made his public appearance, when he came into our world for the salvation of his people; here he finished redemption-work; here he made that one offering of himself once offered, by which he perfected for ever them that are sanctified; and here all the great events of salvation were wrought. No wonder, therefore, that Jerusalem hath been called the holy city, and is rendered so dear to all his redeemed. Hence Jerusalem, now in the present moment, means the church on earth, and is prayed for under that name. {Isa 62:1; Ps 137:5-6} And hence the church in heaven is called the New Jerusalem. (Re 3:12; 21:2.) Jerusalem is said to be the centre of the earth; and the prophet Ezekiel, (Eze 38:11-12) describing the insolent threats of Gog concerning his proposed destruction of Jerusalem, calls the people of it, those who dwell in the midst of the land, or as the margin of the Bible renders it, in the navel of the earth.

The tears of Jesus over Jerusalem having been misconstrued, and as such made use of to support an opinion foreign to the general scope of the gospel, I cannot dismiss the article without offering a short observation upon it.

We are told by the Evangelists, that "when Jesus was come near to Jerusalem, he beheld the city, and wept over it, saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace: but now they are hid from thine eyes. For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, and shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another, because thou knowest not the time of thy visitation." Whoever attends with any degree of diligence to those several expressions of our Lord, will plainly discover that all that is here spoken refers to the destruction of Jerusalem as a city and nation, and wholly in temporal things. It hath nothing to do with grace, as some have improperly concluded, as if Jerusalem had outlived her day of grace, and, therefore, could find no mercy from the Lord; and all sinners, in like manner, might outlive their day also. There is not a word of the kind in it. Jesus, in that tenderness of heart which distinguished his character, wept over the beautiful and beloved city, in contemplating the overthrow of it by the Roman power, that he knew would sack and destroy it. And knowing that their rejection of him as the Lord of life and glory was the cause; he expresseth himself in tears with this compassionate apostrophe. But what have those expressions to do with the doctrine that some men raise out of it, as if Jesus had limited a day of grace to individuals, and that men might outlive that day, and then the saving means of grace would be hidden from their eyes! Surely, there is not a syllable in the whole passage to justify or give countenance to such a doctrine. The Lord is speaking wholly of Jerusalem in temporal things. Hadst thou known (said Jesus), in this thy day the things which belong to thy peace. It is Jerusalem’s day, not the Lord’s day of grace. It is thy peace, not God’s peace. The promise to all the Lord’s people is absolute—"Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power." {Ps 110:3} And this secures the day of grace to all whom the Father hath given to the Son; for Jesus saith, "of all thou hast given me I have lost none." {Joh 17:12} So that this holds good respecting the gift of grace to all generations of the church; but in temporals, like Jerusalem, the Lord’s judgments may, and the Lord’s judgments will follow and overthrow nations, where the gospel is preached and rejected. And while the Lord knoweth them that are his, and will save them by his grace, the nations who reject Christ, nationally considered, must perish.


The mother of Jotham, son of Uzziah king of Judah. The name signifies, one that possesseth the inheritance—from Jarash, to possess. {2Ki 15:33}


Son of Palatiah, meaning, salvation of the Lord, compounded of Jashah, to save; and Jab, the Lord. {1Ch 3:21}


A city in the wilderness. The name means solitude. {1Sa 23:24}


The son of Obed, and father of David—derived from Jesh, to be. {Ru 4:17} He is memorable in the genealogies of the Lord Jesus Christ. {See Mt 1:5}


See HAWKERS: Jerusalem

Jesus Christ

One of the glorious names of him which is, and, which was, and which is to come. {Re 1:8,11} The name of Jesus, which is originally so called in the Greek tongue, signifies a Saviour. Hence the Hebrews call him, Jehoshuah, or Joshua, or Joshuah, he who shall save; and as Christ means, anointed of JEHOVAH, the Sent, the Sealed of the Father; full of grace and truth; both names together carry this blessed meaning with them, Jesus Christ the Saviour of the world by the anointing of JEHOVAH to all the purposes, of salvation. See HAWKERS: Christ. I only detain the reader just to remark on the blessed name, that all that bore it in the Old Testament church became types, more or less, of the Lord Jesus. Joshua the successor of Moses, and Joshua the high priest in the church, after the church was brought back from Babylon. {See Zec 3:1}


The father-in-law of Moses. This man is rendered memorable in Scripture history from his connection with Moses; but for this, it is more than probable he would never have been known even by name in the christian church. His name signifies excellence. His being a priest in Midian, doth not explain what his religion was. Some have thought, that he had a knowledge of the God of Israel, else Moses would not have been allied to him; and they that are of that opinion say, that he was descended from Midian, the son of Abraham, and Keturah. {See Ge 25:1-2} There is some little difficulty in explaining one Scripture by another respecting this man. Ex 3:1 he is called Jethro; Nu 10:29 he is called Raguel; and some have thought, that Hobab was a third name by which he was known: but this, it should rather seem, was the brother of Moses’s wife, Zipporah.


So called from Judah. The account of this most singular people would form a wonderful history, could it be gathered into one mass of particulars. Mingled, as they now are, with all the known nations of the earth, and yet incorporated with none; carrying with them in their very countenance, customs and manners, one uniform singularity, so as to be known by all, and yet connected with none; despised, hated, persecuted, attached to their own religion, supporting it in spite of all opposition, and pertinacious still to preserve what the most learned of them do not understand; surely they are, as the Lord hath marked them, and as they are designated to be, living evidences of the truth of the gospel. Blessed be God, there is a promise concerning them, which all the faithful in Christ Jesus long to see fulfilled: "The Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord." {Isa 59:20}


The wife of Ahab, king of Israel. {1Ki 16:31} Her  ame is very singular, meaning an island of the habitation—from Ai, island; and Zebal, habitation. The horrid character of this woman is strongly marked in the Scriptures, from {1Ki 15-22; 2Ki 1-9}.   Indeed, the very name in the church, hath been always considered odious. Hence our Lord, in his message to the churches, calls some worthless person by the name. {See Re 2:20} The awful termination of her life is strongly given. {2Ki 9:33} And the events which followed her being eaten by dogs, which the prophet had foretold in the same chapter, 2Ki 9:10 were literally fulfilled.

It may appear somewhat marvellous, that such a circumstance should take place as that of dogs being allowed to eat human flesh, and in the very open streets of the city. But modern historians confirm the fact, and speak of it as no uncommon thing. They say that at Gordar, it is usual to hew in pieces the unhappy prisoners, which fall into their hands; and that when this is done, their scattered fragments are suffered to lie in the streets, being denied burial. And the stench would be intolerable, did not the beasts of prey in the neighbouring mountains visit the streets by night, and carry off as carrion the bodies of those so murdered. None of the inhabitants on account of these beasts, ever venture out of their houses after it is dark, without a guard and fire-arms. And this may serve to explain also that passage in the prophet: "I will appoint over them four kinds, saith the Lord, the sword to slay, and the dogs to tear, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beast of the earth, to devour and destroy." {Jer 15:3}


A city of Judah. {Jos 15:56; Ho 2:22} The name means, seed of God; from Zeruah, seed, and El, God. Children were called by this name. {1Ch 4:3; Ho 1:4} The Jezreel, where Ahab’s palace was, lay distant from the city of Judah. {2Ki 9:10}


The second month among the Hebrews, answering to our April.


One of the captains in David’s army. His name is expressive of genealogy—from Ab, a father. His history begins 2Sa 2 and runs through the greater part of the life of David


The same as Eliakim. {Lu 3:23}


Wife of Cuza. {Lu 8:3} Her name signifies, the gift or grace of God.


The man of Uz. His name signifies, what he himself was, one that weePs His name is quoted with great honour by the Lord himself. {Eze 14:14} and his patience recommended very forcibly by an Apostle. {Jas 5:11}


The mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses. {Ex 6:20} The name is of Cabad, glory; and Jah, the Lord.


The prophet, whose writings form part of the sacred canon of Scripture, and are quoted by Peter in his sermon on the day of Pentecost. (See Joe 2:28-29; Ac 2:16, &c.)  There were several Joels beside the prophet, whose names are recorded in Scripture.

·Joel, son of Samuel, 1Sa 8:1-2.
·Joel, son of Josebiah, 1Ch 4:35.
·Joel, son of Jorabiah,
1Ch 7:3.
·Joel, one of David’s army,
1Ch 11:38.
·Joel, a Levite, 1Ch 15:7.
·Joel, son of Pedaiah,
1Ch 27:20.


Son of Careah. {2Ki 25:23} His name is compounded of Chanan, grace; and Jah, the Lord.


Is an abbreviation of Johannan, and of much the same meaning. We need not dwell much upon this name, neither the persons so eminently distinguished by it. Their histories and worth are graciously preserved in the New Testament by God the Holy Ghost, and their names are in the book of life.

John the Baptist hath the priority in point of time, being born six months before the birth of the Lord Jesus Christ. John, the beloved apostle, was the youngest of all the disciples, and is not unfrequently distinguished by the title of the disciple whom Jesus loved. We have abundant cause to bless God for the ministry of this man, on account of the precious gospel which bears his name, and also for those three Epistles, as well as the Book of the Revelations, with which the sacred canon of Scripture closeth.

There is another John surnamed Mark, spoken of with honourable testimony in the New Testament. {Ac 12:12} This man, though called John, and surnamed Mark, was neither the apostle John nor the evangelist Mark, but another person. Paul speaks of him. Col 4:10.


The son of Rechab,; {Jer 35:6} derived from Nadab, a prince.


The son of Amittai the prophet. His history we have incorporated with his writings. If there were no other cause to recommend Jonah to the attention of the church, than his being declared by Christ himself to have been his type, this were enough. And how striking a one it is, the most inattentive reader can hardly fail to observe. On the subject of the Gourd, I believe that the general opinion of all travellers hath been, that it was the same as is called at Aleppo, the Polma Christi. Its growth is said to have been so rapid, that the Kekajon, for so it is called, will send out shoots, in the compass of a night, near four inches. In the margin of our Bibles it is called, "the son of the night," to intimate its quick progress, and consequently its short duration.


Saul’s son, David’s dear friend, {1Sa 18:1} His death, with that of Saul, gave birth to one of the most poetical as well as devout elegies the world ever knew. {2Sa 1:17} His name is compounded of Nathan, a gift; and Jab, the Lord. There are many of this name in Scripture.

·Jonathan, a Levite, the son of Gershom, Jg 18:20.
·Jonathan, the son of Abiather the priest,
1Ki 1:42.
·Jonathan, the son of Shage the Hararite,
1Ch 11:34.
·Jonathan, the son of Shimeah,
1Ch 20:7.
·Jonathan, or Jehonathan, the son of Uzziah,
1Ch 27:25.
·Jonathan, the son of Ashel,
Ezr 10:15.
·Jonathan, the High Preist,
Ne 12:10.
·Jonathan, the Scribe,
Jer 37:14-15.


The sea-port in Palestine in the Mediterranean. The name signifies beauty—from Japhah, Here it was that Jonah went to flee from the presence of the Lord. {Jon 1:3} Here Peter dwelt when sent for by Cornelius And Tabitha also lived here, whom Peter by the Lord raised from the dead. (See Ac 9:36; 10:5-6.)


That sacred river where the Lord Jesus Christ was baptized. It takes its name from Jor, a spring, and Dan, a small town near the source of Jor. Some have called it Jordan: and they say it means the river of judgment, from Dun, judgment. Every thing tends to endear this river to the believer. Numberless are the meditations it affords to the regenerate, in the many sacred events which have taken place at and on the banks of Jordan. {See Ge 13:11; Nu 34:12; Jos 3:8,11; 4:3,17,23; 1Ki 17:3; 2Ki 2:6-7; 5:10,14; Mt 3:6,17. &c.}


The well known son of Jacob, whose history we have in Genesis from the thirtieth chapter to the end of the book. This made, in the margin of the Bible, is Adding—from Jasaph, to increase. It were needless to enter particulars of Joseph’s history, when the Bible hath given it so beautifully. But perhaps it may not be an unacceptable service to observe on the history of this patriarch, what a remarkable character he is, and in what numberless instances he appears as a type of Christ: taken altogether, perhaps the greatest in the whole Scriptures. I shall particularize in a few leading features.

As Joseph was the beloved son of Jacob, and distinguished by his father with special tokens, of his affection, and which excited the envy of his brethren; so Christ, the beloved and only begotten son of God, by means of that distinguishing token of JEHOVAH, in setting him up, the Head of his body the church, and giving him a kingdom, in his glorious character of Mediator, called forth, as is most generally believed, that war we read of in heaven in the original rebellion of angels. {See Re 12} The coat of many colours Joseph wore might not unaptly be said to represent the several offices of the Lord Jesus when on earth—his prophetical, priestly, and kingly character. The dreams of Joseph, implying his superiority over his brethren and his father’s house, interpreted with an eye to Christ, are very striking circumstances of the preeminency of his character. Of him, indeed, might the prophecy of Jacob respecting Judah be fully applied: "Thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies, and thy father’s children shall bow down be fore thee." {Ge 49:8} The mission of Joseph to his brethren, by the father, to see if they were well, and how they fared, {Ge 37:14} is a striking representation of the mission of God’s dear Son to this our world. He came indeed, not only to seek, but to save that which was lost; but like another Joseph, the treatment he received corresponded in all points, only in an infinitely higher degree of baseness and cruelty. They sold Joseph for a slave, for twenty pieces of silver, and he was carried down into Egypt, and from the pit and the prison he arose, by divine favour, to be Governor over the whole land. But our Joseph was not only sold for thirty pieces of silver, but at length crucified and slain, and from the grave which he made with the wicked and with the rich in his death, by his resurrection and ascension, at the right hand of power, he is become the universal and eternal Governor both of heaven and earth.

The temptations of Joseph, by the wife of Potiphar, bear no very distant resemblance to the temptations of the Lord Jesus by Satan. The trial to the one, was the lusts of the flesh; the trial to the other, was the pride of life. But the grace imparted to Joseph, to repel the temptation, and the punishment he suffered by a false imputation, very beautifully set forth the innocency of Christ triumphing over the Devil’s temptation in the wilderness, and the imputation of our sin to Jesus, who himself bore our sins in his own body on the tree, though himself without sin, neither was guile found in his mouth. In the exaltation of Joseph at the right hand of Pharaoh, and all the famished country coming to him for bread, we behold a lovely type, indeed, of our Almighty Joseph exalted at the right hand of God, and dispensing blessings of grace and mercy in the living bread, which is himself, to a famished world. And as then the Zapnathpaaneah of Egypt revealed secrets, and the cry was, Go unto Joseph, what he saith unto you do: so now, in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, we do, indeed, behold our Wonderful Counsellor, who hath made known to us his and his Father’s will, and the one desire of every soul is, to go unto Jesus, whatsoever he saith unto us is blessed, and our duty to obey.

In the going down of Israel into Egypt with all his house, constrained by famine to seek bread-what a striking portrait is here also drawn of the true Israel of God, constrained by the famine of soul to seek to Jesus for supply. And though like the brethren of Joseph, little do we at first know, that the Lord of the country is our brother, though in the first awakenings of spiritual want the Governor may seem with us, as Joseph did to them, to speak roughly; yet when the whole comes to be opened tour view, and Jesus is indeed discovered to be Lord of all the land, how, like Joseph’s brethren, are we immediately made glad, and eat and drink at his table with him, forgetting all past sorrow in present joy, and partaking of that "bread of life, of which whosoever eateth shall live forever!" Such, among many other striking particularities, are the incidents in the history of the patriarch Joseph, which are highly typical of Christ.

Under the article of Joseph we must not forget to observe, that there are several more of the name mentioned in Scripture, and of some importance:

·Joseph the husband of Mary, the mother of the Lord Jesus Christ, Mt 1:15,18.

·Joseph, or Joses, son of Mary and Cleophas, supposed to be one of those who did not at first believe on Christ, but was afterwards converted, Joh 7:5.

·Joseph, called Barsabas, a candidate for the apostleship with Matthias. See Ac 1:23.

·Joseph of Arimathea, Joh 19:38.

·Joseph, husband to Salome.


The son of Nun, whose name and history we have very fully related in the church of the wilderness, and afterward in his victories, as set forth in the book which bears his name. His name in Hebrew is the same as Jesus in Greek, signifying a Saviour; from Jashah, to save; and Jah, the Lord. This man was an evident type of Christ. See his history in the Book of Joshua.


Son of Amon, king of Judah, {2Ki 22:1, &c.} The name signifies, the fire of the Lord; from Esh, fire; and Jah, the Lord.



The sons of Lamech and Adah. {See Ge 4:20-21} The former was the father of those who lodge in tents, and the latter of those who handle the pipe or organ; by which is meant, that these men were the first inventors of those things. The name of both is one and the same meaning, like the Jobel or trumpet, somewhat that like sound glides away, and is lost in the air.


The son of Lamech, {Ge 4:21} He invented instruments of music. His name is from Jobel, he that produceth.

See HAWKERS: Father


-Or Jobel more properly, which signifies a ram’s horn. The day of Jubilee was a high feast in the Jewish church, and appointed by the Lord for the great year of release, every forty-ninth year, or seven times seven. In the twenty-fifth of Leviticus, we have the whole account of the appointment. Some have taken for granted, that the name itself was taken from Jubal, or Jobel, the son of Lamech, because he was the father or inventor of music; but others, more probably, derived it from the verb Hebiel, to bring back; because it was the year of general restoration, or bringing back. The imagination cannot conceive the effect of the morning of the day which commenced the Jubilee, which must have been wrought upon the different orders, of the people among the Jews. It began we are told on the first day of the month Tizri, the first month of the civil year, and the seventh of the ecclesiastical year, and corresponded to our month of September; and on the ninth day of Tizri, when the trumpets sounded, at that instant, every poor captive among the Jews was freed; and every mortgaged inheritance returned to its original owner. I leave the reader to his own reflections, what feelings must have been wrought on the different minds of all concerned; both of the master and of the servant, both of the man with whom was vested bonded land, and the one who received back his mortgaged inheritance. But while I pass over the Jewish camp on these particulars, I cannot help observing how infinitely surpassing must be the effect of the Jobel trumpet in the Christian church; when the captive sinner, and the poor soul who hath mortgaged his; inherited, inheritance, first hears the joyful sound of redemption by the blood of Christ, and is brought "to walk in the light of the Lord’s countenance." {Ps 89:15} And this is not limited, to every forty-ninth year, but is every year and every day, yea, every hour of the day since Christ wrought salvation for his people, and the type of the Jubilee trumpet done away by the thing signified being come. Concerning this blessed event the Lord hath said, "the year of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come." {Isa 63:4} See HAWKERS: Feasts. It is said, that after the Jews returned from Babylon the Jubileee was discontinued, but they observed the Sabbatical year.

See HAWKERS: Sabbatical .


The fourth son of Jacob, by Leah. The name more properly is Jehudah. And Leah his mother made this remarkable observation on his birth, she said: "Now I praise the Lord:" therefore, that is, on that account, she called his name Jehudah, that is, (as the margin of the Bible renders it) praise. {Ge 29:35} And this name is a plain compound (as Mr. Parkhurst observes) of Jah, the Lord; and hudah, to convess. Now then, if we turn to the prophetical expressions of the dying partiarach Jacob, {Ge 49:8} concerning Judah, we shall arrive at the full sense of both passages, Leah’s, and her husband’s. "Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise." This reading doth not convey to us the expression as strongly though the sense is the same, as by reading it thus: Thou, Judah, thy brethren shall (confessor,) or praise, (as Jehudah;) "thy father’s children shall bow down to thee:" that is, they shall acknowledge thee to be the Jeehudah, and as such shall bow down to thee.

And this forms a beautiful correspondence to what the apostle, in the gospel-church, in after ages, was commissioned, by the same Holy Spirit that moved the patriarch, {2Pe 1; 3:18} to tell the people of the Lord Jesus, who sprang out of Judah after the flesh, and was, and is the Jehudah of his people- "who being (saith the apostle) in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God; but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross: wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess, that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father." {Php 2:6-11}

While I am speaking, of Judah, under this one view of him in this memorable prophecy, it may not be amiss to consider him also in another. The same prophetic spirit that was in Jacob, leading him to the acknowledgment of Judah under one character typical of the Messiah, prompted him to speak of him under another. "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come." {Ge 49:10} The Jews themselves, however unintentionally and unconsciously, confirmed the certainty that this Scripture referred to the Lord Jesus Christ under a double evidence. For when in the hall of Pilate Jesus stood before the Governor, and the Governor asked him, saying, "Art thou the king of the Jews?" Jesus acknowledged it, and said unto him, Thou sayest. {Mt 17:11} But soon after, when to the cry of the Jews for Christ’s crucifixion, Pilate said, "Shall I crucify your king?" the chief priests answered, "We have no king but Cæsar." Here was a confirmation to the one part of Jacob’s dying prophecy, that the Shiloh should not come until the sceptre was departed from Judah-the chief priests confessed that that sceptre was departed, for they acknowledged that they had then no king but Cæsar; and, therefore, the Shiloh was come. The other testimony, and from their own lips, also became equally strong. Jacob said, that a lawgiver should not depart from between his feet until Shiloh came; and this law they proved did remain, for they contended with Pilate to enforce that law, for supposed blasphemy in the person of Christ. Take ye him, and crucify him said Pilate, for I find no fault in him. They then made this memorable answer: "We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God." Thus confirming the other prediction of the patriarch, that the lawgiver was not gone from between the feet of Judah until the Shiloh was come, to whom the whole referred. Two such striking evidences, and from the Jews themselves, on this important subject, never surely could have been expected; and now obtained, could only have been brought to pass by the overruling power and ordination of the Lord.

The reader will, I hope, indulge me with one observation more concerning Judah, in respect to this memorable prophecy of his father Jacob; because I humbly conceive it is important, and every thing connected with our Lord Jesus cannot fail of being interesting to his people. It is well known that the word Shebeth, which is translated, {Ge 49:10} sceptre, and signifies a powerful kingly office, is the same word which, {Jg 5:14} is translated pen. Out of Machir came down governors, and out of Zebulon they that handle the Shebeth of the Scribes. Now it is evident, from the use of the Shebeth upon both occasions, (Ge 49:10 and Jg 5:14) the on